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8. Cyril Archbishop of Alexandria was well-nigh 
the last of that bright array of Greek Fathers which 
shone throughout all the fourth century and into the 
fifth. His powerful and comprehensive mind, well 
read and strengthened by study of Greek Heathen 
lore (as his frequent citations not only of Homer 
but even of the less known poets and his very lan- 
guage indicate), fostered by the works of his great 
predecessor S. Athanasius and aided by the living in- 
fluence of S. Isidore Abbat of Pelusium, whom even 
when he had become Archbishop he still called father, 
his single-hearted loyal piety which every writing of 
his breathes forth, his will formed for rule, combined 
with the perception of the points that he could yield 
without betraying Truth : — all gave him during his 
life an influence such as no other man of his time 
had, and his writings were appealed to for centuries 
after on matters of dogma. In the Council of Chal- 
cedon, holden a few years after S. Cyril's death, some 
exception was at first taken by some of the Bishops 
to two or three expressions of Pope S. Leo, and these 
wore afterwards unanimously accepted on being found 
to agree with what S. Cyril had written. In the 6th 
General Council, passages from this very Commen- 



tary were cited against Monothelism (pp. 384, 385, 
387 of this volume and a piece of the lost book 8 on 
chap. xii. 27, 28). Some thirty years after S. Cyril's 
death Gennadius in the West, Priest of Marseilles, 
giving a brief notice of the Church's great writers, 
says of S. Cyril, "He made very many Homilies 
„ which the Greek Bishops commit to memory and 
,, deliver." 

The Commentary on S. John has usually been re- 
garded as S. Cyril's great work. Its special value lies 
in its being the well-weighed enunciation of dogma 
of one whose mind had long and deeply meditated on 
the Faith. Our belief on the Holy Trinity, on the 
Union of the Godhead and Manhood in Christ, on 
the Holy Eucharist * as the means of our Union with 
Him, our free-will and consequent reward or Doom, 
are clearly and carefully stated and enforced. That 
effect of the Union and intimate relation of the God- 
head with our nature in God the Son in imparting 
to the whole of our clay a new quickening life and 
strength, which has been so strikingly brought for- 
ward by a deep thinker in our day 2 , will be found 
frequently spoken of in this Commentary as one of 
the results of the Incarnation. 

1 See the citations from this and his other works in full in Dr. Pusey's 
"The Real Presence the Doctrine of the Ancient Church/' pp. 615 — 

2 O wisest love ! that flesh and blood 
Which did in Adam fail 
Should strive anew against the foe, 

Should strive and should prevail; 
And that an higher gift than grace 
Should flesh and blood refine, 
God's Presence and His very Self 
And Essence all Divine. 



On the Procession of God the Holy Ghost S. Cyril's 
teaching is identical with the words we now repeat, 
Who proceedeth from the Father and the Son. The 
Creed as then laid down said only, Who proceedeth from 
the Father, and S. Cyril himself habitually used, not 
the Creed as we now have it and as it was enlarged 
in the Council of Constantinople, but the original 
Nicene Creed which ends at the words, And in the 
Holy Ghost. Yet his teaching is identical with what 
we now say. Throughout this Commentary (pp. 80, 
106, 108, 111, 145, 251, 436, 438 &c.) S. Cyril says 
that the Holy Ghost is the Spirit, the own Spirit 
of the Son. In page 436, S. Cyril uses the remarka- 
ble words, As He calls Himself Son of man, since He 
ivas made Man, so again He calls Himself Spirit from 
His Own Spirit: for not Other than He is His ownSpirit. 
S. Cyril's teaching is uniform throughout his wri- 
tings. Other passages of the same kind are collected 
in the Appendix to my father's Sermon, The Re- 
sponsibility of Intellect in matters of Faith, Oxford, 
1873. To him too is due the Theological portion of 
this Preface and in especial the bracketted portion 
pp. xxi to end is wholly his. 

a. Seeing He [the Holy Spirit] is the Spirit of 
God the Father and the Son also_, Which is poured 
forth essentially from Both, i. e., from the Father 
through the Son. 

b. For in that the Son is God and of God by Na- 

a. ei irep ear\ rov ©eot) /cat, Tlarpos ical firjv ical rod Tlov 
to ov(riG)$6o<; i£ afA<poiv rjyovv etc Tlarpos oV Tlov irpo^eofievov 
Uvev/u,a 1 . 

?>. f) yap ecTTi ®eo? KaX i/c ®eov Kara (pvaiv 6 TtoV ye- 

1 De Ador. lib. i. Opp. i. 9. 


ture (for He is truly begotten of God the Father) 
the Spirit is His Very Own and in Him and from 
Him just as is conceived as to God the Father. 

c. He said that He would baptize in fire and the 
Holy Ghost, infusing into the baptized no Spirit 
alien to Himself in manner of a servant and minis- 
ter, but as being by Nature God with supremest 
authority [He infused] the Spirit Which is from 
Him and His Very Own. 

In the explanation of his xii Chapters against 
NestormSj which explanation was written at the re- 
quest of the Council of Ephesus 

d. The Only-Begotten Word of God made Man 
hath remained thus too God, being all that the Fa- 
ther is save only being the Father, and having as 
His own the Holy Ghost Which is of Him and Essen- 
tially inexisting in Him. 

In the Thesaurus, a work elaborated with very 
great care and precision for the Defence of the Faith 

yivvqrai yap akrjOcos e/c rov ©eoi) /cal Uarpo?' iStov avrov 
koX iv auTcS T€ zeal ef avrov to Hvevfid iart, KaQdirep dfiekei 
/cal eV avrov voelrai rov &eov /cal naTpo? 2 . 

c. avrov ecpr) ftairrlZeiv iv rrvpl /cal 'Aylqy Uvev/xari, ov to 
dWorptov rots fiaTTTi^o/jLevoi*} ivikvra irvev/xa 8ovXo7rpe7rS)^ 
teal vTrovpyi/cws aX)C a>9 ®ebv Kara <f>vo-iv fjuer iifovcrias tt}9 
dvoirdrco to itj avrov re real cBiov avrov 3 . 

d. "Avd panto? ye<yova><} 6 M-Ovoyevrj? rod ®eov A0709 drro- 
fjue/Jbevrjice ical ovrco ©eo?, rrdvra vrrdp^oav ocra koX 6 TLarrjp 
hl^a fiovov rov elvai TJarrjp, teal iSiov eywv rb if; avrov /cal 
ovo-LwBu><i ifiirecjiVKos avrw Tlvev/xa "Ayiov 4 . 

2 In Joelem ii. 28, 29. Opp. iii. 228. 
3 De Recta fide ad Theodosium Imperatorem Opp. v. ii. 33. S. Cyril 
put forth this same treatise again in a more popular form, De Incarna- 
tione Unigeniti, where the words again occur. Opp. v. i. 706. 
4 Expl. cap. ix. Opp. vi. 154, 155. 



as regards the Persons of the most Holy Trinity, un- 
der the title — 

e. That the Holy Ghost is of the Essence of the 
Father and the Son. 

Since therefore the Holy Ghost coming to be in 
us makes us conformed to God and He goeth forth 
from the Father and the Son, it is manifest that He 
is of the Divine Essence, being Essentially in It and 
going forth from It : even as the breath too which 
goeth from the mouth of man, though the illustra- 
tion be poor and unworthy, for God will surpass all 

A few pages before there is another heading 

/. That the Spirit is God and hath every way the 
same operation with the Son and is not alien from 
His Essence : also that when God is said to dwell 
in us it is the Spirit Who indwelleth. 

And further on 

g. Since Christ givethlaws, the Spirit as being by 
Nature in Him and of Him, Himself too is Lawgiver. 

e. on e/c rrjs oucr/a? tov Uarpo? /ecu tov Tlov to Tlvevfia 
to " Ay tov . 

ore Tolvvv to TLvev/xa to " Ayiov ev r)p!iv yevbfievov 
<rvfifwp<f>ov<; tjfias diroSeiKvvei (deov, irpoeicri Se e/c HaTpo? 
teal T'tov, 7rp68rj\ov oti Trjs Betas ecrTiv overtax, ovcri(oho)<i ev 
avrfj bv icai i% avrrj<; irpolov &o~7rep ovv dfieXei icai rb e£ 
avtipfotreiov crrofiaTOS eKrpe^ov ifMpvari/jLa, el icai pu/epbv /cat 
ovk a%iov tov \6yov to vrrbheiyu.a, irdvra yap vrrepe^ei ©eo<? 5 . 

/. oti ®eo<? to JJvevfia /cal ttjv avTrjv evepyeiav e^ov tg> T/g5 
rravrayov koi ovk aTre^evw/Jiivov Tfjs ovcrt'a? avrov, b/xov he 
ZtZa/TKOvcnv ort ©eoO \eyopuevov /caroi/ceiv ev rj/uiv, to Tlvevfid 
iim TO eVOlKOVV 6 . 

g. vofioOeTovmos Toiyapovv tov Hpiarov, &><? ev avra> /cat 
i$ avrov <f>vo-i/C(o<; virapyov to Tlvevfia avTo vopboOereV. 

' J Thes. Opp, v. i. 345. 

lb. 338. 

? lb. 354. 


h. Since when Christ reneweth us and transplac- 
eth us into a new life, the Spirit is said to renew us as 
is sung in the Psalms to God, Thou shalt send forth 
Thy Spirit and they shall be created and Thou shalt 
renew the face of the earth, we must of necessity con- 
fess that the Spirit is of the Essence of the Son. 
For as being by Nature of Him and being sent by 
Him upon the creation, He worketh the renewal, 
being the Complement of the Holy Trinity. And 
if so, the Spirit is God and of God and not a crea- 

In the De Trinitate, a work whose scope is the 
same as that of the Thesaurus but its execution more 
popular and less dialectic, and a work to which S. 
Cyril refers in his Commentary on S. John pp. 87 C 
94C(pp. 100, 108 O.T.) 

i. He sent us the Comforter from Heaven through 
Whom and in Whom He is with us and dwelleth in 
us, not infusing into us an alien, but the own Spirit 
of His Essence and of that of His Father. 

h, ovtcovv eTrelirep dvatcaLvLZpvTOS rjfias rov Xpi<rrov ical 
els veav fieTaTiOevTOs £a)r)v, to Yivevfia dvaKaivi^ew Xeyerat 
Kara to ev tya\p,ois dhofievov cu? 7rpo9 Seov "'E£a7rocrreA,ei9 
" to Tlvevfxd crov tcai tCTiarOrjaovTai real dvatcaiviels to irpb- 
(( ctwttov Trj? 7779," avarytcn to Tlvevpa rr\<$ ovalm virdpyeiv 
dfioXoyelv tov Tlov. &>9 <ydp e'f avTov Kara <pvaiv virdp^ov teal 
eirl ttjv KTiaiv trap avTov ireprtTb^evov tov dvatcaivto-fibv 
ip<yd%€Tai, crvfiTrXTjpoofia T779 ayim \mdpyov TpuiBos. el 84 
tovto, ©eo9 apa teal itc ©eoO to Uvev/xa, teal ov iroir\p,a 8 . 

i. €Trep,yfre 8e r]pXv i£ ovpavov tov TIapdteXwTov 81 ov teal 
ev a> ixedf ^/jlcov eo~Ti teal ev rj/jblv avXl^erai, ovtc oOvelov rjfiiv 
e<y%ec0v dXXd to T779 ovalas avTov teal T779 tov HaTpo9 avTov 
thiov UvevfMa 9 , 

8 Thes. Opp. v. i. 358. The trifling variations from Aubert's text in 
these passages of the Thesaurus are from a Manuscript in the Library 
of the Patriarch of Alexandria at Cairo. These passages are likewise 
extant in a Syriac translation, in the ms. in the British Museum Addi- 
tional 14556, assigned by Dr. Wright to the sixth or seventh century. 
9 De Trinitate vii. Opp. v. i. 642. 

i • 

f :• 
! i 



Again in reply to the words objected 

k. But they say that Christ said of Him, Of Mine 
He shall receive and tell it to you. They say there- 
fore the Spirit is participant of the Son. 

S. Cyril says 

Not at all, far from it : for how should the Spirit 
that is both of Him and in Him and His Very Own 
partake of Him and be sanctified relatively like those 
things which are without and be by nature alien 
from Him Whose very Own Ho is said to be ? 

In his great Synodic Epistle to Nestorius which 
has the sanction of the (Ecumenical Council of Ephe- 
sus, S. Cyril says 

I. For even though the Spirit exists in His Own 
Person, and is conceived of by Himself in that He 
is Spirit and not Son, yet is He not therefore alien 
from Him, for He is called the Spirit of Truth and 
Christ is the Truth and He is shed forth from Him 
just as from God the Father. 

There follow three passages from the great Com- 
mentary on S. John. The first is on p. 145 of this 

l\ w\rjv itcelvo (paaiv on Xpio-rb? e^r} wepl avrov 'E/c rov 
ifiov^ XrjtyeraL Kal dvayyeXel vpZv. peroyov ovv apa j>aal ro 
Tlvevfxa rov Tiov. 

tt/aard ye, woWov ye oificu /ecu 8ec. rb yap e% avrov Te Kal 
ev avrco Kal Ihiov avrov wa><; av avrov fieraXd-^oi wcowore Kal 
ev loy rois dvpadev o~xeriKO)<; dyid&Lro Kal dXKorpcov earai 
Kara fyvaiv ov Kal Xhiov elvai \eyer at 1 ; 

I. el yap Kal eariv ev vwoardaei ro Hvev/ma I&ikjj Kal 
op Kal voelrai Ka(F eavrb KaOb livevpbd icrri Kal ovx Tior 
aXX ovv ecrnv ^ ovk dXXorpiov avrov' Hvev/xa yap dXrjOeia? 
wvofmarac,^ Kal eariv Xpiarbs r) aXrjOeia- Kal wpoyelraL wap 
avrov Kaddwep d/jbeXet Kal e'/c rov ©eoO Kal Uarpos 2 . 

1 lb. 657. 2 S. Cyrilli Epistolae p. 74. Opp. v. ii. 




m. How shall we separate the Spirit from the Son, 
thus inexisting and essentially united, Who cometh 
forth through Him and is by nature in Him, that 
It cannot be thought to be Other than He by reason 
both of identity of working and the very exact like- 
ness of Nature ? . . . The blessed Paul having called 
Spirit of Christ That which dwelleth in us forthwith 
subjoined, If Christ be in you, introducing an entire 
likeness of the Son with the Spirit Who is His very 
own and is by nature poured forth from Him. 

n. For since He is the Spirit of Christ and His mind, 
as it is written, which is nought else but what He 
is, in regard to identity of nature, even though He be 
both conceived of and is existent, He knows all that is 
in Him. And Paul will be our witness saying, For who 
hnoweth the things of man save man's spirit that is in 
him? thus the things of God too none hnoweth save the 
Spirit of God. Wherefore as knowing what is in the 
counsel of the Only-begotten, He reporteth all things 
to us, not having the knowledge thereof from learn- 
ing, that is ; that He may not seem to fill the rank 
of a minister and to transmit the words of another 

m. riva Brj obv rporrov aTro/xepiovfiev rb Tlvevfia rov Tlov, 
rb ovra><; epL7re<pvKb$ real ovo-icoBcbs rjvcop,evov, Bi avrov re nrpo- 
KinrTov zeal virdp^pv iv aura) cpvo~iK(o<;, to? p.wBev erepov elvat 
vop,i%e<r6ai Trap* avrbv, Bid re rrjv rrj<i ivepyeias ravrorrjra real 

avrb rb rrj<; <pvcrea)<5 arrapdWatcTov ; teal yovv 6 p,aica- 

pios HavXos .... Uvevfia X/hcttoO to KarotKovv iv f)pZv ovo- 
[iaaa<s, irrrjyayev evOvs Et Be 6 X/otcTo? iv v/mv, dirapdXkaKrov 
elcr<pipa>v rrjv 6p,oi6rr)ra rov Tlov 7rpo<? rb iBiov avrov Kal Trap' 
avrov Kara cpvcriv rrpo^eop^evov TIvevp,a s . 

n. i'TreiBrj <ydp icrri Uvevpia Xpcarov ical vovs avrov, Kara. 
to yeypap,p,ivov, oi>% erepov re 'Trap' avrbv bv, Kara ye rov iv 
ravrorrjrt (pvaiKrj \6yov, Kalroi voovpuevbv re Kal vrrdp^ov 
IBloos, olBe Trdvra ra ev avrS. Kal p,aprvprjaei Xeycov 6 
n<xt)\.09 " Tt<? yap olBe ra rov dvdpdorrov, ei fjbrj to rrvevp-a 
" rov dvOpcorrov ro bv iv avru> ; ovrat Kal rd rov %eov ovBel<; 
" eyvcoKev, el pur) rb VLvevpua rov &eov." ovkovv, a><? eiBbs rd 
iv rfj f3ov\rjO-ei rov WLovoyevovs, Trdvra yjiuv dvayyeXkei, ovk 
£k fiad^crecof e^ov rrjv etBrjaiv, I'va p/q (fialvrjrao BiaKovov rd£iv 

3 In S. Johannem lib. ii. t. iv. 126. 



but as His Spirit and knowing untaught all that 
belongeth to Him of whom and in whom He is, He 
revealeth to the Saints the Divine mysteries ; just as 
man's mind too knowing all things that are therein 
ministereth externally by uttered word the desires 
of the soul whose mind it is, seen and named in idea 
something different from it [the soul], not other by 
nature, but as a part complemental of the whole, 
existing in it and believed to be born from it. 

o. For for this cause He hath added that He shall 
tell you the things also to come, all but saying, This 
shall be a sign to you that the Spirit is full surely of 
My Essence and is so to speak My Mind, that He 

shall tell you the things to come even as J 

For not surely as I would He foretell the things to 
come, were He not surely both existent in Me and 
going forth through (oV) Me and of the same es- 
sence with Me. 

The last one is a short extract from a homily in 
S. Luke only extant in a Syriac translation. 

aTTOtrXripovv, ical row erepov rv%bv SiairopOfievav \6yov<}, 
aXX,' 009 TLvev/jba avrov, KaOdirep aprta)? elprJKa/jiev, ical el&o? 
a8i8a.KT(o<; rrdvra rd ii; ov ical iv (prrep eari, rd Oela rois 
dyiois diroKaXvirret /jLvarfjpca, Kaddirep d/nekei koX 6 dvdpd>- 
ttlvo^ vovs irdvra yivcoaKOiv ra iv avra>, hiaKovel irpbs to ef&>, 
\6yw rvybv rS 7rpo(j>opiK(p, rd 6eXr)fiara rr)s "^rv^i]^, ^? eari 
/cal vow, erepov p,ev ri Trap avrrjv rais eTrivoiais opcojievo? 
re /cal 6vofia£6p,evo<;, erepov he Kara fyvaiv ovk (ov, aXX' a>? 
fiopiov rov 7ravrb<i CTV^TTKnqpoartKov, iv avrfj re brrdpypv, Kal 
i% avrrj? dvacjivecrOat iria-revopuevov 4 . 

0. Ata <ydp rot rovro irpocrreOeiKev ore Kal rd ip^o/xeva 
dvayyeXel v/xiv, p,ovovov)(l Xeyoov "Zrj/xelov rovro earai vfitv, 
on 8r) Travrcos €K rr)<; i/xrjs overlap rb Tlvevpbd iari, Kal olov 
e'/i6? iari vovs, rb ipelv avrbv rd iaopueva, KaOdirep iyoa- 
7rpoeip7]Ka yap, el Kal pbr) Be&vvijade irdvra /iiadetv ovk dv 
ovv dpa KaOdrrep eyd> rrpoepeZ rd eoSfieva, /htj ov^i rrdvr(0<i 
iv ifiol re inrdp^ov Kal 81 ifiov rrpoibv, Kal rr)<; avrr)<; ovaias 

vTrap'Xpv efiot • 

* lb. lib. x. 837. 
b 2 

lb. 926. 





M = 

p. Nor liad He [the Word Incarnate] need of the 
Holy Ghost ; for the Spirit that proceedeth from 
God the Father is of Him and Equal in Essence with 
Him 6 . 

From the Index to this Volume the following ex- 
tracts are subjoined illustrating this subject 

God the Holy Ghost, the Spirit of the Son 80, 106, 
108, 111, 143, 145, 251, 436, 438, 547, 548, 550, 
552, reveals Christ because the Spirit of Truth 402, 
not other than the Son though He have His own 
existence 436, 438, inseparable from the Son 438, 
inexistent in Him even as in the Father 547, His 
and in Him and through Him 548, essentially of 
His nature and His own 552. In the other part of 
the Commentary are seven passages in which St. 
Cyril calls the Holy Ghost " the Spirit of the Father 
and the Son," once he calls Him " the own Spirit of 
the Father and the Son," three times says that "He 
proceedeth from the Father through the Son," five 
times that " He is in the Son and goeth forth from 
the Son," and seven times that " He is the Spirit 
of Truth as being the Spirit of Christ Who is 
Truth." Cf. I. p. xiii., and q. p. xvii. 

The Nestorian controversy occasioned S. Cyril to 
bring out prominently that, although the Holy Spirit 
was given without measure to our Lord as Man, and 
He wrought His wonderful works by It, yet It was 
His very own Spirit as God, which was given to Him 
as Man ; and that He Himself gave It from Himself, 
as being eternally His own, "sending It forth from 
His own fulness ( e '£ ISlov irX^pdyfiaro^) even as the Fa- 
ther too doth." Thus then what is called the tem- 
poral Procession is a proof of the Eternal. The tem- 
poral Procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father 

6 Horn, in S. Lucam xi. Vol. 1. p. 46. English translation. 



and the Son is one and the same, because He is eter- 
nally by nature the Spirit -of Both. This is very 
clearly stated and illustrated in the 3 former chapters 
of his fourth Book against Nestorius. 

q. For He [the Word Incarnate] was confessedly 
glorified, when the Spirit wrought the Divine signs 
[our Lord's miracles on earth] : yet glorified not as 
a God-clad man, gaining this from a Nature foreign 
to Him and above Him (as we too do) but rather as 
using His own Spirit, for He was God by Nature, 

and not alien to Him is His Spirit Belonging 

to Him then and of Him is His Spirit; and a clear 
demonstration hereof will be that He can bestow 
It on others too and that not of measure, as the 
blessed Evangelist saith (S. John iii. 34). For the 
God of all measured to the Saints the grace through 
the Spirit .... but our Lord Jesus Christ putting 
forth the Spirit out of His own fulness even as the 
Father too doth, giveth it not as by measure to 

those worthy to have it When the Comforter 

shall come ivhom I will send you from the Father, the 
Spirit of Truth which proceedeth from the Father, He 
shall testify of Me. Note therefore how the Spirit 

q. i8o%d%€TO fxev yap 6{io\oyovp,eva><;, ivepyovvros tov 
Uvevfiaros t«9 Oeoo-Tjfilw dXX'ov^ &>? av6pa>7ro<; Oeocpopos, 
i% odveias re /ecu VTrepKet/j,evr)<; (pvcrewi to yjprjjxa KepBaivcov 
Kada koI spiels, ca? IStco Be p.aX\.ov Ke^pri^evos tg3 Tivev- 
fiarc. ®eos yap rjv (pvcrec Kal ovk aXXorpcov avTOv to 
Tlvevfia auTov' .... otKoOev ovv apa teal Trap 1 uvtov to Tlvev- 
p,a avTov, Kal tovtov cra^r) 1 ? a7r6Sei£t<? eirj av to Kal ctc- 
poi,*; Svvaadat %opr]<yelv avTo Kal ovk e'« fjueTpov, Kada (prjcriv 
6 fiaKapios evayyeXiaT^' iirefieTprjcre fiev yap tois aylois ttjv 
hia tov TIvevfiaTos yapiv 6 twv oXcov ©eoV . . . 6 Be ye Ki^o? 
rjfi(t)V Irjaovs XpicrTos ef ISiov irXripo&p.aTO'; 7rpotets to Uvevpa 
Ka8a Kal avTo? 6 Harrjp, ov% co? eK /ueTpov BlBaxriv avTo toc<} 
al;LOi<; e\eiv. . . . oTav Be e\6rj 6 nrapaKkrjTos ov eyo) 7refityco 
vpZv trapa tov HaTpbs, to Tlvevpa t% a\r)9eia<; o irapa, 
tov UaTpb? eK-rropeveTai, eKetvos papTvprjaei rrepl e/xov. ad pet 



which proceedeth from God the Father, this He says 
is the own Spirit of the Truth also, and He is I 
suppose full surely the Truth : how then, if He be of 
a truth not God Incarnate but man rather having 
the Divine Indwelling as His Energy, does He pro- 
mise to send down on them that believe on Him 
the Spirit of God the Father as though it were His 

own ? If then thou knowest that to sever the 

Spirit from His Divine Nature will be the worst of 
crimes and rightly so, His it is plain is the Spirit, 
as proceeding through His Ineffable Nature Itself 
and Con- Substantial with Him, and He will not need, 
as something external and foreign, the power from 
Him, but will use Him rather as His own Spirit. . . 
and He is not putting Himself outside of being by 
Nature God and having the Holy Ghost as His own 
. . . For as the Holy Ghost proceedeth from the Fa- 
ther, being His Spirit by Nature, in the same manner 
It proceedeth through the Son also, being His of 
Nature and Consubstantial with Him. Hence even if 
He be glorified through the Spirit, He is conceived 
of as Himself glorifying Himself through His own 
Spirit, and this is not anything external even if He 

Br) ovv 07ra>5 to rrapa rov ®eov Kal Harpbs eKTropevb[xevov 
Uvevfia rovro Kal tj}? dXijdelas 'IBcov elvai <£#9* avrb? 
Be ttov rrdvrw? early r) dXtfOeia. elra 7TW9, e'lrrep earlv 
aXqdcbs ovk evavOpwrvqcras ©eo9, dvdpamos Be fidXXov rr)v 
Beiav ivoiKrjatv &)? ivepyeiav eywv, a>9 tBiov Tlvev/xa rb rov 
©eou /ecu Tlarpbs Tot9 7riarevovcriv eh avrov Karaire/jb^jreiv 

irrayyeXXerai ; el fxev ovv oicrOa ore rb ajrorefiveiv to 

Uvevfia tt}? delays avrov (pvaecos, iyKXrjfidrcov aXo-yiarov ecrj 
av /ecu fidXa el/eora)?, avrov BrfXovort rb Yivev/xd icrrtv a>9 6Y 
avrrjs rrpolbv rr) 1 ? arroppiqrov (pvcrea)*; avrov ical bfioovcnov avrw, 
zeal ovk av eBerjdr) Kaddirep nvbs rr}<; e^coOev re zeal eiTa/cry)*; 
Bvvdfieco? rr)<; reap avrov' ypr\aerai Be fidXXov &>9 18(a) Uvev- 
fj,art. . . . teal ovk e^co ridels eavrbv rov Kara cpvcriv elvai %ebv 
Kal IBiov eyeiv rb UveOfjba rb " Ayiov. . . . wenrep yap rrpoeiaiv 
€K rov TIarpbs rb Uvev/xa rb" kryiov, avrov Kara <pvaiv virdpyov, 
Kai Kara rov icrov rovrw rpbrrov Kal BC avrov rov Tlov, (pvaiKoos 
ov avrov Kal b/xoovaiov ai/rm. ovkovv KavBo^aQqrai Bid rovllvev- 
fiaros, avrbs eavrbv a>9 Bi IBiov Uvevfiaros voelrai Bo^d^cov, 
Kal 0%)% a>9 Ovpadev to y^prjfia avrw, Kav el bpcoro yeyovws av- 



be seen made Man as we ... . For the Flesh was the 
Word's own, and this yourself have just confessed 
to us (for you said that the Manhood is His and the 
Holy Body taken of the holy Virgin is called His 
Temple) His again is His Spirit and the Word of 
God the Father will never be conceived of without 
His own Spirit. 

Again in his answer to the Eastern Bishops' objec- 
tion to his eleventh chapter occur the remarkable 

r. But we must know that (as we said before) it 
is the own body of the Word which quickeneth all 
things, and because it is the body of life, it is also 
quickening (for through it does the Son infuse His 
Life into our mortal bodies and undo the might of 
Death) but the Holy Spirit of Christ also quickens 
us in equal wise, for it is the Spirit that quicken- 
eth, as our Saviour Himself says. 

These passages are remarkable because S. Cyril is 
here not speaking of the relation of the Persons of 
the Holy Trinity one with another but assuming that 
his readers already know that God the Holy Ghost 
is the Yery Spirit of God the Son, he is proving that, 
God the Son having been made Man for us, the rela- 

0pco7ro<> Ka&" r)jLLa<i rjv fiev yap rj <rap% IBla tov Aoyov, /cal 

tovto rjfilv apricot Bcco/jLoXoyrj/cas avrSs' clvtov yap e<p7]s elvav 
rrjv avOpwTTOTTjra, /cal vabs avrov Ke^rjfidriKe to i/c t?}? ayias 
irapdevov Xr](f>6ev ayiov crcofia' IBiov Be ttoXlv avrov to Hvevfta 
avrov, /cal ov/c av voolto Trdoirore Bfya rov IBiov Upev/naro^ 6 e/c 
®eov Harpo? A670? 7 . 

r. ^IBevav Be avay/calov on /cada (pBao-avre? eiTro/xev, tBiov 
e'cTt arwfxa rov ra rravra ^(ooyovovvro^ Aoyov irreuBr) Be eart 
crebfia %cor)<i, /cal ^cootvolov icrri' Be avrov yap rocs 6vr)rol<i 
rjficbv acofiacriv evirjcrt, rr\v ^corjv 6 T/09 /cal /carapyel rov dava- 
rov to /cpa,TO$' ^coottolcI Be rjfias Kara tov laov rpoirov /cal 
to " Ay tov Uvevfia XptcrToO' " to yap Tlvevfid iari to £o>o- 
7TOLOVV," /cara ttjv avrov tov Xcorrjpo<; (JMovrjv 8 . 

? Opp. vi. 98, 99, 102, 104, 105, 106. 
8 Apol. adv. Episc. Orient. Cap. xi. Opp. vi. 193 fin. 



tion of God the Holy Ghost to Him remains unaltered 
by this. 

These extracts give S. Cyril's teaching on this 
subject as extant in different works of his. But it may 
occur to some to think how we are to know that in 
all the bitter controversy about the expression of this 
doctrine in which S. Cyril was cited on both sides : 
how we are to know that the Greek manuscripts 
which preserve to us his writings were not tampered 
with through Latin influence. We have proof in 
regard to many of his writings. I quoted above his 
Thesaurus as extant in the Syriac Manuscript add. 
14556 in the British Museum assigned by Dr. Wright 
to the sixth or seventh century and therefore anterior 
to the controversy. This manuscript contains even the 
formal heading, That the Holy Ghost is of the Essence 
of the Father and the Son. The citation from his 
apology to the Eastern Bishops is likewise extant in 
Syriac in the manuscript add. 12156 of the sixth cen- 
tury, that from the explanation of the twelve chapters 
in the manuscript add. 14557 of the seventh century 
which same manuscript also contains the treatise 
"De recta fide" addressed to the Emperor Theo- 
dosius; and this latter is in a much older version, 
one attributed to Eabbula, Bishop of Edessa, who was 
a contemporary of S. Cyril. Eor the extracts of the 
other works of his cited in this Preface I am not able 
to adduce the support of the Syriac. But neither is 
it needed : for S. Cyril's teaching is uniform through- 
out and it is the clear and explicit teaching of one 
who had been instructed in the truth handed down 
by those before him and who held, taught and enun- 
ciated it as no matter of dry speculation but as living 
belief and reality. 



It will be observed that in these passages, S. Cyril in 
speaking of the procession of the Holy Ghost from 
God the Son mainly uses the preposition i K , from (in 
b, His very own and in Him and from Him, Ihiov avrov 
teal iv avrw re Kal i% avrov ; in c, from Him and His own, 
to e'£ avrov re real Ihiov avrov ; in d, of Him and Essen- 
tially inexisient in Him, to ef- avrov Kal ovaicohm i/iire<j>v/cb<i 
avrS; in e, goeth forth from the Father and the Son, 
rrpoeiai €K rrarpbs /cal vlov • in g, in Him and of Him, iv 
avra Kal i£ avrov; in h, of Him by Nature, i% avrov Kara 
(j)vaiv ; in k, of Him and in Him and His own, ef avrov 
re Kal iv avrw Kal ihiov avrov ; in I, from Him rvap avrov ;) 
he also uses, in the same sense, the preposition hia, 
through (in a, poured forth from the Father through 
the Son, eV irarpbs hi vlov rrpoyeb^evov, in m, both coming 
forth through Him and in Him by Nature, hi avrov 
re rrpoKvirrov koi virdpxov iv avrm ^vaiKw^ ; in q, he uses Boa 
twice, as proceeding through His ineffable Nature itself, 

ft>9 6Y avrr)$ irpolbv t?}? arropprjrov <£ucree0<? avrov '. as from 

the Father so through the Son, i* T o0 rrarpb? koI 

hi avrov rov vlov, and irapa once, His own and of Him 
Ills bpirit, olmQev Kal rrap avrov rb rrvevpua avrov) . 

[ 9 This language of S. Cyril, as well as other lan- 
guage on the Procession of the Holy Ghost from the 
Son also, is the language of the Greek fathers before 

The relation of the Three Divine Persons, Father, 

9 The authorities quoted below are furnished by the very learned 
and candid dissertation of Petavius " de Processione Sancti Spiritus " 
which forms Book vii of his De Trinitate, (Dogm. Theol. ii. 362 sqq.) and 
as to the history, from Le Quien Dissertationes DamascenicEefDiss l) 
prefixed to his edition of S. John Damascene. E. B. P. 



Son, and Holy Ghost is laid down for us by our Lord 
in the Baptismal formula, nor may we depart from 
it, " 10 For we must be baptized, as we have received; 
and believe, as we are baptized; and glorify, as we 
have believed, Father Son 'and Holy Ghost." The 
order of the co-eternal Three must be, as Themselves, 
co-eternal. S. Basil says *, 

"The Holy Spirit is co-numbered with the Fa- 
ther and the Son, because also He is above creation. 
And He is placed, as we are also taught in the Gos- 
pel by the Lord, saying, ' go, baptize in the name of 
the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit ;' but he 
who places Him before the Son, or saith that He 
is elder than the Father, contraveneth the ordaining 
of God, and is alien from sound faith, not guarding 
the doxology as we have received So that in- 
novation as to the order is an annulling of the very 
existence, and a denial of the whole faith. For it is 
alike ungodly to bring down the Spirit to the crea- 
tion, or to place It above Son or Father, either as 
to time or order.'" 

" 2 The Spirit is co-pronounced with the Lord, as 
is the Son with the Father. For the name of Father 
and Son and Holy Ghost is spoken in the like way. 
As then the Son is to the Father, so the Spirit is to 
the Son, according to the order of the word delivered 
in Baptism. But if the Spirit is conjoined with the 
Son, and the Son with the Father, it is plain that 
the Spirit also is [conjoined] with the Father." 

The controversy raised by the unhappy Photius not 
having arisen, the faith could be expressed in those 
varied ways in which S. Cyril expressed it, since all 
contained the same truth as to the existence of the 
Divine Persons ; that the Father, as the One Source 
of Being, everlastingly communicates Himself to the 

10 S. Basil Ep. 125. n. 3. Opp. iii. 216. 

1 Id. Ep. 52 ad Canon, n. 4. Opp. iii. 146. Petav. de Trin. vii. 6. 3. 

2 Id. de Sp. S. c. 17. n. 43. Opp. iii. 36. lb. 



Son, in that way called Generation, and that that 
Being flows on eternally to the Holy Spirit, being 
derived originally from the Father, but issuing to 
the Holy Ghost from Both, the Father and the Son, 
as One. S. Gregory of Nyssa, having met the ob- 
jection, that, "if we believe God the Son to be Eter- 
nal, we should also believe Him to be Ingenerate or 
Unoriginate," by saying that " He ever co- exists with 
the ever-existing Father, united by Generation with 
the Ingenerateness of the Father ;" says, 

' ' 5 So also we speak concerning the Holy Spirit 
also, the difference being only in the Order of Being. 
For as the Son is conjoined with the Father, and, 
deriving His Being from Him, is in no way posterior 
to Him in Being, so again the Holy Spirit cohereth 
to the Son, Who in thought only is conceived as 
prior, by way of causation, to the Hypostasis of the 
Spirit ; for extensions of time have no place in the 
life before all time, so that, with the exception of 
cause, in nothing does the Holy Trinity differ in 

In another place, he meets the " cavil, that not to 
admit a difference [of the Three Divine Persons] as 
to nature, involves a confusion of the Persons." 

a6 While confessing the unvaryingness of the Na- 
tures, we do not deny the difference of ' cause ' and 
' caused/ wherein alone we understand that the One 
is distinguished from the Other, that we believe 
that the One is the Cause, the Other from (e'/c) the 
Cause ; and in that which is from the Cause again 
we perceive another difference. For the One exists 
immediately from the First, the Other through Him 
Who exists immediately from the First : so that the 
being Only-Begotten remains unambiguously as be- 
longing to the Son, without having any doubt that 

8 S. Greg. Nyss. c. Eunom. i. fin. Opp. ii. 428. lb. vii. 3. 3. 
6 Id. Ep. ad Ablabium. T. iii. p. 27. lb. 



the Spirit is from (eV) the Father, the intermediate- 
ness of the Son both preserving to Him the being 
Only-Begotten, and not excluding the Spirit from the 
natural relation to the Father. But in speaking of 
' Cause ' and ' from Cause/ we do not by these forms 
designate nature; (for one would not speak of ' Cause ' 
and 'Nature' as the same) but we point out the 
difference in the mode of existence." 

He sums up 7 , 

" Speaking of such distinction in the Holy Trinity, 
that we believe 'the Cause' and the ' from the Cause/ 
we can be no longer accused of confounding the 
Persons in the community of Nature. Since then 
the principle of causation distinguishes the Persons 
of the Holy Trinity, setting forth that the one is 'the 
Cause/ the other, ' from the Cause ' but the Divine 
Nature is, amid every conception, understood to be 
immutable and indivisible, therefore properly are 
One Godhead and One God, and all the God-beseem- 
ing names singularly enunciated." 

In these passages the Monarchia on the one side, 
and the eternal relation of the Holy Ghost to the 
Son, as having His Existence mediately from the Fa- 
ther but cohering immediately with the Son, are dis- 
tinctly laid down. 

S. Gregory of Nyssa is commonly supposed to have 
framed the additions to the Creed at the Council of 
Constantinople. His contemporaries S. Epiphanius 
and Didymus, and his brother S. Basil, express this 
relation of the Holy Spirit to the Son by the word 
"from." Didymus, the teacher of S. Jerome and 
Eufinus, in his work on the Holy Spirit, translated 

S. Greg. Nyss. lb. p. 28. 



by S. Jerome, " 8 explaining the words of our Lord, 
He shall not speak from Himself," writes, 

"That is, not without Me and the Will of the 
Father, because He is inseparable from Mine and the 
Father's Will. For He is not of (ex) Himself, but 
of (ex) the Father arid Me. For His very Being He 
hath from (a) the Father and Me."— "The Holy 
Spirit also, Who is the Spirit of truth and the Spirit 
of Wisdom, cannot, when the Son speaketh, hear 
what He knoweth not; since The Spirit of Truth 
proceeding is that Very Being, which is brought 
forth from (a) the Son, i. e., proceeding from the 
Truth, the Paraclete issuing from (a) the Paraclete,, 
God from (a) God." 

And on the words " He shall glorify Me, because 
He shall take of Mine," 

" 9 Here again, to 'take' is to be understood, so as to 
be in harmony with the Divine Nature. For as the 
Son, when He giveth, is not deprived of those things 
which He giveth, nor, with loss to Himself, imparteth 
to others, so also the Spirit doth not receive what He 
had not before. For if He receive what before He 
had not, when the gift is transferred to another, the 
Giver is emptied, ceasing to have what He giveth. 
As then above, when disputing of incorporeal na- 
tures, we understood, so now too we must know, 
that the Holy Spirit receiveth from the Son that 
which had been of His own Nature, and that this 
signifieth, not a giver and a receiver, but One Sub- 
stance. Inasmuch as the Son is said to receive of 
the Father, That wherein He Himself subsists. For 
neither is the Son ought besides what is given to 
Him from (a) the Father, nor is the Substance of the 
Holy Spirit other, besides what is given Him by the 

S. Epiphanius no where uses the word "through" 

8 De Spiritu Sancto n. 34. translated by S. Jerome Opp. ii. 142. Vail. 
Pet. de Trin. vii. 3, 5. 9 lb. n. 36, 37. p. 147. 


XX Yl 


but always "from" when speaking of the Eternal 
Being of the Holy Spirit. And these are no chance 
passages of S. Epiphanius, but passages in which he 
is carefully stating and guarding the truth as to the 
existence of the Holy Trinity. The first is against 
the heresy of Sabellius. 

" l For the Spirit ever is, with the Father and the 
Son, not in relation of brother with the Father, not 
begotten, not created, not brother of the Son, not 
grandson of the Father, but ever proceeding from the 
Father and receiving of the Son : not alien from Fa- 
ther and Son, but from (eV) the same Essence, f?'om 
(e'/c) the same Godhead, from (e'«) the Father and the 
Son, with the Father and the Son, ever subsisting 
Holy Spirit, Divine Spirit, Spirit of glory, Spirit of 
Christ, Spirit of the Father. For it is the Spirit of 
the Father, Who speakeih in you, and My Spirit 
standeth in the midst of you, the Third in appella- 
tion, equal in Godhead, not alien from the Father 
and the Son, The Bond of the Trinity, The seal of 
the confession." 

And in his elaborate exposition of the faith 2 , which 
he partly embodies in his writing against "the blas- 
phemers of the Holy Ghost 3 ; " 

" 4 The Holy Spirit ever is, not begotten &c, but 
from (e/c) the same essence of the Father and the 
Son, the Holy Spirit; for God is Spirit." " 5 He 
is the Spirit of the Son ; not by any composition, 
(as in us, soul and body) but in the midst of the 
Father and the Son, from {Ik) the Father and the 
Son, the third in appellation.''-' " 6 Whole God is 
Wisdom ; so then the Son is Wisdom from Wisdom, 
in Whom are hidden all the treasures of wisdom. 
Whole God is Life ; therefore the Son is Life from 
Life. For c I am the way, the truth and the life/ 

i S. Epiph. Haer. lxii. n. 4. 
8 Haer. lxxiv. 4 Anc, n. 7- 

2 Ancorat. Opp. T. ii. 
5 lb. n. 8. 6 lb. n. 70. 



But the Holy Spirit from Both (irap a/uL^orepcov) is 
Spirit from Spirit ; for God is Spirit." 

" 7 But some one will say, Do we then say that there 
are two Sons ? How then is He Only-Begotten ? 
But who art thou, who speakest against God ? For 
since He calls Him Who is from Him, the Son, and 
That which is from Both, (to Trap ap,<f>0Tepwv) the 
Holy Spirit; which being conceived by the saints 
through faith alone, being lightful, lightgiving, have 
a lightful operation, and by the light of faith are in 
harmony with the Father Himself; — hear thou, that 
the Father is Father of Him "Who is the True Son, 
and wholly Light, and the Son is of True Father, 
Light of Light, (not, as things created or made, in 
title only) and the Holy Spirit is the Spirit of Truth, 
the third Light from (rrapa) Father and Son." " 8 As 
there are many sons by adoption or calling, not in 
truth, because they have beginning and end, and 
are inclined to sin, so there are very many spirits by 
adoption or calling, although inclined to sin. But 
the Holy Spirit is Alone entitled from (airb) the Fa- 
ther and the Son, the Spirit of Truth, and Spirit of 
God, and Spirit of Christ and Spirit of grace." ff9 If 
then He proceedeth from (irapa) the Father; and, 
the Lord saith, He shall take of Mine, then in the 
same way in which no one knows the Father save the 
Son, nor the Son, save the Father, so, I dare to say, 
that no one knoweth the Spirit, save the Father and 
the Son, from (Trap) Whom He proceedeth and from 
Whom He taketh, and neither doth any one know 
the Son and the Father, save the Holy Spirit, Who 
truly glorifieth, Who teacheth all things, Who testi- 
fieth concerning the Son, Who is from (irapa) the 
Father and of (4k) the Son." " 10 The Father then ever 
was, and the Spirit breatheth from (e'/c) the Father 
and the Son, and neither is the Son created, nor is 
the Spirit created. But all things, after Father and 
Son and Holy Ghost, being created and made, once 
not being, came into being from Father Son and 
Holy Ghost through the Eternal Word, with the 
Eternal Father." 

Eunomius argued, that " he had received from the 

*Hser. lxxiv. n. 

'Anc. n. 72. filled up from Haer. lxxiv. n. 9. 9 Ib. 73. 

10 lb. 75. 



saints, that the Paraclete was the third in order and 
dignity," and therefore he inferred that He was "third 
also in nature." S. Basil answers *, 

" Was there ever man so bold, introducing novel- 
ties into divine doctrines ? For what need is there, 
that if the Spirit is third in dignity and order, He 
should be in nature ? For the word of godliness 
transmits to us, that He is second in dignity from 
the Son, having His Being from (trap) Him, and re- 
ceiving from (Trap') Him : but that He hath a third 
nature, we have neither learned from the Holy 
Scriptures, nor can it be inferred as consequent 
from the things aforesaid. For as the Son is second 
in order from the Father, because He is of (i/c) 
Him, and in dignity, because the Father is the Be- 
ginning and Cause of His Being, and because the 
approach and bringing near to God the Father is 
through Him, but He is in no wise second in nature, 
because the Godhead in Each is One; so also the Holy 
Spirit, although He is subordinate to the Son in order 
and dignity, would not therefore be of another na- 

These are doctrinal writers, writing at the period 
when the heresy of Macedonius on the Holy Ghost 
was rife, and therefore they had the more reason to 
be very careful as to what they wrote. 

S. Athanasius sets forth the faith as to the Holy 
Spirit as that " 2 tradition which had been from the 
first, the teaching and faith of the Catholic Church, 


1 The passage was adduced by the Latins in the Council of Florence, 
from a MS. brought from Constantinople by Card. Nicolas Cusanus. 
The disputed reading was "in a parchment MS. 600 years before the 
Council of Florence and before the commencement of the controversy as 
to the Procession of the Holy Spirit" and "other very old books, whose 
antiquity is such that any one would own that they are prior to the 
schism." John de Turrecremata at the Council and Manuel Calecas 
c. 10. in Petav. vii. 3. 16. 

2 Ep. i. ad Serap. n. 28. Opp. i. 676. Ben. Petav. Prsef. inTheol. Dogm. 
T. ii. p. 6. 




which the Lord gave, the Apostles preached, the fa- 
thers kept." lie sums up, 

" s It is shown harmoniously from the Holy Scrip- 
tures, that the Holy Spirit is not a creature but the 
very own (tBtov) of the Word and of the Godhead of 
the Father. For thus is the teaching of the Saints 
gathered as to the Holy and Indivisible Trinity, and 
this is the one faith of the Catholic Church." 

Again he argues it from the relation to the Son, 

" 4 If on account of the unity of the Word with the 
Father, they will not that the Son Himself should be 
one of created things, but think Him, what He is in 
truth, the Creator of things made, why do they call 
the Holy Ghost a Creature, Who hath the same one- 
ness with the Son, which the Son hath with the Fa- 
ther ?" And, " The Son saith, ' what I have heard 
from the Father, the same I speak unto the world :' 
but the Spirit taketh from the Son, He saith, f He 
shall take of Mine, and shall shew it unto you/ 
And the Son came in the Father's Name, but ' the 
Holy Ghost/ He saith, ' which the Father shall 
send in My Name/ Since then the Spirit hath the 
same order and nature to the Son, as the Son hath 
to the Father, how shall he who calleth the Spirit a 
creature, not, of necessity, think the same as to the 
Son V And again, "Such special relation as we 
know the Son hath to the Father, such we shall find 
that the Spirit hath to the Son." 

Even S. Cyril of Jerusalem, who avoided the word 
Homoousion, not to give offence, says : 

" 5 There is One and the Same Spirit, which sancti- 
fieth and subsisteth, and is ever co-present with the 
Father and the Son, not being spoken or breathed- 
forth from the mouth and lips of the Father or the 
Son, not dispersed into the air, but subsisting." 

1 lb. n. 32. p. 681. 4 Id. Ep. 3 ad Serap. p. 691. Ben. ap. Petav. 

ib. p. 3S4. b S. Cyril Jer. Cat. 17. n. 5. p. 223. Oxf. Tr. 



And, in answer to the question, "why the Spirit was 
not the son of the Son," 

"Not that He is not of (e'«) God through (Sl) 
the Son, but lest the Trinity should be thought an 
endless number, being suspected to have sons from 
sons,, as among men." 

The question, as well as the answer, implies the 
belief in the eternal relation of the Holy Spirit to 
the Son ; for without this belief it could not have 
arisen, as Bessarion argued, who alleged the passage 
in the Council of Florence 4 . 

And S. Gregory of Nyssa ; 

" 5 We come from the Father through the Son to 
the Spirit." 

And again, as quoted by Bessarion 6 , 

" The Spirit, being joined to the Father, as Un- 
created, is again distinguished from Him, in that 
He is not Father, as He is. But from the conjunc- 
tion with the Son, as being Unbegotten, and in that 
He hath the cause of His Being from God the Fa- 
ther, He is distinguished by the property that He 
is not from the Father as Only-Begotten, and that 
He appeareth through the same Son. And again, 
whereas the creation exists through the Only-Be- 
gotten, that the Spirit may not be thought to have 
any thing common with it, because It appeareth 
through the Son, the Spirit is distinguished from 
the creation, in that It is unalterable and unchange- 
able and needeth no goodness from without." 

Bessarion again quoted S. Maximus 7 ; 

" For the Holy Spirit, as He is by nature, accord- 

4 Orat. Dogm. c. 6. in Cone. Flor. Sess. 25. Cone. T. 18. p. 424 ed. 
Col. 5 c. Eunom. L. i. ed. Grets. ap. Pet. vii. 6. 5. 

6 c. Eunom. L. i. ap. Bess. p. 428. 7 Bess. 1. c. 



ing to substance, God the Father's, so is He the Son's 
accordingto substance, proceeding substantially from 
the Father through the Son, ineffably Begotten." 

This same truth, that, in the language of the writer 
known as Dionysius the Areopagite, " 8 the Father is 
the Sole Fountain of the Supersubstantial Deity," or 
in S. Augustine's, that "Hhe Father is the principle 
or beginning of the whole Divinity, or, if it is better 
so expressed, Deity;" is also expressed by the phrase 
that the Son is ul immediately" (ajxeaws or 7rpo<re%&)<;) 
from the Father, the Holy Spirit a2 intermediately" 
(e/i/xeoro)?); or that the Father is the principal (^TrpoKar- 
apKTLKt]) Cause. But since the Father and the Son are 
One, and, in the language of the fathers, "All which 
the Father hath are the Son's, except being the 
Beginning," then the Son u3 hath this also from the 
Father, that the Spirit should proceed from Him 
also." Again in S. Augustine's language, "the Holy 
Spirit proceeds principially from the Father." 

a4 I added ' principially,' because the Holy Spirit, it 
appears, proceedeth from the Son also. But this 
the Father gave Him, not already existing yet not 
having it, but whatsoever He gave to the Only-Be- 
gotten Son He gave by begetting. For in such 
wise begat He Him, that from Him also should pro- 
ceed the common Gift, and the Holy Spirit should 
be the Spirit of Both." 

Thus far the term preferred and most used by the 
great Greek Fathers is the same as that of the West, 
from. The later usage is obscure, since we have so 

8 T. i. 2. 4. 7- ap. Pet. vii. 17- 8. 9 de Trin. vi. 20. lb. 

1 Petav. de Trin. vii. 11. 2 S. Basil de Sp. S. c. 16. 

3 S. Aug. c. Maximin. Arian. iii. 14. Pet. vii. 10. 11. 
4 de Trin. xv. 17. lb. 



few later Greek writers of eminence. Theodoret, in 
his heat against S. Cyril, rejected alike both the from 
and the through. 

" 5 That he [S. Cyril] says that He (the Holy 
Spirit) is ' own Spirit of the Son/ if he means of 
the same nature, and proceeding from the Father, 
we will assent, and receive his answer as pious, but 
if as having His Being from the Son and through the 
Son, we shall reject this as blasphemous and im- 

This writing however had no weight in the Eastern 
Church, since it was condemned by the 5th General 
Council, which, in its origin, was especially a Greek 
Council, Pope Vigilius, as is known, at last unwillingly 
adhering to it ; and Theodoret rejected alike the for- 
mulae 'from ' and ' through. 1 

There continue to be traces of the "from" among 
Greek writers till A.D. 600, 50 years before S. John 

A Sermon attributed by Photius to S. Chrysostome 6 , 
and, it is thought, by some contemporary, has the 

"Christ came to us; He gave us the Spirit which 
is of Him 7 , and took our body." 

Philo Carpathius was a younger contemporary of 
S. Epiphanius, and, it is said, much trusted by him. 
His words, as occurring in an allegorical interpreta- 

6 Confut. Anathem. 9 S. Cyr. 

6 Horn, de Incarn. Dom., quoted by Photius cod. 277, as S. Chrysos- 
tome's, placed among the "Dubia" by Savile T. v. Horn. 125., among 
the "Spuria" by Montfaucon T. viii. App. 213. 

7 to i£ airov irvevfJLa. Photius of course leaves out the c£. " Beccus 
and Calecas, Savile" and Montf. (App. 224.) "have it." Petav. de 
Trin. vii. 3. 19. 


tion, attest the use of the word "of " beyond the strict 
doctrinal writers. 

" 8 Themouthof God the Father is the Son. Where- 
fore, since He too is God, equal by nature to the 
Father, He is called the Word ; since whatever the 
Father willeth, He speaketh, createth, frameth and 
preserveth through the Son together with that Di- 
vine Spirit, Who proccedeth from the Father and 
the Son." 

Anastasius Sinaita, Patriarch of Antioch, A.D. 561, 
to whom all the Eastern Bishops so looked up, that 
when urged by the Emperor Justinian to accept his 
formula, they answered, that they waited to know 
the mind of Anastasius and should follow him, used 
it repeatedly. 

" 9 Taking the property of the mouth as an illus- 
tration, we have expressed the mutual connection 
(aWrfkov)(lav) of the Divine Persons through the 
analogy and likeness of the members. For thus 
the Holy Spirit is said both to be the Spirit of His 
mouth, i. e. of God, since the Only-Begotten is the 
Mouth ; and again the Spirit going forth from Him, 
and sent, not only from the Father, but also from 
the Son." "The Lord, shewing that the Spirit is 
from Himself, (avrb ef avrov virdpj^eiv) said to His 
disciples, breathing upon them, Receive the Holy 

"We call the Father of the Word, Mind, in Whom 
is the Word, with Whom is the Holy Spirit, entitled 
the Spirit of the mouth of God; for the mouth of 
the Father is the Son." 

The martyrdom of S. Dionysius the Areopagite in 
Symeon Metaphrastes is doubtless from older mate- 
rials. It gives additional evidence for the wide-spread 
use of the form in the East. 

8 Philo Carpath. Comm. in Cant. ap. Pet. vii. 3. 11. 
9 Anast. Sinait. de rect. dogm. L. i. Pet. vii. 5. 10, and 3. 19. 



" x And my Christ is raised to the heavens and 
returns to His Father's throne, and sendeth on the 
disciples the Spirit Who proceedeth from Himself, 
to lead aright the unbelieving nations." 

Nor at Constantinople had any surprise been ex- 
pressed, when Pope Hormisdas in a statement of faith 
sent to the Emperor A.D. 519 said, 

' ' 2 It belongeth to the Father, that He begetteth 
the Son ; it belongeth to the Son of God, that He 
is begotten of the Father, equal to the Father ; it 
belongeth to the Holy Spirit, that He proceedeth 
from the Father and the Son, in the one Substance 
of the Godhead." 

The most remarkable instance of the continuance of 
the form "of the Son" at this period is our great Arch- 
bishop Theodore, himself a native of Tarsus, well- 
versed, as is shown in his Penitential, in the usages 
of the Greek Church, with which he parallels or con- 
trasts those of the West. He shews himself also 
familiar with the Greek fathers, and the East of his 
own day had such confidence in him, that the vi th 
General Council waited for him. On Sept. 17 A.D. 
680, not quite two months before the opening of 
the vi th General Council, Nov. 7, A.D. 680, he pre- 
sided over the Council of Hatfield, in which the Con- 
fession of faith was drawn up, which embodied the 

In it, it is declared ; 

ff3 We have expounded the right and orthodox 
faith, as our Lord Jesus Christ, incarnate, delivered 
to His Apostles who saw Him in bodily presence, 

1 Sym. Metaphr. in mart. S. Dionys. init Opp. S, Dionys. ii. 190. 
Pet. vii. 3 — 19. 2 Hormisd. Ep. 89. in Le Quien Diss. Damasc. 

n. 10. Opp. S. Joann. Damascen. i. p. v. 

Quoted from Rev. G. Williams, The Orthodox Eastern Church. 



and heard His discourses and delivered the creed 
of the holy fathers; and in general all the sacred 
and universal Synods and the whole choir of the 
Catholic approved doctors of the Church [have de- 
livered it]." 

" And then after a brief confession of faith in the 
Holy Trinity in Unity, and a recital of the first Five 
General Councils, and of the Lateran Council of 
A.D. 649, it thus concludes: — 

"And we glorify our Lord Jesus Christ as they 
glorified Him, adding nothing, taking away no- 
thing; and we anathematize in heart and word whom, 
they anathematized; we receive whom they received; 
glorifying God the Father without beginning, and 
His only-begotten Son, begotten of the Father be- 
fore the ages ; and the Holy Ghost, proceeding from 
the Father and the Son, ineffably; as those holy 
apostles and prophets and doctors, whom we above 
commemorated, have preached." 

The form "from the Son" must however have come 
to be disused at Constantinople, since it became a 
pretext for those who wished to pick a quarrel with 
the West. The Monothelites, having been condemned 
by the first Lateran Council under Martin i, A. D. 
649, objected to the statement that the Holy Spirit 
proceeded from the Son also, but they accompanied 
it with the blasphemy of alleging it to be an error, 
that "Hhe Lord was free, as Man, from original sin." 
S. Maximus the confessor (himself a Constantino- 
politan until the outburst of the Monothelite heresy, 
and the friend of Pope Martin,) writes that the 

" 4 produced consonant testimonies of the Latin fa- 
thers and of Cyril of Alexandria out of his sacred 
work on the holy Evangelist John, from which they 
4 Ep. ad Marin. Opp. ii. 70. 



shewed that they did not make the Son the Cause 
of the Holy Spirit. For they knew that the Father 
is the one Cause of Son and Spirit, of the One accord- 
ing to Generation; of the Other, according to Pro- 
cession; but (they used it) to convey that the One 
came through the Other, and to shew thereby the 
community of Substance and invariableness." 

S. Maximus calls the objection "a subterfuge" of 
the adversaries (Monothelites). Anastasius, who was 
long Apoerisiarius of the Koman see at Constanti- 
nople, writes about A. D. 754, 

" 5 We have besides translated from the Epistle of 
S. Maximus to Marinus Presbyter, the details con- 
cerning the Procession of the Holy Spirit, where ho 
implies that the Greeks falsely except against us, 
since we do not say that the Son is the Cause or 
Principle of the Holy Spirit, as they imagine, but, 
knowing the oneness of Substance of Father and 
Son, we confess that as He proceeds from the Father, 
so He proceeds from the Son, understanding by 
the Emission, the Procession. Herein he interprets 
piously, and instructs to peace those who know both 
languages ; in that he teaches both us and the 
Greeks, that in one way the Holy Spirit proceedeth, 
in another He doth not proceed from the Son, signi- 
fying the difficulty of expressing in one language 
the specialty of the other. By the like pious in- 
terpretation S. Athanasius formerly united Easterns 
and Westerns, when disagreeing about the word 
Hypostasis or Person, teaching that both believed 
and held the same truth, although, on account of the 
difference of language, they confessed it differently, 
and were angrily and idly contending with each 

Bessarion alleges the Synodical letter of Tarasius 
as shewing that the word, through, expressed the 

5 Epist. ad Joann. Diac. This quotation by Anastasius (as Le Quien 
observes p. v.) authenticates beyond question the genuineness of the 
passage of S. Maximus, which some doubted. 



mind of the 7th General Council, in whose name he 

wrote it : 

" 6 The 7th of tlio (Ecumenic Councils proclaimeth 
through the divine Tarasius, sayings that he believes 
in the Holy Ghost, which proccedeth from the Father 
through the Son, and Itself is known to be God." 

In A. D. 730 the form "from the Son" must have 
become obsolete in Jerusalem also. Perhaps, in the 
confusions of the Monophysite heresy and the Mo- 
hammedan oppression, learning had become circum- 
scribed, and S. John Damascene, whose compendium 
the Greeks subsequently used, was better acquainted 
with S. Gregory Nyss, and S. Basil, who used chiefly 
" through the Son," than with S. Epiphanius or S. 
Cyril of Alexandria. S. John Damascene, while 
holding the same faith as to the Procession of the 
Holy Ghost, says, 

" 7 We do not say that the Spirit is of (e/c) the 
Son, but we call Him the Spirit of the Son." 

Yet, although those among whom he lived had 
dropped the expression 'from,' it is clear that he him- 
self held the ' through ' in no other sense than the 
old Greek fathers, of the mode of the eternal exis- 
tence of the Holy Trinity, and that he rejected the 
{ from ' as involving, in his conception, the denial of 
the Monarchia of the Father. This he repeatedly 

< < 8 The Holy Ghost, the Spirit of the Father, as pro- 
ceeding from the Father .... and the Spirit of the 

e 1. c. Cone. T. 18. p. 431. 

i de fide orthod. i. 9. p. 141 ed. Le Quien. f ^ t 

8 to 7rv€VjU.a to "Ayiov. rrvev/Aa tov irarpos, a>s^ ck 7rotTpos eKTropevo- 
fievov .... Kai vlov Sc irv€VfJLa, ovx ws l£ avrov, a.XX' a>s Si' avrov e* 
irarpos ZKiropcvofXtvov /*oVos yap aiTios 6 varr/p. i. 12. fin. Opp. i. 148. 




11 I 

Son, too, not as from Him but as proceeding through 
Him from the Father; for the Father is the sole 

Again, it is of His Eternal existence, not of His 
going forth to creatures, that he speaks, 

" 9 The Father always was, having of His own Self 
His Word and His Spirit proceeding from Him 
through His Word/' 

And this Procession he speaks of, in contrast with 
the Eternal Generation of the Son, 

" l The Holy Grhost is Holy Ghost, for from the 
Father, through the Word and Son, He goeth forth, 
but not after the manner of a Son." 

He uses also the very language of S. Cyril, " 3 The 
Spirit is the Son's, because It is poured forth through 
Him and from Him ;" and of S. Athanasius, S. Basil 
and S. Cyril; " 8 The Son is the image (et/cav) of the 
Father ; and the Spirit, of the Son ;" which implies 
the eternal relation to the Son. He says also " 3 that 
the Spirit is united by the Son to the Father " and 
" 3 proceeding indivisibly from the Father, and rest- 
ing in the Son, He is of one substance with the Fa- 
ther and the Son:" which is the identical teaching of 

9 del rjv, t\wu k£ kavrov rov avrov Adyov, kcu Sia rov Aoyov airov 
«£ avrov to Tlvcvfia avrov SKTropevopevov. Contra Manichseos Dialogus, 
n. 5, t. i. 432 init. 

1 IIv€{!/xa''A'yiov, to Uvevfia to ''AytoV ck tov 7rarpos yap Sia, tot) vlov 
koX koyov Trpdiov, oix vIkS>s 8c. De Hymno Trisagio Epistola, n. 28. s. 
f. i. 497. In p. 140 he adds, dAA.' CKiropevrm, "but by way of proces- 
sion." And then he adds that "the special property of Each is un- 
changeable," so that "the Father does not cease to be Unbegotten, be- 
cause He begat; nor the Son to be begotten, because He was begotten 
by the Unbegotten ; nor did the Spirit change to the Father or the Son, 
because He proceeded and because He is God." 

2 Expos, fid. (ex Arab.) Opp. i. 664. 3 de fid. orth. i. 13. 



Gregory the Great; " 4 It is manifest that the Para- 
clete Spirit proceedeth from the Father and abid- 
eth in the Son." " 5 Unlike (the way in which He 
dwelleth in the Saints) the Spirit abideth in the Son, 
from Whom by nature He never departeth." And 
Vigilius Tapsensis, a6 We have proved by many tes- 
timonies of the Scriptures, that He is the Spirit of 
the Son and that He abideth whole in the Son ; and 
as He proceedeth from God the Father, so He pro- 
ceedeth from the Son, that the whole Trinity may 
be believed to be one God." 

Seasonable minds, both in East and "West, saw that 
there was no ground for either side to inculpate the 

When Charlemagne objected that Tarasius, Patri- 
arch of Constantinople, professed his faith, that " 7 the 
Holy Spirit proceeded from the Father through the 
Son," Pope Adrian I, in a letter still extant 8 , ex- 
pressly defended him. When some turbulent monks 
of S. Saba sent laymen to eject the Latin monks of 
Mount Olivet worshipping, on the Nativity of our 
Lord, at Bethlehem, because they said the Creed 
with the Filioque, the Patriarch of Jerusalem took 
no part in the accusation 9 , and it came to nothing. 
Leo III, (who refused to insert the Filioque into the 
Creed when asked by Charlemagne through his Missi, 
out of deference to the holy Fathers who framed it l ) 

4 Dial. ii. 38. Greek Transl. See Le Quien Diss. Damasc. i. n. 22. p. xi. 

5 Mor. iii. n. 92. lb. 6 De Trin. L. xi. lb. p. xii. 

: Ep. ad Patriarch. Syn. Nic. ii. Act. iii. Cone. viii. 812. Col. 

8 Epist. Adriani P. ad Car. Mag., Actt. Syn. Nic. ii. subjecta. Cone. viii. 
1554. sqq. Col. 9 Ep. Leon, ad Car. Magn. Le Quien. p. vii. 

1 "For I too will not, I say not, prefer myself; far be it from me that 
I should presume to equal myself to them." S. Leo iii. Ep. in Le Q. 
p. viii. 




sent to the Eastern Bishops a confession of faith a on 
the Holy Trinity with the words, 

" The Holy Ghost Who proceedeth equally from 
the Father and Son, consubstantial with the Father 
and Son. The Father whole God in Himself; The 
Son whole God, begotten by the Father ; the Holy 
Spirit whole God, proceeding from the Father and 

and no exception was taken against it. The unhappy 
Photius gave it as an excuse for the great schism. 
" He, one and the same," says a writer on the Greek 
side s , "both set himself to divide the Churches, using 
the difference of doctrine as a colour, and again made 
the agreement of the Churches the price of his private 
advantage." Yet from his deposition A.D. 886 to, at 
least, A.D. 1199, East and West retained their own 
expression of faith, without schism 4 . 

Cerularius did not at first object to the Latins any 
matter of faith, hut says that, " s expressly acknowledg- 
ing the life-originating and consubstantial Holy Trinity 
and the Incarnation of our Lord God and Saviour 
Jesus Christ, they stumbled in this one only thing 
that they used unleavened bread at the oblation." 

A.D. 1077 Theophylact excepted, not to the faith 
contained m the words but only to their insertion 
in the Creed. 

" 6 In all besides, I will allow you to use this word, 
the proceeding of the Spirit from the Father and the 

2 See Le Q,u. p. viii. 

3 G. Scholarius de process. Sp. S. cont. Lat, c. 4. Le Q,u. p. xi. 

4 Peter oLAntioch, about A. 1054, says that he had heard the name of 
the Roman Pontiff recited from the diptychs at the Mass at Constanti- 
nople, 45 years before. Le Quien. p. xii. 

5 Peter Antioch. Ep. ad Domin. Grad. n. 7. Coteler Eccl. Gr. Monum. 
T. ii. p. 117. 

6 in Joann. Vecc. Orat. i. dc union. Eccl. Le Q. p. xvii. 



Son, as speech enableth thee; I mean, in common 
discourses, and ecclesiastical homilies; in the Symbol 
alone I will riot grant thee." 

Nicetas, in the course of his conference with Anselm 
of Havelberg, about 1149, said that the Latin doc- 
trine was not unreasonable, but objected apparently 
to the insertion of the words 7 . 

In 1155 Basil Achridcnus wrote to Adrian II, that 
the schism had arisen on account of some " 8 stumbling 
blocks of slight moment." The Bishops in the time 
of the Emperor John Ducas A.D. 1249 proposed that 
" 9 the interpolation should be put out of the Creed 
but might be retained and used in any other form." 
A.D. 1256 Alexander IY rehearsed the terms of union 
proposed to his predecessor Innocent IY. who dis- 
approved indeed that this article of the Mcene Creed 
( Ul in which the Greek Church seems to disagree 
a very little from the Roman") was excepted from 
the Council to be held, but granted that 

"in the approaching Council the tenor of the 
aforesaid Creed should not be changed except by 
mutual consent, which, we hope, the harmony of 
reconciliation will bring, but should, in the Greek 
Church, remain in that form, in which the Synod 
aforesaid promulgated it, provided that, as to the 
faith in the Holy Trinity the Greek Church have 
throughout the same Catholic Faith [in omnibus 
catholice consentiat] as the Roman." 

i Even at the beginning of the Council of Florence, 

" Le Q. p. xx. from Ans. Havelb. c. Gr. ii. 2. Spicil. T. i. 
8 fipaxta riva 7rpo?/co/x/xaTa, Greek in Jur. Gr. Rom. v. 30?, Lat. in 
Baron. A. 1155. Le Qu. lb. ,J Pacliymeres v. 12. 

1 Le Q. p. xxi. from Wading i. 147, Regest. Lib. ii. Ep. 325. 



Mark of Ephesus, who in the end made it fruitless, 

" 2 Efface it from the confession of faith and place 
it where you will, and let it be sung in the Churches 
as the hymn, ' The Only-Begotten Word of God, being 
immortal.' " 

The conference at Florence made much impression 
on all the Greeks except Mark of Ephesus. The 
Patriarch who had been averse to the Latin formula, 
gave his vote in writing thus, 

" 3 Since we have heard the sayings of the holy 
Eastern and Western fathers, some saying, that the 
Holy Spirit proceedeth from the Father and the Son, 
others, that He is from the Father through the Son, 
(although the 'through the Son' is the same as 'from 
the Son/ and 'from the Son' is the same as ' through 
the Son,') yet we, leaving the 'from the Son' say 
that the Holy Spirit proceedeth from the Father 
through the Son eternally and essentially as from 
origin and cause, the ' through ' designating ' cause ' 
in the procession of the Holy Spirit." 

To all this the Bishops assented, except five; among 
them, Mark of Ephesus. Syropulus says that the 
Patriarch had told him why he had subscribed to the 

"that the writings of the Western fathers were 
genuine ; that he had read Athanasius, affirming the 
same; also Cyril in various places; Epiphanius too, 
whose words were so express, that Joseph 4 , Monk 
and Doctor, once owned candidly, that he had what 
to answer to passages of other fathers, but to the 
Saint himself, nothing." 

2 Le Qu. p. xxvi. from Mich. Due. Hist. c. 32. 

8 Syropulus sect. 9. c. 9. Le Qu. p. xxviii. 

4 Bp. of Methone probably, A.D. 1440, who wrote Responsio ad libellum 
Marci Ephesii, inserted in App. to Council of Florence Cone, xviii. 
p. 690. 



The Decree of the Council, in declaring the identity 
of the meaning of the two formulaD, seems to be 
framed on one of George Scholarius, afterwards a 
great enemy of the Council, in which he draws out 
the Latin side very clearly, but leaves ambiguities in 
the Greek statement. 

" 5 Since we Greeks heretofore thought, that the 
Latins affirmed, that the Holy Spirit proceeded from 
the Father and the Son, as from two Principles or 
Spirations, and therefore did not affirm that the 
Father was the principle and fountain of the whole 
Deity of Son and Holy Spirit, therefore we have 
abstained from the addition or word which they 
added, for explanation, to the Creed, and likewise 
from their Communion. But we being collected 
into this second and (Ecumenical Synod, by the sin- 
gular grace of God, to bring about a holy union, 
after many questions and discussions had and venti- 
lated, and very many testimonies being produced 
both from Holy Scripture and the holy doctors of 
the Church, we the Latins profess, that we do not 
say that the Spirit proceedeth from the Father and 
the Son, meaning to exclude the Father from being 
Principle and Fount of the whole Godhead of the 
Son and Holy Spirit, or as believing that the Son 
did not receive from the Father, that the Holy Spirit 
proceeded from the Son, or as setting forth two prin- 
ciples or two productions of the Holy Spirit; but 
we confess that the Holy Spirit eternally emanated 
from the Father and the Son, as from one Principle 
and by one Production : in like way, we Greeks as- 
sert that the Holy Spirit proceedeth from the Father, 
and is the own Spirit of the Son, and is poured forth 
from Him, and we professed and believed that He is 
poured forth by Both Substantially, viz. by the Fa- 
ther through the Son." 

Scholarius shewed that he clearly understood the 
Latin doctrine, and that it was not open to the impu- 
tations of Photius ; but on the side of the Greeks he 

3 Syrop. n. 8. Le Qu. p. xxvii. xxviii. 





i I. 


i ! 

repeated only unexplained sayings of some Greek 
fathers, capable by themselves of being understood 
without any reference to the Eternal Being of God, 
and perhaps the more so, as standing in contrast with 
the definite statements which he had put into the 
mouth of the Latins. On being asked to explain, 
Scholarius made no answer, and soon after left the 
Council. The Greeks answered that the "Westerns 
rejected the sayings of the Fathers. They were only 
asked, in what sense they used them ; e. g. whether 
they understood the "pouring forth" to be from eter- 
nity, and to relate to Substance and Person ; what 
they meant by "pouring forth," whether it meant the 
same as to " proceed " &c. 

The Council adopted the statements of Scholarius 
only leaving out what was ambiguous : 

" 6 Seeing that in this holy (Ecumenical Council by 
the grace of Almighty God we Latins and Greeks 
have come together for an holy union to be made be- 
tween us, and have taken diligent care one with 
another, that that Article on the Procession of the 
Holy Ghost should be discussed with' great care and 
diligent enquiry : testimonies too havingbeen brought 
forward from the Divine Scriptures and full many 
authorities of holy Doctors Eastern and Western, 
some saying that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the 
Father and the Son, others from the Father through 
the Son, and all intending the same meaning under 
different words : We the Greeks have declared that 
what we say, that the Holy Ghost proceeds of the 
Father, we do not say with intent of excluding the 
Son : but, because we thought that the Latins said 
that the Holy Ghost is of the Father and the Son as 
of two origins and two Spirations, we have abstained 
from saying that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the 
Father and the Son. And we the Latins affirm that 

6 Cone. t. xviii. 1 146. ed. Col. 



what we say, that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the 
Father and the Son, we do not say in the sense of 
excluding the Father from being the Source of all 
Godhead, of the Son, that is, and the Holy Ghost : or 
that this, that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the 
Son, the Son hath not from the Father, or in the 
sense of affirming that there are two Sources or two 
Spirations, but we affirm that there is One sole 
Source and Only Breathing of the Holy Ghost, as 
heretofore we have asserted." 

De Turrecremata even proposed to anathematise 
the heresy imputed to the Latins : 

" 7 We follow the Apostolic See, we know that 
there is one Cause of the Son and the Holy Spirit 

the Father, Therefore the Roman Church doth 

not believe two Principles or two Causes, but One 
Principle and Oae Cause. Bat those who assert two 
Principles or two Causes we anathematise." 

The Latins have not accused the Greeks of heresy ; 
hut individuals of them certainly have been heretics, 
denying the mode of the being of God. For denying 
the eternal Procession of the Holy Ghost through the 
Son, and, after the example of the Monothelites 8 , li- 
miting the words, by which the Fathers declared it, 
to' His temporal mission after our Lord's Ascension 9 , 

7 Le Qu. p. xxvii. 

3 The Monothelite, Macarius of Antioch, glossed, "the Holy Spirit Who 
proceedeth from the Father and shone forth through the Son/' with the 
words " viz, to men." vi th Gen. Council, Act. 8. Cone. vii. 772. Col., 
whereas in the Fathers all the like words are used of the eternal Pro- 
cession. See Pet. de Trin. vii. 10. 

9 " All who from the time of Cerularius to John Beccus " (who was won 
to the Latin side by Nicephorus Blemmidas, and was Patriarch A.D. 
1272, accordingly above 200 years) "wrote in behalf of the schism, 
with one consent maintained no procession of the Holy Spirit from the 
Father through the Son, except that temporal manifestation or granting 
of spiritual gifts." Le Quien p. xxiii. xxiv. He instances Michael 
Psellus who explained " the Procession through the Son " that He was 
imparted by Him and partaken by all creation; " Nicetas of Nicomedia, 
" given through the Son to sanctify the creature, or, according to others, 
because He passed through the Son to sanctify men ; " or the Bishop 




they do in fact destroy the eternal relation of the 
Third Person of the Adorable Trinity to the Second, 
and conceive of God as existing otherwise than He 
has revealed Himself. It is startling to hear S. Epi- 
phanius or S. Athanasius deny that the Holy Spirit is 
a the Brother of the Son;" it shocks us to have to 
deny, as to God, a relation analogous to one of our 
human relations, which God has not revealed to us 
of Himself. But it is, in our human words, what 
the denial of the eternal Procession of the Holy 
Ghost "from" or "through the Son" comes to. For 
God the Son and God the Holy Ghost issued forth 
from the Father's Being as the Source and Original 
of Each. If then the Holy Ghost had not (which 
these deny) proceeded eternally "through the Son," 
but had proceeded from the Father independently of 
the Son, they had had to each other that relation 
which in our human likeness had been that of bro- 

It would also much impair our idea of the Unity 
of God in the Adorable Trinity, did we conceive of 
Two of the Persons as having no relation to one an- 
other, except an independent relation to the One Fa- 
ther. , The truth of the mutual Inexistence 1 of the 
Three Blessed Persons, which our Lord reveals to us 
by the words, " I am in the Father and the Father 
in Me," "The Father "Who abideth in Me," facilitates 
to us the conception of the simple Unity of God in 
the All -Holy Trinity. The doctrine excludes Arianism 

of Nicomedia " was sent or was given through the Son : " Andronicus 
Camaterus explained even S. Cyril's, that He "was the own Spirit of the 
Son and in Him and from Him" to be " not of His procession, but of His 
mission, gift or supply." lb. 

1 TrepLxuprjaLS. See Petav. de Trin. iv. 16. per totum, Dr. Newman 
notes on S. Athanasius against the Arians, Oxf. Tr. passim. 



on the one side, and Sabellianism on the other; "nei- 
ther confounding the Persons, nor dividing the Sub- 
stance." The Fathers had most occasion to dwell 
upon this against the Arians. In our human mode 
of existence, the father is external to the son, and 
the breath from the breather. In God, all is within 
Himself, in the absolute unity and simplicity of His 

" How/' asks S. Cyril 2 , " could God be conceived 
as being One, if each Person withdrew into an entire 
individuality, and, wholly removed from the essential 
union and mutual relation, were called God ? " 

" 3 In no way can there be imagined any division 
or separation, so that the Son could be conceived of 
without the Father, or the Spirit be disjoined from 
the Son. — But in Them is apprehended a certain at 
once communion and disjunction beyond words or 
thought." " * They are united, not so as to be con- 
fused, but as to cohere together ; and they have In- 
existence in each other, without any commingling 
or confusion ; nor are they parted from one another, 
or divided in essence, according to the division of 
Arius. But to speak concisely, Deity is, in Separate, 
Inseparate 5 . 

" 6 In the Godhead we confess one Nature, but say 
that there are in truth three Persons, and we say, 
that all which is of nature and essence is simple, but 
we acknowledge the difference of Persons in these 
three properties only ; the being Uncaused and Fa- 
ther; or caused and Son; or caused and Proceeding; 
but we know that they go not forth apart from Each 
other, and are inseparate and united, and inexist un- 
confusedly in Each other, and are united without 
confusion (for They are Three although they are 
united) and are, without division, distinct. For al- 
though Each exists by Himself, i. e., is perfectly a 
Person, and has His own property, i. e., His own 

2 See below p. 53. 3 S. Basil Ep. 38 n. 4. Opp. iii. 118. Ben. 

4 Damascene in Petav. iv. 16. 7. ° a^ipicrros iv fie/xepKr/Atvois. 

6 Damasc. de fid. orth. iii. 5. 

i M 


separate mode of Being, yet they are united in Es-~ 
sence and natural properties, and by their not being 
separated or going apart from the Person of the Fa- 
ther, such are and are called One God." 

"By the natural unity," S. Fulgentius says 7 , "the 
whole Father is in the Son and Holy Spirit, the 
whole Son is in the Father and Holy Spirit, the 
whole Holy Spirit also is in the Father and the Son. 
None of these is external to any one of them, for 
none precedeth another in eternity, or exceeds in 
magnitude, or overpasseth in power." 

and Alcuin 8 : 

" God by the immensity of His Nature filleth and 
containeth the whole creation, and thereby the Fa- 
ther filleth the whole whatever is; the Son the 
whole ; the Holy Spirit the whole. Wherefore also 
the Son and the Holy Spirit are by nature, One. 
The inseparable unity therefore of nature cannot have 
separable Persons. But this nature of Supreme 
Trinity and individual Unity, which Alone is whole 
everywhere, as it hath everywhere inseparable Unity 
of nature or operation, so it cannot receive separation 
of Persons." 

This Inexistence of the Divine Persons, which our 
Divine Lord lays down in the words, "I am in the 
Father and the Father in Me," is essential to any 
intelligent conception of the Divine Unity. The ab- 
sence of the belief in it has been at the root of every 
heresy as to the Holy Trinity. Apart from the 'from' 
or * through,' it is contained in every expression, that 
God the Holy Ghost is "in the Son" "is essentially 
Inexistent in Him," "is in Him and His own," "in 
Him by Nature." 

In the order of the Divine existence, contained in 
the baptismal formula which our Lord prescribed to 

7 de fide ad Petr. c. 1. 

s de Trin. i. 14. 



us, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, the Father, as our 
Lord says, ever inexists in the Son, Who eternally 
and unchangeably has His existence from Him in 
the Immensity of Godhead, and the Father and the 
Son, being One, ever inexist in the Holy Spirit, Who 
is breathed forth from Both. Take away this belief, 
and the Inexistence is gone. Such introduce division 
into the Godhead, a sort of duality of existence, the 
Father being supposed ever to produce the Son by 
Generation, the Holy Ghost by Procession, but God 
the Son and God the Holy Ghost having no relation 
to one another. 

The loss of the "and the Son" would to our un- 
theological practical English mind involve the loss of 
the doctrine of the Trinity. 

It would be a great gift of grace to the Greek 
Church to own that they and their forefathers have 
been mispersuaded, to accuse of heresy the formula 
which their great S. Cyril and S. Epiphanius used so 
naturally, "from the Son." It has been in those 
who inherited the mispersuasion, an unintentional 
false-witness of near 1000 years. 

As for the objection that U9 the Eoman Pontiff should 
not have added anything to the common Creed with- 
out consulting the other Patriarchs, who divide with 
him the rule of the Church ;" 

1. If true, a) the objection would come with a bad 
grace from the Greeks, since at the second General 
Council, in which the clauses as to the Holy Ghost 
were themselves added to the Nicene Creed, one 
Western Bishop alone was present, and he, not as 
any representative of the West. The heresy of Ma- 

9 Le Quien n. 39. p. xix. 



cedonius had its rise and adherents in the East, and 
was remedied by an Eastern Council, which became 
(Ecumenical, only through its reception by the West. 
Else it had remained a Greek Council, being con- 
vened by the Emperor without any concurrence of 
the "Western Church. I) Additions were made to 
the Creed from the first, without any authority of the 
whole. The Apostles' Creed was varied both in 
East and West 1 . Our Lord's lt descent into Hell," 
though universally believed, "does not appear in any 
ancient Creed except that of Aquileia, and is directly 
stated by Euffinus to have been wanting in the Eo- 
man and Oriental Creeds 2 . The * Communion of 
Saints' lying implicitly in 'the Holy Church' is not 
found in any very ancient Greek Creed, and hence 
was not incorporated into the Nicene nor into the 
Athanasian Creed. The earliest place in which it 
occurs is the Gallican Sacramentary of the end of 
the 7th Century." c) The addition was made for the 
satisfaction of minds in the West, without any at- 
tempt to impose it upon the East. The Greeks refused 
to be in communion with the West, unless the West 
gave up the expression of the faith, in its hereditary 
language; the Latins did not attempt to impose the 
addition to the Creed upon the East. 

The objection against altering the common Creed 
would have been valid, had there been manifested 
any intention of forcing it upon the East. But the 
Greeks were on the offensive. The charge of Photius 
was that the Eoman Church in particular and the 
whole Latin-speaking Church generally were guilty 

1 See note P. On the early traces and variations of the Apostles' Creed 
in Tertullian p. 496—507, Oxf. Tr. 2 lb. p. 503 sq. 



herein of heresy ; he explicitly said that the Creed 
was unchanged 3 . The Greeks were expressly ex- 
empted from altering the Creed in case of reunion, 
in the negotiations under Innocent IY 4 : in the Coun- 
cil of Lyons A.D. 1261, Michael Palseologus asked 
"s that, our Church should say the holy Creed as it 
said it before the schism." In the Council of Flo- 
rence, the Greeks declared 6 , "this addition we will 
never receive, but" they added as a concession, "we 
permit you to have it in your Churches, yet not in those 
of the East : and we say, that under the pressure of 
necessity ye expanded the Creed ; and we do not say, 
that that word 'from the Son' is either another faith 
or an addition, but that it is pious and an explana- 
tion of our Creed ; and both Creeds are pious and 
of the same meaning, as ye say it in the Church of 
the Eomans, and as we again say it in the Eastern 
Church, and so let the union be formed." The Em- 
peror had previously laid it down as a condition of 
union. " 7 It being laid down that the Latins should 
neither compel us to add any thing in our holy Creed, 
nor to change any thing of the customs of our 
Church" ; following herein the Patriarch, who " 8 ac- 
cepted the western Saints saying that the Holy Spirit 
is from the Father and the Son ; yet admonishing, 
'only, let us not insert it in our Creed, but retain- 
ing all our customs, be united with them.'" Clement 
VIII decreed 9 that the Greeks [in union with the 
West] should be bound to believe that the Holy 

3 Tract de process. Sp. S. c. Latin, ap. Le Q. n. 26 p. xiv. 
4 See above p. xliii. b in Cone. Lugd. ii. Sess. iv. 

Cone. xiv. 512. Col. . Le Q.. n. 46. p. xxii. 10. 

6 Cone: Flor: Sess. xxvi sub. fin. Cone, xviii. 568. Col. . 

Mb. 493. 8 lb. 492. 

9 Bulla xxxiv. n. 6. Le Q. n. 39. p. xix. 


; ;t? 



1 ** 

}: i 

Spirit proceeds from the Son but should not be bound 
to utter it, unless there were scandal; "wherefore," 
adds Le Quien, "the Greeks who are in union with 
the Eoman Church repeat [A. D. 1710] the Creed 
freely without addition." But — 

2. There was no such formal addition by (c the Eoman 
Pontiff" nor was there any intention to add a word 
to the Creed. It is well known now, that the tradi- 
tion having been lost during the Arian times, the 
third Council of Toledo A.D. 589, which first intro- 
duced the Filioque, believed it to be part of the Creed 
of Constantinople 1 . How they came to think so, we 
know not. "The Procession from the Father and the 
Son" had long been the popular expression of the 
faith of the West, and it seems to have come in 
unawares. It had, probably, been filled in by some 
one, who thought the omission of the Filioque a mis- 
take. Transcribers fill up what they believe to be doc- 
trinal omissions of MSS., which the context shews that 
they supply wrongly in that particular place. From 
Spain, (as is known) the " et Filio" came with the 
chanting of the Creed into France, was A.D. 930 
not admitted by Leo III, and probably was admitted 
at Eome with the Creed, when, at the instance of 
the Emperor Henry II, this was sung there for the 
first time, in A.D. 1014. 

It is strange that the Canon of the Council of 
Ephesus should ever have been construed as restrain- 
ing the Church thereafter from guarding the faith by 
any addition to the Creed of Nice. For Almighty 
God alone could know certainly, whether or no there 
should be any occasion for this in the future of the 

1 Cone. vi. 697. Col. 



Church. The Canon was framed on occasion of 
the Nestorian exposition of faith, which Charisius 
presented to returning Quartodecimans and No- 
vatians 2 . 

The Council forbade to "produce or write or 
compose any other Creed, beside (irapa) that which 
was denned by the holy Fathers collected at Nice," 
and decreed that clergy who should so do should 
be deposed and laity excommunicated. Obviously 
they could not mean to prohibit additions to the 
Creed of Nice. For this would have been to con- 
demn the Fathers of Constantinople, who did add 
to the Nicene Creed and require subscription to 
the Creed so augmented. S. Cyril, who probably 
framed the Canon, explained that what was not 
against the Creed was not beside it. The Ori- 
entals had proposed to S. Cyril as terms of con- 
cord, that he should " do away with all he had 
written in epistles tomes or books, and agree 
with that only faith which had been denned by 
our holy Fathers at Nice." "But," S. Cyril an- 

" 3 we all follow the exposition of faith defined by 
our holy fathers in the city of Nice, sapping abso- 
lutely nothing of the things contained in it. For 
they are all right and unexceptionable, and anything 
curious after that is not safe. But what I have 
rightly written against the blasphemies of Nesto- 
rius no one will persuade me to say that they were 
not done well :" 

and against the imputation that he "had received an 

Cone. Eph. Act. vi. T. iii. p. 1201—1221. Col. 
Ep. 35 ad Acac. Melit. Opp. v. P. 2. 2. p. 110. 



exposition of faith or new Creed, as dishonouring that 
old and venerable Creed," he says 4 , 

" Neither have we demanded of any an exposi- 
tion of faith, nor have we received one newly framed 
by others. For Divine Scripture suffices us, and 
the prudence of the holy fathers, and the symbol of 
faith, framed perfectly as to all right faith. But 
since the most holy Eastern Bishops differed from 
us as to that of Ephesus and were somehow suspected 
of being entangled in the meshes of Nestoi'ius, there- 
fore they very wisely made a defence, to free them- 
selves from blame, and eager to satisfy the lovers 
of the blameless faith, that they were minded to 
have no share in his impiety ; and the thing is far 
from all note of blame. If Nestorius himself, when 
we all held out to him that he ought to condemn 
his own dogmas and choose the truth instead there- 
of, had made a written confession thereon, who would 
say that he framed for us a new exposition of faith ? 
Why then do they calumniate the assent of the most 
holy Bishops of Phoenicia, calling it a new setting 
forth of the Creed, whereas they made it for a good 
and necessary end, to defend themselves and soothe 
those who thought that they followed the innovations 
of Nestorius ? For the holy (Ecumenical Synod ga- 
thered at Ephesus provided, of necessity, that no other 
exposition of faith beside that which existed, which the 
most blessed fathers, speahing in the Holy Ghost, de- 
fined, should be brought into the Ohtirches of God. But 
they who at one time, I know not how, differed from 
it, and were suspected of not being right-minded, 
following the Apostolic and Evangelic doctrines, 
how should they free themselves from this ill-report? 
by silence ? or rather by self-defence, and by mani- 
festing the power of the faith which was in them ? 
The divine disciple wrote, f be ready always to give an 
answer to every one who asketh you an account of 
the hope which is in you/ But he who willeth to do 
this, innovates in nothing, nor doth he frame any 
new exposition of faith, but rather maketh plain to 
those who ask him, what faith he hath concerning 

4 lb. p. 112. 

PREFACE. lvii 

Eulogius of Alexandria, A.D. 581, puts the refuta- 
tion very clearly, answering the Monophysites also ; 

" 5 Again, the madness of heresy blames the 4th 
Council for setting forth an exposition, maintaining 
that any such attempt is wholly precluded by the 
first Council of Ephesus. And yet if, according to 
their idle speech, that Council had altogether for- 
bidden making another definition, it would, before 
all others, have passed a sentence of condemnation 
against itself. For it does define what none before 
it defined. Nay its r\ naff virocrTcicnv evcocrw is a 
definition, not made by the elder Synods. Yea, 
and in the vain speech a false charge is brought 
against the Synod of the 150 holy fathers at Constan- 
nople ; for it, putting down the rebel against the 
Spirit, and adding the theology as to the Holy Spirit 
to the definition expressed at Nice, conjoined it there- 
with. For if the previous Councils, with their addi- 
tions, escape blame, neither will those, after them, 
for the like acts have an unlike condemnation. So 
does this senselessness confuse and distort every- 
thing. For the Council of Ephesus wholly forbade 
that another faith should be set forth, whose dog- 
mas were contrary 6 to that at Nice ; but that, what 
was defined by it being maintained pure and invio- 
late, to add what was required by circumstances was 
what it did itself. And this is the teaching of na- 
ture itself, and the tradition of the Church through- 
out is seen to acquiesce in this. Wherefore also at 
Alexandria, before the Ecumenical Synod was con- 
vened, the divine Cyril having gathered there select 
Bishops and having framed a written statement of 
faith, sent it to Nestorius.'" 

S. Maxlmus had to answer the same imputation 
from the Monophysites, as to " the confession of two 
natures of our Lord" and the term " in two natures," 
in the Council of Chalcedon. He answers, 

" 7 How and with what reason do you accuse the 
holy Council of Chalcedon, although it manifoldly 

5 Eulog. in Phot. Bibl. cod. 230. p. 275, 1. Bekk. 
6 rj<; ivavria ra 86yfiara. 7 OpP- ii> U4> 142. 

If h'i~ 





useth tlie words of the fathers, and abuse it and 
mock it as though it introduced another definition 
of the Faith ? — If the Council of Chalcedon may be 
accused of making another definition of the Faith, 
on account of the words inserted in the Nicene de- 
finition, the same may be said against Cyril also, 
and the 120 fathers [the third and the second Ge- 
neral Council] . How it should not lie against them 
and should lie against this [of Chalcedon] I com- 
prehend not. — For Gregory, the defender of the Faith, 
will not any more escape your accusation against 
those of Chalcedon; rather he will lie under it ex- 
ceedingly, expressing distinctly what was defici- 
ently said as to the Holy Spirit by the Council of 
Nice, ' because/ he says, ' this question had not yet 
been moved.' — If we may speak the truth, all the 
God-elected fathers after the Council of Nice, and 
every Council of orthodox and holy men, did not, 
through the introduction of words of their own, in- 
troduce another definition of the Faith, as you de- 
clare — but they firmly established that one and the 
same faith which was laid down by the 318 fathers, 
elucidating and, as it were, explaining it in detail, 
on account of those who understood it amiss and 
misinterpreted 8 it and its doctrines to their own un- 

It was the habit of Eastern heretics to allege the 
decree of Ephesus, which was framed on occasion of 
an heretical Creed, to protect their own heresies from 

The Western statement of the Procession of the 
Holy Ghost "from the Father and the Son" was 
not, as far as we know, framed as a corrective of any 
heretical teaching ; bnt it has, in the good Providence 
of God, been a great preservative against heresy, 
which would not have been guarded against by the 
Greek formula, "through the Son." For although 

8 S. Maximus contrasts the "additional interpretations" of the Church 
(i7re$rjyovfjLevot) and the "misinterpretations" (7rape£r]yovfxei>oi) of here- 
tics, which may illustrate what was forbidden by the napa of the Coun- 
cil of Ephesus. 



chis, in the language of the Greek fathers, expressed 
the same doctrine, yet it admitted also of a meaning, 
compatible with a denial of the Faith, as contained 
in the Baptismal formula, given us by our Lord. 
The thirst for visible unity has directed itself the 
more towards the Greek Church, since the Eoman 
Church has shut against us what seemed to be a 
half-open door. But therewith there has, among 
some, seemed to be a rising impatience of the " Fi- 
lioque," as though it were the hindrance to an union 
with the Eastern Church. It seemed then expedient 
on occasion of the publication of one of the great and 
most esteemed works of S. Cyril, to bring together, 
from the Greek fathers, some of the evidence of the 
use of the formula, now excepted against by the later 
Greeks since Photius, and especially since the renewal 
of the schism by Cerularius. Middle-age Greek 
writers have surmised that the ground of the pro- 
longed schism was not the doctrine, but "the thrones 9 ," 
Constantinople wishing to have an eminence over the 
other Eastern Patriarchates, which did not belong to 
it, Eome claiming an authority over Constantinople 
and the East, which it did not claim in primitive 
times. There seemed then, the more hope, that 
since this question did not lie between Greece and 
ourselves, they could not, if they would look into the 
question, except against our retaining the expression 
of the faith, which was common to their own fathers. 

9 e. g. "Although the schism is said to have been renewed under 
Sergius, I know not for what reason ; but I think, on account of the 
sees." Nicetas Nicsenus in Le Quien p. xii. The ground of the failure 
of attempts at re-union seems to have been the subjection to Rome in- 
volved. See also " one of their able and moderate writers, Elias Meniates, 
Bishop of Zerniza, towards the end of the 17 th cent., Lapis offensionis, 
L. ii. c. 1. quoted by M. Trevern. Discussion Amicale, T. i. p. 231," in 
Dr. Pusey's Eirenicon i. p. 63. 





i '■ 


"Whether this will be so, He alone lmoweth Who dis- 
poseth the hearts of men. One thing is certain, that 
we must not, in a desire for a premature union, aban- 
don the expression of our faith of at least 1200 years. 
However the faith may be maintained by tradition in 
the East, but, in fact certainly is, more or less widely 
not maintained there 1 , we, by parting with our in- 
herited expression of it, should forfeit the belief it- 
self, and become misbelievers in our God.] 

1 Bessarion, in a declaration appended to his " Oratio dogmatica " at 
the Council of Florence (Cone. T. 18. 465. Col.) says, that "the Greeks 
have four evasions of the force of the word Sta ; i) that the words with 
which it is used, signify only the distribution of His graces and gifts 
to us, and His temporal mission into the world, which they grant to be 
through the Son. ii) Because Father and Son are relative names, and 
that one of two relatives cannot be spoken of, without the other being 
understood; therefore in saying 'from the Father' it is necessary to name 
the Son, on account of the force of the relation, iii) They say that the 
Consubstantiality of the Father and the Son is the reason that the Spirit 
is said to proceed from the Father through the Son ; for since the Father 
and the Son are of the same Substance, when it is said, "from the Father," 
it must needs also be said "from the Son." iv) Because sometimes, but very 
rarely and among poets, (who, for the metre, used words metaphorically 
and inaccurately) they have found the preposition through sometimes to 
have the same sense as with, they say that the Holy Spirit is therefore 
said to proceed from the Father through the Son, because He proceeds 
from the Father together with the Son." These explanations are mani- 
festly alternative, excluding one another, i only takes the through in a 
natural sense, yet alone relates to time ; the rest presuppose that the 
through relates to the Eternal Procession ; but oddly enough, assume 
that through does not mean through ; iv boldly says that through means 
with. They are manifestly the shifts of persons evading the Faith 
expressed by their forefathers by the word. Bessarion shews their 
inapplicability to the passages of the fathers, which they were to explain 
away. Orat. dogm. c. 6. Cone. T. 18. 422. sqq. 

July, 1874. 






THE LORD will give utterance to them who evangelize with Ps. lxviii. 
much power, declareth exceeding well the Psalmist. But I 
deem that they who ought to approach this, are, not mere , 

chance persons, but those who have been illumined with 
the grace that is from above, seeing that both All wisdom Ecdus. % 
is from the Lord, as it is written, and Every good gift and every s. James 
perfect gift is from above and cometh down from the Father 
of lights. For a thing unsure and not unfraught with peril * 

to the many, is the speaking concerning the Essence that is 
above all, and the Mysteries belonging thereunto, and silence < 

on these subjects is free from danger. Us nevertheless albeit 
deeming that we have much need of silence, God Who 
is over all excludes from this, saying to one of the Saints 4u 

(this was Paul), Speak and hold not thy peace. And no less ActsxvMi 
does the ordinance of the Law shew this, indicating things 
spiritual in the grosser type. For it enjoins those who have j^ 
been called to the Divine Priesthood, to declare to the 

people by the sound of trumpets, about those things which Lev.xxiii. 

they ought to learn. For God, when He willed to set forth in 

His laws most excellent things, did not I deem intend that the 

leaders of the people should lay their hand on their mouth, as it Job xl - 4.g| 

is written, and, in fear of appearing rashly to attempt things 

above the mind of man, hold back from the doctrine that is * 

so necessary for those who are being instructed in piety and 

the knowledge of God, andcKoose a silence perilous to those 

who are their disciples. But the Disciple of Christ again * ' 

terrifies us, saying Be not many masters, and moreover the S : James 

VOL. I. B 

Danger of speaking of sacred things, uncalled. 

Intro- most wise Preacher too, darkly shewing the peril that exists 

Eccles. x! in the teaching of such things. For, says he, he that cleaveth 

LXX. wood, shall be endangered thereby ; if the iron head fall, both 

himself hath troubled his face and he shall strengthen powers. 

' * For he likens the keenness of the mind to the iron-head, 

in that it is of a nature to pierce through, and sinks in to the 

^ « innermost parts, even though it be resisted by the thickness 

""" * and close texture of the wood. Wood again he in a figure 

jp £ calls the thoughts that are in Holy Scripture, which render 

p the Books wherein they are a kind of Spiritual Paradise, and 

i j| yet more than' this, full with the fruitfulness that comes of the 

Holy Ghost. He that endeavours therefore to unfold the 

* # spiritual wood, that is the Divine and Mystic thoughts of 
» * Divinely -inspired Scripture by means of insearch, and 

1 m most accurate grasp and keenness of mind, will run very 

deep risk, saith he, when the iron-head slippeth, that is when 

* the mind not carried to a true understanding of the things 

which are written, misses the right perception, and having 

^ t left, as it were, the straight path, is borne on some other way 

of thought turned aside from what is fitting. Whereupon 

^ he will place in jeopardy the face of his soul, that is, his heart, 

* "* and will invigorate against himself the bad opposing powers, 
tf who with their bitter perverse words sophisticate the mind 

JP *V* of those who have gone astray ; not suffering it to behold 

the beauty of truth, but manifoldly perverting it and per- 
suading it to go astray after mad thoughts. For no one 
« Cf l Qjfe calleth Jesus Anathema save in Beelzebub. 

And let no one deem, himself astray, that the exposition 

of the above is astray, or otherwise of false reasoning. For 

Divine Scripture does sometimes, as we said before, call the 

9 thoughts of Holy Scripture wood. And indeed the God 

$ Who is over all says something on this sort through the 

Deut. xx. all-wise Moses to those at that time : When thou shalt besiege a 

t * 19, 20# city a long time, in making war against it to take it, thou shalt 

t not destroy the trees thereof by forcing an axe against them, 

for thou mayest eat of them and thou shalt not cut them down : 

f (is the tree of the forest a man, to go before thee unto the 

palisade ?) Only the trees which thou knowest that they be 



Boohs of heretics, like cities of aliens. 3 

not trees for meat, thou shalt destroy and cut them down. Intro- 
But that the Grod of all would not have deemed it worth to 
prescribe to us such things, if it were to be understood only 
of trees of the earth, is I suppose clear to every one, yet I 
think one ought to shew from another command also that 
He is very unsparing of these, and takes not account of 
them. For what I pray does He enjoin should be done to 
the false-called gods ? Ye shall destroy their altars, saith He, Deut. vii. 
and break down their images, and cut down their groves. ' 
And by His own altar He no way suffers any tree to be cul- 
tivated. For He plainly declares : Thou shalt not plant thee ib.xvi.2i*. 
a grove of any trees near unto the altar of the Lord thy God. 
And if one must add anything to this, I will speak after the 
manner of most wise Paul. Doth God take care for trees ? l Cor. ix. 
or saith He it altogether for our sakes ? by grosser examples ' 
leading us by the hand to the idea of spiritual things. 

Let us now say that the writings of the unholy heretics 
may be considered as cities, and fortified, haply not with- 
out skill, by the wisdom of the world, and the intricate de- 
ceits of their cogitations. There comes to storm them, and 
in some sort environs and sits round them taking the Eph. vi. 
shield of the faith and the sword of the Spirit, which is the ' '' 
word of God, every one who agonizes for the holy dogmas 
of the Church, and sets himself in array with all his strength 
against their false-speaking, studying to cast down imagina- 2 Cor. x. 
tions, as Paul saith, and every high thing that exalteth itself ' 
against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every 
thought to the obedience of Christ. When then, He says, such 
a soldier of Christ compasses, as a land of aliens, the bitter 
writings of heresies, and lights upon the best cultivated trees, 
that is, if he find words from the Divinely-inspired Scripture, 
or things spoken by the Prophets or even testimonies from 
the New Testament, wrested unto their own purpose, let him 
not apply his mental acumen, like a sort of tool, to destroy 
and cut them down. For not because taken hold of by those 
who know not to interpret it aright, is therefore that which 
proceeds of the Mouth of God to be wholly rejected too : but 
since it is fruit-bearing, it shall be to thee rather as a help 

b 2 . 


God accepts the offerings 




Ib. 20. 

Intro- and for food. For turning round unto the right argument 
' of the faith that which is sometimes foolishly taken by them, 
not only shall we not be caught unstrung, but rather are 
we nerved into words against heresy. But he subjoins forth- 
with an argument persuading the hearers, that the onslaught 
of the advocate for the truth should be made, not for the over- 
* throw of the Divine oracles, but for the destruction of what 

5eut. xx. i s non-rightly said by the opponents. For is, it says, the 
tree of the forest a man, to go before thee unto the palisade ? 
For do you suppose, he says, that the utterance of the 

' boly writings, will of its own self rise up against thee to battle, 

like one of the arch-heretics, and is not rather wronged 
by their madness ? Do not then cut it down, says it, 
but let it be to thee as food also; only the trees which 
thou lenowest that they be not trees for meat, thou shalt 
destroy and cut them down. For uneatable by them who 
would think aright, is the fruit of those men's writings : 
against them let every tool come : there let the might of the 
spiritual wood-men be shewn, upon them let the axe of 
strength in advocacy glitter. For the uselessness and un- 
profitableness of the babbling of the heterodox the Prophet 
Hosea also most excellently interprets to us saying : A stalk 
having no strength to yield meal ; if so be it yield, the strangers 
» shall swallow it up. For they that are diligent to estrange 

themselves from friendship with God, shall feast themselves 
on the weak and old-wife tale of those people's unlearning. 
As then I was saying at the beginning (for I think we must 
go back to that), most exceeding hard is the exposition of the 
Divine mysteries, and better perchance were silence, but since 
thy much speech persuadeth us, O most labour-loving bro- 

Heb. xiii. ther, to offer the work, as a sort of fruit of our Ups, and 
spiritual sacrifice, this too will I not shrink from doing, en- 
couraging myself in God who maketh wise the blind, and 
seeketh at our hands not surely that which is above us, but 
accepteth equally the offerings of poor men. For him that 
would offer a gift for a burnt-sacrifice to the Lord, as is put 
in the beginning of Leviticus, the lawgiver having enjoined 

Lev.i.3-9. an offering of the herd and having moreover herein set down 

viii- 7. 

of poor men. 5 

the measure of the honour of the type, he again lowers it, say- **™^ 
ing that they who cannot attain to this, should sacrifice of Lev. i. 10, 
the flock. And well did he know that sad and inexorable 
poverty will render some powerless even to this : therefore 
he says, he shall bring his offering of turtledoves or of young lb. 14. 
pigeons. But him that comes yet short of these too, and ap- 
proaches with the most insignificant offerings, he honours. 
For says he, his offering shall be fine flour, defining an offering Ib.ii. 1. 
easily procurable I suppose by every one and not too op- ^ 
pressive to the deepest poverty. For the lawgiver well 
knew (I think) that better and more excellent is it to bear 
fruit even a little, than to be wholly bereft of it and through 
shame of seeming to come short of others' gifts, to rush for- 
ward to the conclusion that it needs not to honour the Lord 
of all. 

Persuaded then with reason by all these things, and hav- 
ing dismissed from my mind unreadiness, the ally of silence, 
I will deem it my duty to honour my Lord with what I have, 
discourse wholesome and joyous to the readers, like fine 
flour bedewed with oil: and we will begin the Book of lb. ii. l. 
John, taking in hand an exceeding great work, yet by rea- 
son of faith, not unstrung. And that we shall say and think 
less than is meet, we must unhesitatingly confess. But the 
great difficulty of the book, or to speak more truly, the 
weakness of our understanding, will persuade us to ask meet 
pardon for this. 

Turning about on every hand our discourse to the more 
dogmatical exposition, we will set it in array, according to 
our power, against the false doctrines of them that teach 
otherwise, not stretching it forth to its full extent, but even 3- 
retrenching superfluity, and studying to render it not lack- 
ing fitness. The subjoined subscription of the chapters, 
will shew the subjects over which our discourse extends, 
to which we have also annexed numbers, that what is sought 
may be readily found by the readers. 






" i 

Chapter 1. That Everlasting and before the ages is the Only- 
Begotten, on the words, In the beginning- was the Word. 

Chapter 2. That the Son being Consubstantial with the Father is 
also God in His own Person, even as also the Father, on the words, 
And the Word was with God. 

Chapter 3. That the Son is also God by Nature, in nowise 
either inferior to, or unlike the Father, on the words, And the 
Word was God. 

Chapter 4. Against those who dare to say, that the conceived and 
natural Word in God the Father is one, and He that is called Son 
by the Divine Scriptures another (such is the misconceit of 
Eunomius' party), on the words, This was in the beginning with 

Chapter 5. That the Son is by Nature Creator with the Father, 
as being of His Essence, and not taken to Him as a minister, 
on the words, All things were made by Him. 

Chapter 6. That the Son is by Nature Life, and therefore not 
originate, but of the Essence of God the Father, on the words, 
That which was made, in it was Life. 

Chapter 7. That the Son is \>y Nature Light, and therefore not 
originate, but of the Essence of God the Father as Very Light" 
from Very Light, on the words, And the Life was the Light of 

Chapter 8. That the Son of God alone is Very Light, the creature 
not at all, being participate of Light, as originate, on the words, 
He was the Very Light. 

Chapter 9. That the soul of man does not exist prior to the body, 
nor is the embodiment a consequence of former sins, as some say, 
on the words, He was the Very Light which lighteth every man 
that cometh into the world: He was in the world. 

Chapter 10. That the Only-begotten is alone by Nature the Son 
from the Father, as being of Him and in Him, on the words, 
No man hath seen God at any time. 






Archbishop of Alexandria. 


Exact of a truth, and God-taught is the mind of the holy 
Evangelists, from the splendour of their power to behold, 
as from some lofty mountain-spur and watch-peak, on 
all sides observing what is of profit to the hearers, 
and tracking with intent zeal whatever may seem to be 
of profit to those who thirst after the truth of the Divine 
dogmas and with good purpose search after the mind 
that is hidden in the Divine Scriptures. For not in those 
who search too curiously, and take pleasure in the many- 
tangled wiles of reasonings, rather than rejoice in the truth, 
does the Spirit make His revelation, since neither does He 
enter into a malicious soul, nor otherwise does He suffer His 
precious pearls to be rolled at the feet of swine. But with 
exceeding pleasure does He have fellowship with simpler 
minds, as having a more guileless motion 1 , and shunning 
superfluous subtleties, whereto specially pertains the meet- 
ing with sudden fear, and from too great turning aside unto 
the right hand to err from the straight and royal road. For 
he that waTketh simply walketh surely, as saith Solomon. 

But while the holy Evangelists have a marvellous exact- 
ness in writing (for it is not they that speak, as the Saviour 
saith, but the Spirit of the Father which is in them) : reason- 
ably may one grant that the Book of John has been composed 
beyond all marvel, looking both to the supereminence of his 
thoughts, the keenness of his intellect, and the constant and 

Wisdom i. 

S. Matt. 
vii. 6. 


Prov. x.y. 


"$. Jb/m writes on the Son's Eternal Generation. 

Book I. 

S. Luke 


Isaiah xl 

1 Tim. vi. 

S. Lukei 


Infra i. 1 

close-succeeding cumulation of conceptions. For course- 
fellows are they one with, another in the exposition of the 
Divine dogmas,, and loosing as it were from the starting line 
they course charioteers to one goal. But a diverse fashion 
of speech is wrought out by them, and they appear to me to 
resemble persons, who are ordered to come together unto 
one city, but care not to approach it by one and the same 
beaten road. Thus one may see the other Evangelists with 
great exactness giving the account of our Saviour's 
genealogy in the Flesh, and bringing down step by step 
those from Abraham unto Joseph, or again carrying 
up those from Joseph to Adam. But we find the blessed 
John not caring to be over- studious about these, but with a 
most fervent and fire-full motion of intellect endeavouring 
to lay hold of those very things that are above human mind, 
and daring to explain the unspeakable and unutterable Gene- 
ration of God the Word. For he knew that the glory of 
God hideth speech, and greater than our idea and utterance is 
the God-befitting dignity, and hard to utter and most diffi- 
cult of unfolding are the properties of the Divine Nature. 

But since it was necessary in some sort to mete out hea- 
ven with the span, and to suffer the scant measures of human 
nature to approach to what is by all unattainable and hard to 
be explained, that the approach might not be opened out for 
, those who teach otherwise to come against the more simple, 
_ in that no voice of the saints who have been eyewitnesses and 
ministers of the word held in check their ill-surmisings, 
keen comes he to the very essence of the Divine dogmas, 
, crying aloud, In the beginning was the Word, and th$. Word 
was with God and the Word was God : the Same was in the 
beginning with God. 

But I think that those who are engaged on the Holy 
Scriptures ought to admit all writings that are honest and 
good and free from harm. For thus collecting together the 
varied thoughts of many and bringing them together into 
one scope and understanding, they will mount up to a good 
measure of knowledge, and imitating the bee, wise work- 
woman, will compact the sweet honeycomb of the Spirit. 

Origin of S. John writing his Gospel. 

Some then of those of most research, say that after our 
Saviour's Cross and Ascension into Heaven, certain false 
shepherds and false teachers falling like wild beasts on the 
Saviour's flocks terrified them not a little, speaking out of 
their own heart, as it is written, and not out of the mouth of the 
Lord ; yea rather, not merely out of their own heart, but out 
of the teachings of their own father, I mean the devil. For 
if no one can call Jesus Anathema, save in Beelzebub, how 
is not what we say of them clearly true ? What things then 
are they which these men belched forth against their own 
head? They ignorantly and impiously affirmed that the 
Only-Begotten Word of God, the Eternal Light, in Whom 
we both move and are, was then first called into being, 
when He was born Man of the Holy Virgin, and taking this 
our common fashion, shewed Himself upon earth, as it is writ- 
ten, and conversed with men. On those then who are thus 
disposed, and who dare to slander the ineffable and eternal 
Generation of the Son, the word of the Prophet comes heavily, 
saying thus : But draw near hither, ye sons of the sorceress, the 
seed of the adulteress and the whore, against whom do ye sport 
yourselves ? against whom make ye a wide mouth and draw 
out the tongue ? not bringing forth good things out of a 
good heart, but spueing forth the venom of the blood-defiled 
dragon, of whom saith the Psalmist unto the one God 
That is over all : Thou bralcest the heads of the dragons 
in the waters. • 

But since there was no slight disturbance in regard to 
these things amongst them that had believed, and the ill of 
the scandal thereof was consuming like a plague the souls 
of the simpler (for some drawn away from the true doctrines 
by their prattle imagined that the Word was then barely 
called to the beginning of Being, when He became Man), 
those of the believers who were wiser being assembled and 
met together, came to the Disciple of the Saviour (I mean 
this John) and declared the disease that was pressing upon 
the brethren, and unfolded to him the prattle of them that 
teach otherwise, and besought that he would both strenuously 
assist themselves with the illumination through the Spirit, 

•Book I. 

Jer. xxiii. 

1 Cor. xii. 

Acts xvii. 

iii. 37. 



Ps. lxxiv. 

10 8. John begins with the Son's Eternal Generation. 

Book I. and stretch forth a saving hand to those who were already 
within the devil's meshes. 

The disciple grieving then over them that were lost and 
corrupted in mind, and at the same time thinking it most 
unnatural to take no forethought for those that should succeed 
and come after, betakes himself to making the book : and 
the more human side, the genealogy of the legal and natural 
Birth according to the flesh, he left to the other Evange- 
lists to tell at fuller length ; himself with extreme ardour and 
courage of soul springs upon the prattle of those who are 
introducing such things, saying, in the beginning was 


That Everlasting and before the ages is the Only-Begotten. 

What do they say to this [namely, In the beginning was 
the Word] who introduce to us the Son, as one new and of 
late, that so He may no longer be believed to be even God 
at all. For, says the Divine Scripture, there shall no new God Ps. lxxxi. 
be in thee. How then is He not new, if He were begotten in " ■ 
the last times ? How did He not speak falsely when He 
said to the Jews, Verily I say unto you, Before Abraham was, Infra viii. 
I am ? For plain is it and confessed by all, that many ages 
after the blessed Abraham was Christ born of the Holy 
Virgin. How at all will the words was in the beginning re- 
main and come to anything, if the Only-Begotten came into 
being at the close of the ages ? See I pray by the following 
arguments too how great absurdity, this cutting short the 
Eternal Being of the Son, and imagining that He came into 
being in the last times, yields. 

But this same word of the Evangelist shall be proposed 
again for a finer test : 

In the Beginning was the Word. 

Than the beginning is there nothing older, if it have, re- 
tained to itself, the definition of the beginning (for a begin- 
ning of beginning there cannot be) ; or it will wholly depart 
from being in truth a beginning, if something else be ima- 
gined before it and arise before it. Otherwise, if any- 
thing can precede what is truly beginning, our language 
respecting it will go off to infinity, another beginning ever 
cropping up before, and making second the one under 

There will then be no beginning of beginning, according 
to exact and true reasoning, but the account of it 1 will re- ' & *jpl 
cede unto the long-extended and incomprehensive. And \6yos. 

12 "Beginning" the mostbackward 'pointthatthoughtcanreach. 


1 m 

Book I. since its ever-backward flight has no terminus, and reaches 
up to the limit of the ages, the Son will be found to 
have been not made in time, but rather invisibly existing 
with the Father : for in the beginning was He. But if 
He was in the beginning, what mind, tell me, can over-leap 
the force of the was ? When will the was stay as at 
its terminus, seeing that it ever runs before the pursuing 
♦ reasoning, and springs forward before the conception that 
follows it ? 

Astonishment-stricken whereat the Prophet Isaiah says, 
Who shall declare His generation ? for His Life is lifted from 
the earth. For verily lifted from the earth is the tale of the 
generation o.f the Only-Begotten, that is, it is above all un- 
derstanding of those who are on the earth and above all rea- 
son, so as to be in short inexplicable. But if it is above 
our mind and speech, how will He be originate, seeing that 
our understanding is not powerless to clearly define both as 
to time and manner things originate ? 

liii. 8. 

"* To look in another way at the same, In the Beginning" was 

the Word. 

It is not possible to take beginning, understood in any 
way of time, of the Only-Begotten, seeing that He is before 
all time and hath His Being before the ages,. and, yet more, 
the Divine Nature, shuns the limit of a terminus. For It 
will be ever the same, according to what is sung in the 

Ps.cii. 27. Psalms, But Thou art the Same and Thy years shall have 
no end. From what beginning then measured in respect 
of time and dimension will the Son proceed, Who endureth 
not to hasten to any terminus, in that He is God by 

Infra xiv. Nature, and therefore crieth, lam the Life ? For no beginning 
will ever be conceived of by itself that does not look to its 
own end, since beginning is so called in reference to end, 
end again in reference to beginning. But the beginning we 
are pointing to in this instance is that relating to time and 
dimension. Hence, since the Son is elder than the ages them- 
selves, He will be free of any generation in time ; and He 
ever was in the Father as in a Source, according to that which 

Examples of co -existence and in-existence together. 13 


He Himself said, I came forth from the Father and am come. Chap. I. 
The Fatter tli en being considered as the Source, the Word was *g fra XV1 * 
in Him, being His Wisdom and Power and Express Image 
and Radiance and Likeness. And if there was no time 
when the Father was without Word and Wisdom and Express 
Image and Radiance, needs is it to confess too that the Son 
Who is all these to the Everlasting Father, is Everlasting. 
For how at all is He Express Image, how Exact Likeness, 
except He be plainly formed after that Beauty, Whose Like- 
ness He also is ? 

Nor is it any objection to conceive of the Son being in 
the Father as in a Source : for the word source here only 
means the " whence." But the Son is in -the Father,. 
and of the Father, not as made externally, nor in time, but 
being in the Essence of the Father and flashing forth from 
Him, as from the sun its radiance, or as from fire its in- 
nate <heat. For in such examples, one may see one thing 
generated of another, but yet ever co-existing and inseparable, 
so that one cannot exist of itself apart from the other, and 
yet preserve the true condition of its own nature. For 
how can there be sun which has not radiance, or how 
radiance without sun being within to irradiate it? how 
fire, if it have not heat ? whence heat, save from fire, or from 
some other thing not removed from the essential quality of 
fire ? As then in these, the in-existence of the things that 
are of them does not take away their co-existence, but in- 
dicates the things generated ever keeping pace with their 
generators and possessed of one nature so to speak with 
them, so too is it with the Son. For even if He be conceived 
and said to be in the Father and of the Father, He will not 
come before us as alien and strange and a Being second to Him, 
but as in Him and co- existing ever, and shining forth from 
Him, according to the ineffable mode of the Divine generation. 

But that God the Father is spoken of by the saints too as 
the Beginning of the Son in the sense only of "whence," hear 
the Psalmist through the Holy Ghost foretelling the second 
Appearance of our Saviour and saying as to the Son : With Ps. ex. 3. 
Thee the Beginning in the Day of Thy Power in the beauty of 


Beginning " may also mean Sovereignty. 

Book I. Thy Saints. For the day of the Son's Power is that whereon 
He shall judge the world and render to every one according 
to his works. Yerily shall He then come, Himself in the 
Father, and having in Himself the Father, the so to say 
unbeginning Beginning of His Nature in regard only to the 
" whence/'' by reason of His Being of the Father. 


If \U 

• r 

I ; 


I ; 


In the Beginning was the Word. 

Unto many and various ideas does our discourse respect- 
ing the here signified beginning diversify itself, on all sides 
zealous to capture things that tend to profit, and after the 
manner of a hound, tracking the true apprehension of the 
Infra v.39. Divine dogmas, and exactitude in the mysteries. For search, 
saith the Saviour, the Holy Scriptures, for in them ye think 
ye have eternal life, and they are they which testify of Me. 
The Blessed Evangelist, then, seems here to name the 
Father 'Ap%?) a , that is the Power over all, that the Divine 
Nature Which is over all may be shewn, having under Its 
feet every thing which is originate, and borne above those 
things which are by It called into being. 

In this 'Ap^rj then that is above all and over all was the 
Word, not, with all things, under Its feet, but apart from all 
things, in It by Nature as Its Co-Eternal Fruit, having the 
Nature of Him Who begat Him as it were a place the most 
ancient of all. Wherefore He Begotten Free of Free Father, 
'Apxh will with Him possess the Sovereignty 2 over all. What 
then now too will be the nature of the argument in this, it 
is meet to see. 

Hazardful have certain, as we said above, asserted that 
the Word of God was then first called into being, when tak- 
ing the Temple that is of the Holy Virgin He became Man 
for us. What then will be the consequence, if the Son's 
Nature be thus, or originate and made and of like nature 
with all things else, to which birth out of not being, and the 
name and fact of servitude, are rightfully and truly predi- 
cated ? For what of things that are made can with im- 
punity escape servitude under the Grod That is Lord of all ? 

a Taking 'Apxb to include its meaning of Sovereignty. 


" Was " prior to any beginning. 


what does not stoop under the sovereignty and power and Chap. I. 
lordship that is over all, which Solomon himself too signi- 
fies to us when he says, For the throne of Sovereignty is Prov. xvi. 
established with righteousness ? For ready and exceeding pre- 
pared unto righteousness is the Throne of the Sovereignty, 
that I mean which is over all. And what throne that is of 
which we are now speaking, hear God saying by one of the 
Saints, The Heaven is My Throne. Ready therefore unto Isa.lxvi.5. 
righteousness is the Heaven, that is, the holy spirits in the 

Since then one must needs confess that the Son is 
with the rest of- the creatures subject to God the Fa- 
ther, as having the position of a servant, and together 
with the rest falling under the authority of the 'Ap^r), if He 
be according to them late in Birth and one of those who 
have been made in time : — of necessity does the Blessed 
Evangelist spring with energy on those who teach otherwise, 
and withdraw the Son from all bondage. And he shews 
that He is of the Essence that is Free and Sovereign over all, 
and declares that He is in Him by Nature saying, In the 
beginning was the Word. 

But to the word 'Ap^ he fitly annexes the was, that He 
may be thought of as not only of renown, but also before 
the ages. For the word was is here put, carrying on the 
idea of the thinker to some deep and incomprehensible Ge- 
neration, the Ineffable Generation that is outside of time. 
For that was, spoken indefinitely, at what point will it rest, 
its nature being ever to push forward before the pursuing 
mind, and whatever point of rest any might suppose that it 
has, that it makes the starting point of its further course ? 
The Word was then in the 'Ap^, that is in Sovereignty 
over all things, and possessing the dignity of Lord, as 
being by Nature from It. But if this be true, how is He 
any longer originate or made ? And where the was wholly 
is, how will the " was not " come in, or what place will it 
have at all as regards the Son ? 



I.- jj: 







That the Son being Consubstantial with the Father is also God in 
His Own Person, even as also the Father. 

And the Word was with God. 

Having- sufficiently shewn that already out of date and as- 
tray from the truth is the senseless mind of those who hold 
such opinions, and having, by saying In the beginning was 
the Word, closed every loophole to those who say that the 
Son is of the things that are not, and having utterly stripped 
off all their nonsense in these words, he goes to another akin 
and most perverse heresy. And like as some gardener at 
once most excellent and enduring, delights much in the toils 
of the mattock, and girding his loins, and in the working- 
dress befitting him, gives all diligence to present the appear- 
ance of his park free from the unseemliness of thorns, and 
ceases not throwing one upon another, and, ever going round 
about, removes the troublesome root, applying the stern 
tooth of the mattock ; so the blessed John too, bearing in his 
iv. mind the quick and powerful and most sharp word of God 
and considering with keenest glance and clearest attention 
the bitter shoots of the naughtiness of those who think 
otherwise, comes upon them so to speak at a run, and with 
mighty resolution cuts them off on every side, to those who 
read his books ministering defence in the right faith. 

For see now again I pray, the vigilance of this bearer with- 
in him of the Spirit. He taught in the foregoing, that the 
Word was in 'Apxv> that is, in God the Father, as we said. 
But since, with the eye of his understanding illumined, he was 
not ignorant, as we may suppose, that certain would arise, 
of their great ignorance saying that the Father and Son are 
one and the same, and distinguishing the Holy Trinity only 

The Father and Son distinct in Person. 


by name, but not suffering; Them to exist in Their several Chap - H- 

CAP, i« 1, 

Persons, so that the Father should be conceived of as in 
truth Father and not Son, the Son again to be by Himself 
Son, not Father, as the word of truth is : — needs against 
this heresy too as already confronting him, and mooted at that 
time, or about so to be, does he arm himself, and for its de- 
struction, by the side of In the beginning was the Word he 
puts forthwith, And the Word was with God : every where 
adding of necessity the was on account of His Generation be- 
fore the ages, yet by saying that the Word was with God, 
shewing that the Son is One, having existence by Himself, 
God the Father again, with Whom was the Word, Another. 
For how can that which is one in number be conceived of 
as itself with itself, or beside itself? 

But that the reasoning of the heretics about these things 
also will be found without learning, we will teach by the 
considerations below, making an exact test of the questions 
regarding it. 

Proof by demonstration and Scripture testimonies, that the 
Father is in His Own Person, and the Son likewise, the 
Holy Ghost being counted with Them as God, even though 
nothing is for the present enquired into regarding Him. 

Consubstantial is the Son with the Father and the Father 
with the Son, wherefore They arrive at an unchangeable 
Likeness, so that the Father is seen in the Son, the Son in 
the Father, and Each flashes forth in the Other, even as the 
Saviour Himself says, He that hath seen Me hath seen the Infra 

. xiv% 9. 

Father, and again, I in the Father and the Father in Me. But ib. id. 
even though He be in the Father, and have again the Father 
in Him, Himself full well, as has been already said, perfectly 
exact unto the Form of Him Who begat Him, and depicting 
again in Himself without any shortcome, the Father whence 
He is : — not therefore will He be deprived of His separate ex- 
istence, nor will the Father lose His own special Being ; but 
neither will the surpassing Likeness and Resemblance work 
any confusion of Persons, so that the Father Who begat and 
the Son Who is Begotten of Him should be considered as one 
vol. i. c 


The Father and the Son One in Essence, 



Book I. in number. But sameness of Nature will be confessed of 
Both, yet the Individual Existence of Each will surely 
follow, so that both the Father should be conceived of as 
indeed Father, and the Son as Son. For thus, the Holy Ghost 
being numbered with them and counted as. God, the Holy 
and Adorable Trinity will have Its Proper Fullness. 

Another. If the Son Himself is Father too, what place 
has the distinction of names ? For if He begat not at all, 
why is He called Father ? How Son, if He were not begot- 
ten of the Father? For the Names ask as of necessity 
such an idea regarding them. But since the Divine 
Scriptures preach that the Son was Begotten, and the truth 
is so, He has therefore an existence by Himself. The Fa- 
ther too is again by Himself, if indeed that which is begot- 
ten is plainly one thing from another as regards that 
which begets. 

Another. The blessed Paul writing his letter to the 
Phil.ii.6. Philippians says of the Son, Who being in the Form of God, 
thought it not robbery to be Equal with God. Who then 
is He Who would not that His being Equal with God should 
be thought robbery ? For must one not needs say, that 
One is He Who is in the Form of God, Another again He 
Whose Form it was ? But this is clear and confessed by all. 
Therefore not one and the same in number are Father and 
Son, but of distinct Being and beheld in One Another, accord- 
ing to sameness of Essence, even if They be One of One, to 
wit the Son of the Father. 

Another. I and My Father are One, said the Saviour, as 
knowing, that is, that Himself has a separate existence and 
the Father too. But if the truth of the fact be not so, why 
did He not, keeping what belongs to oneness, say, I and My 
Father am One ? But since He explains what He means by 
the plural number, clearly He overthrows the surmise of 
those who think otherwise. For we are will not be with 
sense taken of one. 

Another. At the fashioning of man the voice of God is 

Gen. i. 26. introduced saying, Let 'Us make man in Our Image, after 

Our likeness. If then the amplitude, if I may so call it, of 

Infra x 
30. • 

distinct in Person. 


the Holy Trinity is contracted into a One in number, Chap. II. 
and they impiously take away from the Father and the 
Son Their separate Existence : who is he who says, and to 
whom, Let us make man in Our Image ? For He ought 
forsooth to say, if it be as they in their silly nonsense 
say, Let us make man in my image, after my likeness. But 
now the writer of the Book, not saying this indeed, but 
allotting the creation to the plural number and adding Our 
image, well-nigh with clear and mighty voice proclaims 
the enumeration of the Holy Trinity to be above One. 

Another. If the Son is the Brightness of the Father, as Heb. i. 3. 
Light of Light, how is He not other than Him, as of distinct 
Being ? For that which is the embrightened, is so in very 
deed from other, that namely which brightens it, and not 
itself from itself. 

Another, The Son shewing Himself of the Essence of 
God the Father says again, I came forth from the Father and £" fra xvi - 
am come ; again I go to the Father. How then will He not 
be Other than the Father in Person and number, when all 
reason persuades us to conceive of that which proceeds from 
ought as other than that from whence it proceeded ? ISTot 
true therefore is the contrary argument. 

Another. Believing in God the Father, in His Only-Be- 
gotten Son, and in the Holy Ghost we are justified. Where- 
fore the Saviour Himself too enjoins His own Disciples saying 
Go ye therefore and teach all nations baptizing them in the S. Matt. 
Name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost. 
If then the difference of the Names is to contribute nothing 
to our conception, but when one says the Father, he 
means the Son, and in naming the Son makes mention of 
the Father, what need was there of bidding that the be- 
lievers should be baptized not into Unity but into Trinity ? 
But since the tale of the Divine Nature runs forth into the 
number three, it is I suppose wholly manifest to all that 
Each of those so numbered exists in His Own Person, but 
by reason of there being no change in the Nature, It arrives 
at One Godhead and has the same worship. 

Another. The Divine Scripture says that the cities of the 

c 2 

xxviii. 19. 


t J 

Book I. 
cap. i. 1. 


Ps. xi. 6. 

Ps. xliii. 


Infra viii. 


Col. i. 16, 

The Father and the Son One in Essence, 

Sodomites were burned by the Anger of God, and explain- 
ing how the Divine wrath was brought upon them, and clearly 
describing the mode of the destruction, The Lord, it says, 
rained upon Sodom brimstone and fire from the Lord, since this 
too is the portion of the cup most befitting those who are wont 
to commit such sins. What Lord then from what Lord sent 
the fire on and consumed the cities of the Sodomites ? It is 
clear that it was the Father Who worketh all things through 
the Son, since He is too His Might and His Arm, Who caused 
Him to rain the fire upon the Sodomites. Since therefore 
the Lord sends the fire from the Lord upon them, how 
is not the Father Other, in respect to His own Being, than 
the Son,, and the Son again than the Father ? For the One 
is here signified as being from One. 

Another. Moved by prophetic spirit, and through it fore- 
knowing things to come, the blessed Psalmist had per- 
ceived that the human race could no otherwise be saved, 
except by the alone Appearing of the Son of God, Who is 
able easily to trans-order all things to whatsoever He will. 
Wherefore he besought that the Son might be sent to us, as 
alone able to save those who were under subjection and op- 
pression of the devil, and said, as though to God the Father, 
send out Thy Light and Thy Truth. What then the Light 
is, and what the Truth, hear the Son Himself saying, I am the 
Light and I am the Truth. But if the Light and the Truth 
of the Father, that is the Son, be sent to us, how is He not 
Other than He, as far as His own Being, even if He be One 
with Him as regards Sameness of Essence ? For if any ima- 
gine that it is not so, but that Father and Son are one and the 
Same, why does not he who bears within him the Spirit 
make the fashion of his prayer different and cry, Come to 
us, Light and Truth ? But since he says send out, 
plainly he knew that One is the Sender, Another the Sent : 
be the mode of the Sending conceived of as befits God. 

Another. The Divine Scriptures say, that through the Son 
were made all things that a,re in heaven and that are in earth, 
visible and invisible, and thus believing, we the worshippers 
of the truth go on our way in rightness of conception, 

distinct in Person. 


and within the dogmas of piety. Let us then scrutinize the Chap. II. 
expression through the Son, and examine what sense it gives 
us. It is clear that it would have us conceive of the Doer 
and Worker as One, Him through Whom all things are 
wrought as Another. For the expression through the 
Son gives, as of necessity, a sort of exhibition of two Persons. 
Else let them say how the word through the Son in His being 
said to do anything, will rightly and truly admit the one in 
number and in the reckoning thereto pertaining, if none 
other be conceived of with Him and concurring with Him. 
But I suppose that our opponent will be wholly at a loss. 
But since both the Divine Scriptures proclaim that the 
Father hath wrought all things through the Son, and we 
believe it and I suppose that they too : how is it not of 
necessity to conceive that the Father exists separately and 
by Himself, and in like manner the Son, nor does this any 
way overthrow the fact that the Holy Trinity is seen in 
sameness of Essence. 



M * 




That the Son is both God by Nature and in no wise either inferior 
to or unlike the Father. 

And the Word was God. 

He who bare within him the Spirit was not ignorant that 
there should arise some in the last times who should accuse 

2S.Pet.ii. the Essence of the Only Begotten and deny the Lord that 
bought them, by supposing that the Word Who appeared 
from God the Father is not by Nature God, but should bring 
in besides Him some so to speak spurious and false-called 
god, having about him the name of Sonship and Deity, but 
not so in truth. Such do they, who give the Jewish impiety 
of Arius an abode in their own mind ; wherefore they put 
forth out of a dead heart, no life-giving word of pious thought, 

Jer. ix.8. but that which looketh and tendeth unto death. Their 
tongue verily is as an arrow shot out ; deceitful the words of 
- their mouth. 

As though then some one were already resisting the words 
of truth, and were almost saying to the Holy Evangelist ; 
The Word was with God, Sir, be it so, we agree fully to 
what you have written as to this. Be the Father and»Exist 
He separately, and the Son likewise. What now ought one 
to suppose that the Word is by Nature ? for His Being with 
God, does not at all reveal His Essence. But since the 
Divine Scriptures proclaim One God, we will allot this to 
the Father only, with Whom the Word was. What then 
replies Truth's herald ? Not only was the Word with God, 
but He was also God, that through His being with God, He 
might be known to be Other than the Father and might be 
believed to be Son distinct and by Himself ; through being 

The Son in nothing less than the Father. 


God. He might be conceived of as Consubstantial and of Chap. 

. . . III. 

Him by Nature, as being both. God and coming forth from CAP . f. i. 

God. For it were inconceivable, since the Godhead is by 

all confessed to be One, that the Holy Trinity should not 

in every wise arrive at Sameness of Essence and so reach 

one relation of Godhead. He was then also God. He did 

not become so at last, but He was, if indeed eternal 

being will most specially and surely follow on being God : 

for that which became in time, or was at all brought from 

not being into being, will not be by Nature God. 

Seeing then that God the Word has Eternity through the 

word was, Consubstantiality with the Father through being 

God, how great punishment and vengeance must we needs 

think that they shall be found to incur, who think that He 

is in ought whatever inferior, or unlike Him who begat Him, 

and shudder not to go forward to that height of impiety, as 

even to dare to utter such things to others also, understand- 1 Tim. i. 

ing neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm ? 

But that the Son Who is of Him of a truth is in no wise 
inferior to the Father, we shall know again from the accom- 
panying considerations. 

Another. By many and varied names do the Divine 
Scriptures call the Son. For they say that He is the Wis- 
dom and Power of the Father, according to what is said by 

Paul, Christ the Power of God and the Wisdom of God. He 1 Cor - *• 

. . . . 24. 

is called again both His Light and His Truth, as is sung 

in the Psalms by one of the Saints, send out Thy Light Ps - xli »- 

and Thy Truth. He is called also Righteousness, as, 

Quicken me in Thy Righteousness : for the Father quickens Ps. cxix. 

in Christ those who believe on Him. He is called also the 

Counsel of the Father, as it is said, Thou shalt guide me Ps.lxxiii. 

with Thy Counsel, and again, The Counsel of the Lord stand- p s .xxxiii. 

ethfor ever. Since then the Son is all these to God the ' 

Father, let them tell us who fawn on the error of Arius and 

are filled with that man's folly, how He is lesser than He. 

For if they be right, it is time to say that the Father is not 

wholly wise, not wholly Mighty, not wholly Lights not 

wholly Truth, not wholly Righteous, yea, not even Perfect 


The Son Perfect God. 

Book I. in Counsel, if the Son Who is all these to Him, by reason 
of being inferior is shewn to be not Perfect. But to think 
or say thus is impious. Perfect is the Father, because He 
has all things perfectly in Himself: Perfect then clearly the 
Son too, the Wisdom and the Power, the Light and the 
Truth, the Righteousness and the Counsel of the Father. 
But He Who fulfilleth Perfection in His own Father, how 
can He be conceived of as inferior ? 

Another. If the Son having inferiority to God the Fa- 
ther, is worshipped both by us and by the Holy Angels, we 
shall be taken in the act of serving two gods, since that 
which lacks perfection will never attain to sameness of 
• essence with the Perfect ; but vast is the difference sunder- 
ing unto alienship things unlike as regards their nature. 
But the faith is not in plurality of gods, but One is God 
the Father, the Son and Holy Ghost attaining unto unity 
with Him. The charge against the Son then comes 
to nothing. For how yet will that which is inferior be ad- 
mitted into unity with the Perfect Father, and be united as 
to Nature in unity of Essence ? 

Another. If the Son is fulness (for of His fulness have 
all we received) how will what is inferior have a place ? for 
things that are contrary to one another are irreconcileable 
in one subject at the same time. 

Another. If the Son who has the lesser filleth all things, 
where will the greater of the Father have place ? For the 
argument shall be used in more corporeal form, in the way 
of example, while the superiority and inferiority in the un- 
embodied is otherwise conceived of. 

Another. If God is That Which is above every name, and 
the Son Who is His Heir attains not to be Perfect by reason 
of the lesser, there is no greatness in that which is above 
all things, that is God. But it is absurd either to think or 
to say this : Perfect therefore is the Son, as being above 
every name, and God. 

Another. If the Divine Nature is without quantity, and 
the lesser is cognizant of degree, how can the Son Who is 
by Nature God be conceived of as inferior ? For He will 

Infra ver. 

The Son Perfect even as the Father. 


1; V- 

not be beyond the province of quantity, if they say that He 
has inferiority to the Father. 

Another. The blessed John says of the Son that a He 
giveth not the Spirit by measure, to those that is who are 
worthy. Since then there is not measure in the Son, He is 
immeasurable, and surpasses all comprehension in quantity 
as being God. How then is the not-measured less ? 

Another. If the Son is lesser, the Father greater, dif- 
ferently, it is plain, and in proportion to the measures that 
Either hath, will they contribute to our sanctification. And 
the Father will sanctify in a greater degree, the Son in a 
less and separately. The Spirit therefore will be twofold, 
and less in the Son, greater in the Father. And they who 
are sanctified by the Father will be sanctified perfectly, they 
who by the Son, not perfectly. But great is the absurdity 
of reasoning herein. For One is the Holy Ghost, one and 
perfect the Sanctification, freely given by the Father 
through the Son Naturally. Not lesser then is He Who has 
the same operation with the Perfect Father, and Who has the 
Spirit of Him Who begat Him, a good of His own Nature, 
Living and inexisting, even as the Father hath. 

Another. If the Son were in the Form and Equality of 
God, as Paul saith, how is He lesser that He ? For the 
mode of the dispensation with Flesh and the humiliation 
thereupon mentioned, which has the Second Appearance 
from Heaven as its termination, will not, I suppose, bare 
the Son of the dignity by Nature belonging to Him. For 
He will surely come, as we heard Him say, in the glory of 
His Father. How then is he at all in the glory of the Per- 
fect Father who is inferior to Him ? 

Another. God the Father is somewhere found to say by 
one of the prophets, I will not give My glory unto another. 
We must ask therefore those who impiously dishonour the 
Son, nay rather through Him the Father too (for he that 
honoureth not the Son, neither doth he honour the Father), 


cap. i. 1. 

Infra iii. 


S. Mark 
viii. 28. 

Is. xlviii. 

Infra v. 

■ "For God giveth not the Spirit hy which S. Cyril's copy of New Testa- 
measure unto him." E. V. The Alex- ment plainly belonged) and the Codex 
andrine family of Greek MSS, (to Sinaiticus, omit the nominative. 


God the Son Perfect God. 

Bpok I. 

CAF. i. 1. 

Dan. vii, 

xlviii. 11. 

Infra ver 

Epli. iii. 
16, 17. 

1 &7rapci\- 


whether the Son being, as they suppose, less than God the 
Father is Consubstantial with Him, or no ? If then they 
shall say that He is Consubstantial, why do they for nought 
put on Him the less ? For things that are of the same 
essence and nature, will never have the greater in themselves, 
as regards the mode of their being : for this altogether is it 
that is under consideration. 

But they will not perhaps agree, nor will grant that the 
Son is Consubstantial with the Father, He being according 
to them less : He will therefore be wholly other and alien from 
the Father. How then has He His glory ? For there was 
given Him, says blessed Daniel, glory and a kingdom. For 
either God the Father will lie in saying, I will not give 
My glory unto another : or if He is true, and did give His 
glory to the Son, then is He not other than He, the Fruit of 
His Essence and His True Offspring. And He Who is so 
situated towards the Father in regard of Essence, how will 
He be less than He ? 

Others, simple and without connection. If the Father is 
Almighty, and the Son likewise Almighty, how is He lesser 
than He ? for I do not suppose that according to the law of 
sequence, the imperfect will mount up to the measure of 
the perfect. And if the Father is Lord, and the Son like- 
wise Lord ; how is He less than He ? For He will be not 
perfectly free, if He be less in lordship, and have not the 
full dignity in Himself. And if the Father be Light, and 
the Son likewise Light, how is He less than He ? For He 
will be not perfectly Light, but will be in part comprehended 
, by darkness, and the Evangelist will lie in saying, The dark- 
ness comprehended it not. And if the Father is Life, and the 
Son likewise Life, how is He less than He ? For in us life 
will not exist in perfect measure, even if Christ dwell in the 
inner man : but they who believe are still to some degree 
dead, if so be that the Son having the less, is not perfectly 
life. But since one must needs put as far away as possible 
the absurdity of this, we say that Perfect is the Son, being 
made equal to the Perfect Father by reason of the l exact 
Likeness of His Essence. 

The Son God, because Son. 27 

Another* If the Son be less than the Father, and therefore Chap. 

not Consubstantial ; He is as a consequence other by nature cap. i*. l. 

and wholly alien : hence He is not Son, yea not even God 
at all. For how will he be called Son who is not of the 
Father, or how will he be any longer God who is not of God 
by Nature ? But since our faith is in the Son, we are still 
it seems in error, not knowing the True God. But this is 
absurd. Believing therefore in the Son, we believe in the 
Father too and in the Holy Ghost. The Son is not there- 
fore alien from God the Father as lesser, but has unity with 
Him, by reason of being of Him by Nature, and is therefore 
both Equal and Perfect. 

Another. If God the Word Who beamed forth from God 
the Father is in truth Son, of necessity must our opponents 
even against their will confess that He is of the Essence 
of the Father; for this is what sonship in truth means. 
Then how is Such inferior to the Father, if He be Fruit of 
His Essence, Which is nowise receptive of the lesser within 
Itself? For all things are in perfect degree in God. But if 
He be not of the Essence of the Father, neither is He Son, 
but some counterfeit and falsely-called : yea neither will the 
Father Himself be rightly and truly called Father. For if 
there be no Son by Nature, on account of Whom He is 
Father, how is He conceived of as Father ? But this is ab- 
surd, for God is Yery Father; for so do all the Divine 
Scriptures cry aloud. He Who is of Him by Nature is 
therefore surely Son : if so, not lesser ; for He is Consub- 
stantial as Son. 

Another. The name of family or fathership not God has of 
right from us, but we rather clearly received it from Him. 
And trusty is the word of Paul crying on this wise, O/Eph. iii. 
Whom every family in heaven and earth is named. But since 
God is that which is most ancient of all, by imitation are we 
fathers, who are called to His Pattern by reason of our 
being made after His Image. Then how, tell me, are we 
who are made after His Likeness, by nature fathers of 
our own children, if this be not the case in the Archetype, 
after Which we too have been formed ? How will any one 

28 The Son God, lest the Father be inferior even to us. 

i : m 

V St : 

i lit 

Book I. grant that the name of family or fathership passed even un- 
to the rest from God, if He be not in very deed a Father ? 
For, if it were so, the nature of the thing would be wholly 
overturned and we should rather give to Him to be called 
Father in imitation of us, than He give it to us. For this 
the argument will compel the heretic even against his will 
to admit. The witness therefore of the truth lies in saying 
that from Him is every family both in heaven and earth. 
But to say this is most absurd : for true is he who is 

2Cor.xiii. bold to say, Do ye seek a proof of Christ speaking in me ? and 
from God does the name of family flow down to us also. 
He is therefore by Nature the Father of the Word, He begat 
Him in all respects not unlike Himself, through His having 
the lesser than whatever Himself has. For we who are 
made after an imitation of Him, do not so have those that are 
begotten of us, but altogether equal, as regards the nature. 
Another. Let not the heretic manifold in arguments deal 
subtilly with the truth, nor confessing that the Word of 
God is Son, honour Him in mere words, saying that He is 
not of the Essence of the Father. For how is He Son at 
all, except He be so by Nature ? Let them then either, 
stripping off the mask of hypocrisy, blaspheme openly, con- 
fessing that He is neither God nor Son : or if convicted by the 
whole Divine Scripture and wounded by the words of the 
Saints as by sling-stones they feel shame in presence of the 
truth, and say that He is Son and God, let them not think 
that He is lesser than He Who begat Him. For how will the 
Word, being God, admit of the lesser, compared to God the 
Father? although man too is both called and is son of man, yet 
will he not be inferior to his father so far as he is man. For 
\ man will not be greater or less than man, in respect of his be- 
ing man, nor yet angel than angel, in regard of his being an- 
gel, nor ought else of things that are that is con-natural to 
any-thing whatsoever, and has a share of the same essence al- 
lotted to it. Therefore if He is truly Son, one must needs say 
that He is of the Essence of the Father, having all His Father's 
properties in Himself of Nature. And if the Father be God 
by Nature, God by Nature plainly is also the Word Who is 

-v ^. 

The S071 Equal to the Father, because not less. 29 

begotten of That Nature. How then will God be less than c-haf. 
. . in. 

God in regard to being God ? CAP . i.'i. 

Another. Whence, sirs, did ye get the daring to say that 
the Son is in lesser condition than He Who begat Him ? 
How will He admit the lesser ? As regards the date of being, 
no one I suppose, even though exceeding silly, would surmise. 
For before the ages is the Son, and Himself is the Maker 
of the ages : and it will be with reason conceived that He 
Who has His Generation elder than all time, will not be defined 
by time. But neither is He lesser than He in the dimen- 
sion that belongs to size : for the Divine Nature is con- 
ceived of and is without size, dimension and body. How then 
is the lesser to be taken of Him Who is begotten? In 
glory, perhaps one will say, in power, in wisdom. Let them 
say then, how great and large the Father is herein (if one 
must speak thus), in order that the Son may be conceived 
of as less, when measured with Him ? Or if the Father is in 
good inconceiveable and immeasurable, and that far outstrips 
the measure of our understanding, whence do the Arians, 
readily daring all things, say that the Son is lesser, to the 
overthrow of the dignity that belongs to Him by nature ? For 
the lesser is proved by the juxtaposition of the greater ; but 
if the Dignity of the Father is unmeasured, what is the proof 
of its diminution in the Son ? 

Another. One may indeed with truth reply to the abomi- 
nation of the unholy heretics, Our enemies are without un- Deut. 
derstanding. For how are they not full of all unlearning, LXX. 
understanding neither what they say nor whereof they affirm, 1 Tim. i. 
as Paul saith ? The reason why we think it needful to 7 ' 
accuse them is this. If they say that the Son is of a truth 
begotten God of God the Father, and so believe, how is He 
lesser than the Father ? For great absurdity of ideas will 
hence be generated, on every side containing blasphemy, 
and such that one would refuse only to hear them. For if the 
Son being God by Nature can any whit admit in Himself 
the lesser, we must needs at length conceive that there is 
something greater than God. The Essence then of the 
Father is not conceived of as being in Perfection of every 

His!; i -..i. 

I W1 

I • ! ; ; 





The Son Perfect, lest the 

Book I. 
cap. i. 1 

thing, even though He be by Nature God, but He will Himself 
progress in some direction towards the greater, convicted 
in the Son His Image that He Himself too is of the essence 
that admits the lesser. And He will suffer this virtually, 
even if He have not yet suffered it ; since things that are 
capable of ought, will altogether admit the things whereof 
they are capable, and when the time calls them to suffer it, 
they will not refuse it. But great is the blasphemy that is 
apparent herein. For neither will the Father advance in 
any direction towards the greater, nor yet will He ad- 
mit of the lesser, by reason that He is by Nature God. 
Therefore neither will the Son admit in Himself the lesser, 
''fandTiov in that He too is God by Nature, lest the syllable or two 2 
which was devised by the unlearning of the heretics, should 
be imagined to be an accusal of the Essence that is 
above all. 

Another. If the Word of God the Father being by Nature 
His Son is lesser than He, either in regard of God-befitting 
Dignity, or as not by Nature Unchangeable, or in any sort 
of inferiority, the accusal will be not so much of Him as of 
the Essence Whereof He is believed to be, if It altogether 
generate the lesser, or the worse, than Itself, although the 
originate and constructed creation would not endure to do 
such a thing. For everything that is fruit -bearing, brings 
forth what is wholly like itself. But if they say that the 
Divine Nature of the Father is above all passion, It will 
manifestly be beyond this charge, and being the Archetype 
of the good things that are in us, will beget the Son not 
lesser, but Equal and Consubstantial, lest the God That is 
so far above us be inferior even to us. 

Another by the method of reductio ad absurdum. Christ 
shewing that He is Equal with God the Father says to His 
own Disciples, He that hath seen Me hath seen the Father. 
Then how will He that is by Nature Such, and so IS as Him- 
self with truth declares, have the lesser, according to the 
uncounsel of some ? For if being lesser He shews in Him- 
self the Father, without any intervening change, the lesser 
will reach to the Father, as appearing in His Unchanged 

Infra xiv 

Father be imperfect. 


] i' 

Image, the Son. But this is absurd : therefore not lesser is Chap. 
the Son, in whom the Father being Perfect is imaged, cap. i.i. 

Another. And how will the Son admit the lesser, than 
wherein is the Father, seeing that He says without blame, 
All thinqs that the Father hath are Mine : and again, as to J" fra X X!- 

ri i -n • • • 15: xvu * 

Grod the Father, All Mine are Thine and Thine are Mine ? 10. 
For if indeed the Son is, according to the uncounsel of some, 
lesser; since He speaks truth in saying to the Father, 
Mine are Thine and Thine are Mine, the lesser will make its 
way to the Father too, and likewise the greater to the Son, 
the order of things being indifferent, if what belongs to either 
are seen in the other, and whatsoever is the Father's, this is 
the Son's also, and again whatever appears as the special 
property of the Son, this is the Father's too. Nothing then 
will hinder our saying that the Father is lesser than the 
Son, and the Son greater than the Father. But this is most 
absurd only to conceive of : Equal therefore and not lesser 
is He Who hath the Prerogatives of Essence in common with 
the Father. 

Another of the same. If all that the Father hath, are 
wholly the Son's, and the Father hath Perfection, Perfect 
will be the Son too, Who hath the properties and excellencies 
of the Father. Therefore is He not lesser, according to the 
impiety of the heretics. 

Another by the method o/reductio ad absurdum, with combi- 
nation of arguments. Let them tell us who are pouring down 
the flame unquenchable on their own head, and who reject the 
uprightness that is in the Divine Dogmas, devising wiles of 
many-coloured arguments unto the deceiving and overthrow 
of the simpler, whether the Father is superior to the Son, hav- 
ing the greater in comparison with Him, if He be less, as they 
in their silly talk say, or not ? But I entirely suppose that 
they will say, He is superior : or let them say what advan- 
tage the Father hath in possessing the greater, if He be not 
superior. For if nothing at all, the whole charge against 
the Son immediately comes to nought : but if there is any 
great difference, He is then superior, as having the greater. 
Let them answer then and tell us, if they are indeed wise, 




Examples of things 


CAP. i. 1, 

Book I. why the Father begetting the Son, begat Him not Equal to 
Himself but lesser. For if it were clearly better to beget 
the Son in all things Equal to Himself, who hindered His 
doing it ? For if there is ought that hindered as of necess- 
ity, they will admit even against their will, that there is 
somewhat greater than the Father. But if there were no- 
thing at all to hinder, but having the power and knowing that 
it is better to beget the Son equal He begot Him lesser, 
this is plainly envy towards Him and an evil eye : for He 
chose not to give equality to the Son. Either then the 
Father is impotent in regard to His Begetting, or it will 
be evil eye, according to the result collected out of the ar- 
guments, if the Son have the lesser according to their ac- 
count. But this is absurd; for the Divine and Untaint 
Nature is above all passion. Therefore not less is the Son, 
that He lose not the equality, the Father being in no wise 
powerless to beget His Offspring equal to Himself, nor yet 
hindered by evil eye from choosing the better. 

Another. The Saviour Himself somewhere says that He 
is in the Father and the Father likewise in Him. But it is 
plain to every one, that we are not to suppose that like as 
one body is in another, or one vessel in another, so the Fa- 
ther is contained in the Son, or the Son again in some way 
placed in the Father : but One appears in the Other, and 
He in Him in the Unchanged Sameness of Essence, and in 
the Unity and Likeness that belongs to Nature. As though 
a person beholding his own form in an image were to say 
truly to any, and marvelling at the finished likeness of 
his figure to cry out, I am in this picture and this picture 
in me. 

Or in another way : — As if the sweetness of the honey when 
laid on the tongue should say of itself, I am in the honey 
and the honey in me ; or as though again the heat that 
proceeds naturally from fire, emitting a voice were to say, 
I am in the fire and the fire in me. For each of the things 
mentioned is I suppose divisible in idea, but one in nature, 
and the one proceeding by a sort of indivisible and con- 
tinuous forthcome from the other, so as to seem to be even 

Infra xiv 

'■■ -• 



severed from that wherein it is. Yet though the force of c HA p 
ideas regarding these things takes this form, still one appears n h 
m the other and both are the same as regards essence If "*' " 
then by reason of the unchangeableness of Their Essence 
and the entire exactness in express Image, the Father is in 
the Sop how will the greater find place and appear in the 
bon Who is according to them lesser ? But since He is 
wholly in Him, altogether Perfect is the Son, Who is able 
to contain the Perfect and is the express Image of the 
Mighty Father. 

1 £ 

VOL. 1. 



Against those who dare to say that the conceived and Natural word 
in God the Father is one, and He that is called Son by the 
Divine Scriptures another: such is the misconceit of Eunomius' 

2 This was in the beginning with God. 

The Evangelist herein made a sort of recapitulation of what 
had been already before said. But adding the word This, he 
is seen ail-but crying aloud, He Who is in the beginning, 
the Word with the Father, He Who is God of God, He it is 
and none other, regarding Whom our august book is set forth. 
But he seems again not idly to add to what has been said 
the words, This was in the beginning with God. For he, en- 
lightened by the Divine Spirit unto the knowledge of things 
to come, was not ignorant, as seems to me and as we may 
■ truly say, that certain would appear, perdition's workpeople, 
Prov. vii. the devil's nets, death's snares leading down to the chambers 
1Q and depth of hell those who from unlearning give heed to 
the things that them belch forth out of an evil heart. For 
they will rise up and be valiant against their own head, say- 
ing that one is the word that is conceived in God the Father, 
and that some other most similar and like to the conceived 
one, is the Son and Word through Whom God works all 
things ; in order that He may be conceived of as word of 
word and image of image and radiance of radiance. 

The Blessed Evangelist then, as though he had already 
heard them blaspheming and with reason stirred against the 
absurd follies of their writings, having already defined, and 
by many words, as was due, shewn that the Word is One, 
and Only and Very, of God and in God and with God, with 

27, ix. 18. 

Blasphemies of Eunomius. 


flashing eye he adds, This was in the beginning with God, as Chap. 
Son, that is, with the Father, as inborn, as of His Essence, cap. i." 2. 
as Only-Begotten ; This, there being no second. 

But since I deem that we ought, zealously declaring such 
impiety, to lay yet more open their blasphemy, for the greater 
security of the simpler ones (for he who has learnt it will 
give heed and will spring out of its reach, as though a serpent 
lurking in the midst of the path), needs will I expose their Cf Gen. 
opinion, after the form of antithesis. For it shall receive its 
refutations in order, according to the modes which God who 
giveth wisdom to all shall grant. 

Eunomius' opinion as to the Son of God. 

„ The Only-Begotten Son of God, says he, is not of veryright 
„ His Word, but the conceived word of God the Father moves 
„ and is ever in Him ; while the son who is said to have been 
„ begotten of Him, becoming recipient of his conceived word, 
„ knoweth all things from having learnt them and, after the 
„ likeness of the former, is called and is word/' 

Then in confirmation, as he imagines, of his blasphemy, 
he weaves some such arguments of perverted ideas, that, as 
it is written, the wretched man may be holden with the cords P rov - v - 
of his sins. 

„ If the Son Himself, says he, be the Word Natural and Con- 
, ceived in God the Father, and is Consubstantial with Him 
, Who begat Him, what hinders the Father too from being 
, and being called Word, as Consubstantial with the Word ? " 
And again : „ If the Son be the Word of God the Father and 
, there is none other than He, by means of what word, says he, 
, is the Father found saying to Him : Thou art My Son, this Ps. ii. 7. 
, day have I begotten Thee ? For it is very clear that not with- 
, out a word did the Father address Him, since every thing 
, that is uttered, is altogether uttered in word, and no other- 
, wise. And the Saviour Himself somewhere says, I Jcnoiv Infra viii. 
, the Father and keep His saying, and again, The word ib.xiv.24. 
, which ye hear is not Mine, but the Father's Which sent Me. 
, Since then the Father addresses Himself to Him in word, 
, and He Himself acknowledges, one while that He keeps 

d 2 



IFbrcfo uttered against the Son 

Book I. „ the Father's word, at another again, that the Jews heard, 
" „ not His word, but the Father's ; how will it not, he says, be 
„ confessed beyond a doubt, that the Son is other than the 
„ word that is conceived or that stands in motion of the mind, 
„ whereof participating and replete, the utterer and exponent 
,, of the Father's Essence, that is the Son, is called word V 

Such ills then does the foolish man sow to himself and 
gainsaying all the Divine Scriptures at once is not ashamed, 
shewing that true is that which is written of himself, When 
the wicked man cometh into the depth of evils, he despiseth. 
For verily exceeding deep unto naughtiness hath the fighter 
against Grod of his folly dug, refusing the uprightness that is 
of truth, and halting with the rottenness of his own argu- 
ments. For that the Only-Begotten Son of God the Father 
is of very right His Word, we shall know by the subjoined. 

xviii. 3 

Wisdom i. 

2 Tim. iv. 

Jer. xxiii, 


1 Cor. xii. 


Micah iii 

Infra viii 

Ps. ex. 

II m 

Refutation in order of the misconceit of Eunomius. 

Slow to learn is the silly heretic. For how into a malicious 
soul will wisdom at all enter ? or what, tell me, can be more 
malicious than such men, who, as it is written, turn away 
their ears from the truth and run more easily unto the fables 
of their own cogitations, that justly too they may hear, ut- 
tering things not of the Divine Scriptures, Woe to them 
that prophesy of their own heart and not out of the mouth of 
the Lord ? For who speaking out of the mouth of the Lord 
calleth Jesus Anathema ? which thing indeed some do in un- 
bridled haughtiness against the doctrines of piety, and as one 
of the holy Prophets said, perverting all equity. For they 
say that the natural and conceived word in Grod the Father 
is one, him that is called Son and Word again another : and 
they bring in support of their own, as they deem, opinion, 
but more truly, their unbridled impiety, our Lord Jesus Christ 
in His discourses with the Jews saying, i" know the Father and 
keep His word : and moreover that which was said to Him 
, by the Father, From the womb before the Day-star begat I 
Thee. Then they say belching forth the venom of their own 
father, If the speaker is other than he whom he addresses, 
and the Father addresses the Son by word, the innate word 

mere emptiness. 


wherewith the Father conversed will be other than the Son. 
And again : If, says he, the Son Himself declared that He 
keeps the Father's word, how will not he that keepeth be 
other than that which is kept ? To this it is perhaps not 
hard to reply (for the Lord will give utterance to them that 
evangelize with much power) . But those who are sick of such 
unlearning ought to remember Him Who says, Ah they who 
leave the paths of uprightness to walk in the ways of 
darkness, and for us it is meet that we should cry unto our 
Guide Who is in the heavens, Turn away mine eyes from 
beholding vanity. For vanity of a truth and rubbish and 
nought else are the vain utterances of their uninstructedness. 
For not as though He had another word of the Father in 
Himself did the Son say that He kept the Father's word, nor 
yet did He declare that He had come to us, bringing him with 
Him as though a pedagogue, but as Alone in-being in the 
Father by Nature, and having again likewise in Himself the 
Father, none else intervening, I, says He, in the Father and. the 
Father in Me, not the innate, nor yet any other word, but the 
Father, in Me. How then ought one to conceive of what was 
said by Him to the Jews, may one ask us, and that with rea- 
son. To this we say with truth what comes up upon our 
mind. The Saviour was teaching the most incredulous 
people of the Jews and, drawing by little and little His 
hearers from the worship of the law, did ofttimes call out to 
them, I am the Truth, all but saying, Throw off, sirs, the 
yoke of the law, receive the spiritual worship ; let shadow 
now depart, type recede afar, the Truth hath beamed. But 
He did not seem to all to be doing rightly, subverting 
Moses' precepts, yea rather leading them to what was more 
true, so that some even cried, If this man were of God, He 
would not have broken the Sabbath, which was to openly 
condemn of sin Him Who knew it not. 

To such like follies then of the Jews He replying 
puts away all boast in His words, and lowlily and darkly 
designs to teach them, that the Son Who knows not sin 
would not work ought other than seemed good to God the 
Father ; lest saying more nakedly, I know not sin, He should 


cap. i. 2. 

Ps. lxviii. 



Prov. ii. 



Ps. cxix. 

Infra xiv. 

lb. 6. 


Christ Lawgiver and Laiu-keeper. 

Book I. 
cap. i. 2, 

Infra x. 

1 f3ov\7)- 

2 rb Trpd- 
t)/j.?v iiro- 

" " 7. 


again stir them up to stone Him. For they straightway boiling 
with wrath would have sprung upon Him saying, Not to sin 
belongs to God Alone : Thou then being a Man, utter not 
the things that beseem God Alone. Which thing they even 
did at another time, saying that with reason do they stone Him, 
because being a Man He makes Himself God. Obscurely 
did the Saviour, in that He was both Man and as under the 
law with those who were under the law, say that He kept 
the Father's word, ail-but saying, I will never transgress 
the Father's Will. For by stepping aside from the Divine 
law is sin born, but I know not sin Who am God by Nature. 
Therefore I offend not the Father in My teaching. For the 
rest let no one find fault with Him Who is by Nature Law- 
giver, but because of His Likeness unto us is Law-keeper. 
But He says that He knows the Father, not simply as do we, 
only the very same thing more simply for that He is God, 
but from what Himself is does He declare that He under- 
stands the Nature of the Father. But since He knows that 
He Who begat Him knows not to endure change, He knows, 
it is plain, that Himself is Unchangeable of an Unchangeable 
Father. And that which knows not change, how can it be 
said to sin, and not rather to stand unswerving in its own 
natural endowments ? 

Yain then is the accusal of the Jews imagining that the 
Son thinks ought beside the Counsel 1 of the Father: for He 
keeps, as He says, His word, and by Nature knows not sinning : 
for He knows that the Father cannot suffer this, with Whom 
He is Consubstantial as Yery Son. But since they meet this 
by citing what has been annexed to their objection, From 
the womb before the Day-star begat I Thee, come let us unfold 
the word of piety as to this also. For not because the 
Father says such things to the Son, ought we therefore to 
think, that there is in Him an innate word and to conceive 
of the Son as other than it. But first of all let us think this with 
ourselves that a prophet versed in uttering mysteries in the 
Spirit puts on for us the person 2 of the Son, and introduces 
. Him hearing of the Father, Thou art My Son, and what follows. 
And the form of speech, in that it is constructed after human 


Human language weak to express things Divine. 39 


fashion, will not I presume at all compel us to conceive of two Chap. 
words, but referring to our own habits [of speech] the un- CA p. i. 2 
avoidable arrangement herein, we shall blame, if we do 
rightly, the weakness of our own nature, which has neither 
words, nor modes of idea which accurately serve unto the 
mysteries that are above us, or that are adequate to express 
faultlessly things more Divine : and to the Divine Nature 
again we shall attribute the superiority over our mind and 
speech, not conceiving of Its relations exactly as they are 
spoken of, but as befit It and as It wills. Or if any of 
the unholy heretics imagine that we unrightly abuse such 
words, and do not admit that the form of speech comes 
up to our usage of it, they will rightly hear : Let the Father 
be conceived of as also begetting as we do, let Him not 
deny the womb and the pangs of birth. For from the womb 
begat I Thee, says He to the Son. But perchance, yea 
rather of a certainty, they will say that from the likeness to us 
the Father's True Begetting of the Son is signified. There- 
fore let the other too be piously understood, even if it be 
uttered in human guise, and their bitter and unholy diffi- 
culty is solved. 

And these things were, I suppose, sufficient. But since 
we thought that we ought to smite down the difficulties 
devised of their stubbornness (as it were some swarm of foes), 
with the uprightness of pious dogmas, come let us now bring- 
ing them forward in the manner befitting each, raise up against 
each its opponent, and with more zealous thoughts 3 let us 
arm against them the ever victorious truth. The objec- 
tion again, as from them, shall be set forth in order before 
the arguments which confute it, inciting the vigilance of the 
argument to proceed to more accurate test, and like the rush 
of some mountain-torrent, ever bearing down headlong the 
good readiness of the readers to desire ever to learn 'the 

3 06/7/UOTe- 

pois Qew- 

Oppositions or objections, as from the heretics. 

„ If there exist not, says he, in God the Father a word essen- 
„ tial and conceived, other than the Only-Begotten Son That 


Book I. 
cap. i. 2. 

Sameness of nature does 

„ is of Him, Who is also called word in imitation of that one, 
„ the result will be absurd, and we who deem we think rightly 
„ must needs confess, that if the Word is Consubstantial with 
„ the Father and the Father with the Word, there is nothing 
„ jet to hinder the Father from being and being called word, 
„ as Consubstantial with the Word/ 5 

:> i 

xviii. 20. 

Refutation of this. 
No argument, O most excellent, will ever constrain us to 
think that we ought to believe and call the Father Word, or 
even to believe that He could be so, because He is Consub- 
stantial with the Word. For in no wise will things that are of 
the same essence admit of a mutual interchange, and receive a 
sort of mixture, as from one into the other, so that the things 
named could be reduced from many into one, or from duality 
into unity. For not because our forefather Adam was con- 
substantial with the son born of him, will father therefore 
advance unto son, son again mount up into father; but 
being one with him as far as regards the unity of essential 
quality, he will retain what is his own : and he who is of any 
father will be conceived of as a son, and again the begetter of 
any will clearly be father. But if ye imagine that ye are con- 
structing a clever argument hereupon, and that consubstan- 
tiality will surely constrain consubstantial to be one with 
consubstantial, and will suffer no distinction to prevail, so that 
each should exist by itself and in whatever it is, what was it 
persuaded the Judge of all not to punish the father for the 
son, nor to demand of the son satisfaction for the father ? 
For the soul, says he, that sinneth, it shall die. The son shall 
not bear the iniquity of the father, neither shall the father bear 
the iniquity of the son. But since the sentence of Him Who 
judges righteously does not bring down the father, albeit 
consubstantial with the son, into the position of sonship, nor 
yet does it bring up the son into the condition of fatherhood, 
but knoweth each individually, not this progressing into 
that, nor that stepping into this ; it is I suppose evident, that 
no argument will constrain God the Father, because He is 
Consubstantial with the Word, to change into being the Word. 

not destroy individuality. 


For He abideth wholly in Himself, that is Father, even Chap. 
though He Who is begotten of Him be conceived to be and CAP . i, 2. 
be Word and therefore Son, that things Divine may not 
appear in worse state than ours are. 

Another in equal guise with the objection, by the method of 

reductio ad absurdum. 
The Son, as having no difference from His Father, but 
being His most exact Likeness and the express Image of His Heb - *• 3 - 
Perso?i, is found saying to His disciples, He that hath seen Me I nfra X1V - 
hath seen the Father. But if He being thus, is Consubstan- 
tial with the Father, and things consubstantial admit of utter 
confusion with one another, there will be nothing it seems to 
hinder the Son from being conceived of as Father, in that He 
is Consubstantial with the Father, and capable of passing over 
into this, nought hindering it, if consubstantiality suffice unto 
this kind of change or transposition. Let the Son then be 
conceived of as Father, and let Him say, as now being so, to 
the real Father, From the womb before the Hay-star begat Ps - cx - 3. 
I Thee ; and let Him assume to Himself every word in short 
that belongs to the Father. When this at length has taken 
place, every thing is now thrown into confusion, and That 
Which ever so existeth, I mean the Holy and Consubstantial 
Trinity will be reduced to Unity, if That which rightly and 
separately belongs to Each vanishes on account of the Con- 
substantiality, and the sameness of nature overthrows the 
distinction of Persons. But this is absurd. Hence the 
Father will not be the Word, because Consubstantial with the 
Word, but will abide unchanged, being What He is, even 
though He have Co-nature or Consubstantiality with His Own 
Word. And their objection has been proved to be nought. 

Another. If every word be the word of some one, pour- 
ing it forth from the tongue, that is, or belching it forth and 
bringing it up from the heart ; and the Father be Word, 
because He is Consubstantial with the Word : He will be His 
own word, or rather no one's, or will even have no existence 
at all (for how will there be word, when he whose word it is, 
is not ?). But this is absurd : for never will the Divine and 
Untaint Nature be receptive of non-being, nor will the Father 

42 Properties of the Father and the Son common, 

ft m 


Book I. everpass into the Word, even thoughHe be Consubstantial with 

cap i 2 ♦ 

* the Word, but will remain Father, Whose Word also the Son is . 

Another. If the Divine Nature be believed non-recipient 
of all turn and change as regards Essence, how will the 
Father, leaving His own position, pass into being the Word ? 
For He will be recipient of change, suffering it as of ne- 
cessity, and will not be the same, as not keeping what He 
was from the beginning. But if this be absurd (for to change 
is wholly foreign from the Divine Nature), the Father will 
not have the change into the Word, but will be Father ever, 
having immutability and unchange as God. 

Another as of the same, at length. 

The Only-Begotten Word and Son of God, shewing that He 
Infra xvi. is Very God of Very God the Father says, All things that the 
Father hath are Mine. But though the Son is Heir of all 
the properties that are in the Father of Nature, as being of 
Him by Nature, yet He will never have that of being Father 
(for this too is one thing that belongs to the Father) ; but the 
Son will remain bereft of nought that is inherent in the 
Father, though He be not deemed of as Father, but having 
in Himself perfectly all the properties and endowments of 
the Father's Essence. Applying this very same method of 
reasoning to the Person of the Father also, we say that He has 
all the properties of the Son by Nature, yet not the power 
of passing into sonship and into being Word, but that as un- 
turning by Nature He remains what He is, that in addition 
to being God the Father, He may be also without change, 
having Unchanged in Himself the Word That appeared 
from Him, the Son. 

Another. God the Lawgiver found fault with certain by 
the holy Prophets saying, They have put no difference be- 
tween the holy and profane. For great indeed is the differ- 
ence or contrariety of manners which is seen between them 
by those who will discern. But if it be admissible to 
commingle the nature of things consubstantial one with 
another, and things that are in separate and individual per- 
sons can run off to whatever they please of congenerate 
or connatural ; — what is there to separate the profane from 

xxii. 26 

except only being Father and Son. 


the holy, if the distinction of separate being or of who one Chap. 
is, is never seen, but one exists in another because of same- CAP . j'. 2. 
ness of essence ? Be then (the knowledge in regard to each 
being hence indifferent), all jumbled up together, and let the 
traitor Judas be Peter or Paul, because consubstantial 
with Peter and Paul ; be Peter again or Paul, Judas, because 
consubstantial with him. But so to think is most unrea- 
soning ; and the being of the same substance will by no 
means take away the difference of things congenerate or 
connatural from one another. Our weakness then will 
not so set itself to contend with the Divine Essence, as to 
compel God the Father to be called and be the Word, because 
He is Consubstantial with the Word. For He abides ever 
Father, in no wise able to lose the distinction of what He 
is in regard to this, nor yielding to sameness of Essence that 
He should possess nothing distinctively. And He will no 
way wrong the Son by this, but rather will shew Him as His 
own, and possessing from Him by Nature the TJnturning 
and Unchangeableness of Him That begat Him, both by His 
possessing properly and alone Sonship and not being changed 
into the Father, even as neither does He into Son. 

Opposition, or another objection as on the part of the heretics. 

„ Not reasonably, say they, do ye blame as not thinking 
„ rightly those who say that the Word innate in God the 
„ Father is other than the Son, although ye hear Him clearly 
„ say in the Gospel narrative, I know Him and keep His word. Infra viii. 
„ But if, as Himself affirmed, He keeps the Father's word, other ' 
„ in all respects, I suppose, and of necessity will he be than 
„ him ; since needs must the distinction of being other exist 
„ between him who keeps and that which is kept." 

Different solutions in order shewing clearly that the Son is the 
Word of God the Father. 

If the Only-Begotten Son of God the Father is not Him- 
self His Word, but some other than He, which thev call con- „ , 
ceived, exists in God, let those who put forth this contrary arrajos, 
opinion tell us whether the word which is the conception of real^s- 
their own ignorance be hypostatic 4 or no. For if they say j^nce*" 

44 Between the Father and the Son nothing intervenes. 

Book I. that it exists of itself conceived of as in separate being, they 

' will surely confess that there are two sons : but if they say that 

it has no existence, then, since nothing" any longer comes 

between and severs the Son, how will He be third from 

the Father and not rather next Him, as Son with Father ? 

Another by the same considerations. The opponents 
define that there is in God the Father a word, the conceived, 
by means of which, according to their most unlovely imagi- 
nation, the Son is taught the counsel of the Father. But 
how great folly their dogma hereupon has, we must see. 

"We must consider the argument about this matter thus. 
The name father, has of necessity no mean in relation to 
the son. For what will be the mean of father as regards 
the son, or again of son as regards the father ? But if, ac- 
cording to their unlearning, there severs the Son from the 
Father an intervening will and a conceived word, which 
they say is interpretative thereof, no longer will the Father 
be conceived of as altogether father nor yet the Son as son, 
if we conceive that the will of God and the word that inter- 
prets it, exist in their own hypostases. But if we grant that 
these are without hypostasis, then the Son is in God the 
Father without any thing mediate and next to Him ; where 
then will the conceived word retire, or what place will the 
will have, conceived of as other than the Son ? 

Another by the reductio ad absurdum. We believe that 
the Holy and Adorable Trinity is Consubstantial, even if the 
madness of the heretics will it not. But I think that there 
ought to be admitted with regard to things consubstantial, a 
likeness also with one another in all things, in regard to natural 
properties. If then there be, according to the uncounsel of 
some, in God the Father some conceived word other than the 
Son, the Son too will surely have a conceived word in Himself, 

Heb. i. 3. as being His Likeness and the unchangeable Express Image 
of His Person, as it is written : the Holy Ghost will have one 
equally with Him, according to the equal analogy of concep- 
tions. The Trinity then has come to be in double, and the 
Divine Nature is shewn to be compound. But this is absurd. 
But in simple essences, there is nothing whatever save them- 

The article limits to a strict sense. 


selves. Nothing then will hinder the Holy and Consubstan- 
tial Trinity from being closely connected, nought intervening. 
Another at length. When Divine Scripture puts forth nouns 
with the article prefixed, then it means some one thing which 
alone is properly and truly that which it is said to be ; but 
when it does not prefix the article, it makes a more general de- 
claration of every thing that is so called, as for example (for our 
discourse shall attain clear demonstration) many are called 
gods, but when God is spoken of with the article it signifies 
Him Who alone and properly is so ; more simply and without 
the article, one perchance of those called hereto by grace. 
And again there are many men. But when the Saviour 
says with the article, The son of man, He signifies Himself 
as one picked out of ten thousand. Since then names have 
this character in Divine Scripture, how ought we to under- 
stand, In the beginning was the Word ? For if every word 
of God is hereby meant as being in the beginning, let them 
shew it, and it is we who are the triflers. But if the Evan- 
gelist prefixing the article, signifies One and that is so pro- 
perly, crying, In the beginning was the Word, why strive they 
in vain, bringing in another besides, only that they may 
expel the Son from the Essence of the Father ? But 
we ought, considering the absurdity herein, to refuse the 
uncounsel of those who think otherwise. 

Another, shewing that not after the conceived word, as they say, is 
the Son formed, but He is the Likeness of the Father Himself. 

If the Only-Begotten Son of God is and is called, accord- 
ing to them, therefore Word, because, receiving the conceived 
word of the Father, He is as it were formed thereafter, why 
is He not found to say to His Disciples, I and the word of the 
Father are one, He that hath seen Me hath seen the word of the 
Father ? But since overstepping all things, He likens Himself 
Alone to the Father Alone, none intermediate coming forward 
to the Likeness, the Son will be conceived of as likening Him- 
self to Him Who begat Him, and to none other than Him. 

Opposition, as from the opponents. 
„ We find, they say, the Son to be other than the con- 


cap. i. 2. 


The Jews never heard 

Book l. }) ceived word of God, giving heed not to our own thoughts 
* „ thereon, but to considerations from the Divine Scrip- 
„ ture. For what shall we say when we hear the Son say- 
Infra xii. }) ing to the Father, Glorify Thy Son, the Father again 
„ answering and saying, I have both glorifiedj, and will glorify 
„ again? Shall we not altogether acknowledge that the Father 
„ replies to the Son in a word ? How then is not he through 
,, whom the Father answers the Son other than He ?" 

4 +' 

Jer. xxii. 

5 fiov\r]- 
criv, will 
or coun- 

Infra xii. 

Different solutions to this in order. 

Worthy of utter marvel, yea rather of mourning too, are 
the unholy heretics, and moreover that one should say over 
them that which is spoken in the Prophets : Weep ye not for 
the dead, neither bemoan him, but weep sore for him that 
thinketh and sayeth such things respecting the Only Begot- 
ten. For what more wretched than such, if they fancied that 
this was actually and truly the voice of the Father, which 
not only the Saviour heard, but also this crowd of the Jews 
which stood around, yea rather the choir of the holy disciples ? 
For they should rather have imagined God-befitting ex- 
cellencies, and not have attempted to submit things above us 
to the laws that guide our affairs. For upon the bodily hear- 
ing strikes a bodily voice, and noise which through the lips is 
emitted into the air, or contrived by any other instrument. 
But the Will of the Father, in ineffable voice gently and as it 
were in the mind revolved, the Son Alone knoweth Who is 
in Him by Nature as His Wisdom. But to suppose that 
God uses a voice consisting in sound is wholly incredible, if 
we would retain to the Nature That is above all things Its 
superiority to the creation. Besides, our Lord Jesus Christ 
Himself says that this was not the voice of God the Father, 
and moreover shews that He needs no interpretation from 
another to be able to learn the Father's will 5 saying, This voice 
came not because of Me, but for your sokes. He should ra- 
ther have said, my good friends, if ye are right in holding 
such opinions regarding Him, Ye have heard with Me the 
voice of the Father ; but now, turning His declaration right 
round to the exact contrary, He avers that He had no need 

the Father's Voice. 


of the voice, but asserts that it came rather for their sakes, not 
that it was uttered by the Father, but came and that for 
their sakes. And if God the Father works all things through 
Him, through Him altogether was this also, yea rather He was 
Himself the voice, not to Himself interpreting the disposition 
of the Father (for He knew it as Son), but to the hearing of 
the by-standers, that they might believe. 

Another. If they say that the Son needs some innate word, 
that thereby He may be taught the Will of God the Father, 
what will become of Paul who says, Christ the Power of God 
and the Wisdom of God ? For how is the Son the Wisdom of 
the Father, if lacking in wisdom He receive perfection from 
another, through learning what forsooth He knows not ? or 
how must one not needs say, that the wisdom which is in the 
Father is not perfect ? and if the Son be the Wisdom of the 
Father, how can His Will 6 be conceived of as other than He ? 
We come then to say that the Will 6 of God the Father is not 
perfected in wisdom. But great is the impiety of this, and 
full of blasphemy the statement. Not therefore as partaker 
of instruction from another does the Son know what be- 
longs to His own Father, but as Himself the Word and 
the Wisdom and the Will 6 , does He search all tilings, 
yea, the deep things of God, as it is written concerning the 
Spirit too. 

Another. As the Likeness and the exact express Image 
of the Father do the Divine Scriptures introduce to us the 
Son : and the Saviour Himself saith, He that hath seen Me hath 
seen the Father. But if with that likeness to Him, He knows 
not of Himself what is in Him, but needs so to speak exposi- 
tions from another in order to learn it, it is time to think that 
the Father Himself is in the same case, if He is in the Like- 
ness of the Son, and He will Himself too.need one to unfold 
to Him what lies hid in His Offspring. And thus in addition 
to the absurdities that result from hence, the Divine Nature 
becomes also a recipient of ignorance. But since it is im- 
pious thus to think, we must betake ourselves to more fitting 
thoughts : for this clearly is what is profitable and helpful. 

Another. The Spirit, says the blessed Paul, sea.rcheth 


cap. i. 2. 

1 Cor. i. 

6 PoiKri- 


lb. ii. 10. 

Infra xiv. 

1 Cor. ii. 




jPAe Son knows Perfectly 

Book I. 

cap. i. 2 
1 Cor. ii. 

all things, yea the deep things of God; and he adds, For what 
man Jcnoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man 
which is in him ? even so the things of God Jcnoweth no man 
but the Spirit of God That is in Him. Since then the Holy 
Spirit Which accurately discerneth all things, is Spirit not 
only of the Father, but of the Son too, how can He having 
within Him by Nature the Spirit Which knoweth all things be 
yet ignorant of ought that is in the Father? Superfluous 
then in truth does it plainly appear to imagine that the 

7 9i\i\ffiv Son learns of another the Will 7 of the Father ; and utterly 

will vanish the need of a word to mediate in vain, according 
to their ill-instructedness. For the Son knows all things 
of Himself. 

Another, by the method of reductio ad absurdum. They 
who accuse the Essence of the Only -Begotten, saying that He 

8 eixnixa knew not the Will 8 of the Father, but made use of in order to 

learn, another teacher, the word invented by them, which they 
call conceived, let them tell us, if they think that their own 
opinion hereupon ought to prevail, whether they will say that 
the conceived word is by nature equal to the Son (for let it be 
supposed to have a separate existence of itself) or not equal, 
but inferior perchance or even superior. If then they suppose 
it inferior, they will commit impiety against the Father Himself 
also : for there will be of a surety in Him what is worse than 
He, and other than He, the conceived word. But if they do 
not say worse, but shall allot to it a superiority to the Son, 
the charge against the Son will operate two-fold against the 
Father. For first of all He will be found to have begotten 
what is in worse condition than Himself. Then moreover 
He too will have the conceived word superior to Him, if the 
Father is Consubstantial with the Son who according to them 
has got an inferior position. But it is likely I suppose that 
the opponents will start back from the blasphemy that re- 
sults from either alternative : and will say that the conceived 
word of the Father is equal to the Son as regards essence. 
The question then is at an end. For how will the one teach 
the other, as one who knows one who does not know, if both 
are equal by nature ? The argument of these people being 

His Father. 


then on all sides weak, it will be superfluous to imagine that the Chap. 
Son has any mean, and not rather to believe that He is in CAP . j' 2. 
God the Father, Grod the Word Who was in the beginning. Supra U. 
Another. The blessed Paul says that in the Son are hid Col. ii. 3, 
the treasures of all wisdom and all knowledge. But if he is 
true in saying such things, how yet shall we suppose that 
He needed teaching from another, or in whom shall we any 
more seek perfectness in knowledge, if He Who has it all is 
made wise by another ? how is he Wisdom who is made 
wise ? But since we must needs give heed not to their words, 
but to those through the Spirit, and the Son hath, as Paul 
saith, in Himself the treasures of wisdom and of all knowledge, 
not from any one else will He know the things whereby 
He is wisdom, but being in the Father He knows all that 
is the Father's, as His Wisdom. 

vol. 1. 



That the Son is by Nature Creator with the Father, as being of His 
Essence, and not taken to Him as a minister. 

3 All things were made by Him, and without Him was not 
anything made. 

The blessed Evangelist, having overthrown the intricate 
objections of the unholy heretics, and having completed his 
subtil and most exact utterance respecting the Only-Begot- 
ten, comes to another snare of the devil compounded of 
the ancient deceit, and putting forth to us the sting of the 
polytheic error, which has wounded and cast down many, and 
widening the way of perdition, and throwing open the 
broad and spacious gate of death, heaped up souls of men in 
herds unto hell and set rich food as it were before the devil 
and brought before him choice meat. For since the children 
of the Greeks applying themselves to the wisdom of the 
world, and having plenteously in their mind the spirit of the 
ruler of this world, were carried away unto polytheic error, 
and perverted the beauty of the truth and, like to those who 
walk in mist and darkness, went down to the pit of their own 
ignorance, serving lifeless idols, and saying to a stock, Thou 
art my father, and to a stone, Thou hast brought me forth : 
others again transgressing akin to them, devising nevertheless 
Rom.i.25. a more polished error, deemed that they ought to worship the 
creature more than the Creator, and lavished the glory that be- 
fitted the Divine Nature Alone on the elements that were made 
by It, of necessity does the Divine introduce to us the Only- 
Begotten as Maker and Creator by Nature, saying that all 
things were made by Him and that without Him nothing passed 
into being, that he might close for the future the entrance 
for their deceits, and might shew to them that know Him 

Cf Prov 
vii. 26. 

Hab. i 




God the Son external to all things. 


not the Creator of all things, and by the very words wherein Chap. v. 
he says that the creation was made, might clearly teach that 
other than it is He Who called it into being, and by His In- 
effable Power brought things that are from not being unto 
birth. For thus at length was it possible by the beauty Wisdom 
of the creatures proportionally to see the Maker, and to re- 
cognize Him Who is in truth God, through Whom all things 
have been already made, and made are preserved. Against 
the false-worship then of the Greeks do I deem that he 
thus well arrayed the Gospel word, and for this cause do we 
believe that the Only-Begotten was introduced by the voice 
of the saint as Maker and Creator. 

But since it is meet to consider the crooked inventions of 
the heretics, I think that we ought looking to their ways too 
to say again a little. 

All things, says he, were made by Him, and without Him was 
not anything made. 

This God-befitting dignity too does he put about the 
Son, on all sides shewing that He is Consubstantial with 
God Who begat Him and saying that all things that belong 
to Him by Nature are in His Offspring : that He may be 
conceived of as truly God of God, not (as we) having the ap- 
pellation adventitious and accruing to us by grace alone, 
according to the words, I have said, Ye are gods and all q/*Pa.lxxxii. 
you are children of the most High. For if all things were 
made by Him, He will be Other than they all. For in this, 
All things, there is nothing which is not seen among all things. 
As the blessed Paul too is found to have understood the all 
things : for when in one of his Epistles he was discoursing of 
our Saviour and said that all things were put in subjection Heb. ii. 8. 
under His feet, excellently does he subjoin, For in that he saith 
all, he left nothing that is not put under Him. Therefore since 
we believe that all things were made by the Son, we will not 
think that He is one of all, but will conclude that He is 
external to all, and severing Him from the nature and kin of 
things originate, will at length confess that He is none else 
save God of God by Nature. For what will intervene between 

e 2 

52 The Father and Son co-work, not as separate. 

Book I. 
cap. i. 3. 

Infra v. 

God and the creature ? I do not mean in regard of essence, 
for much intervenes, but only in regard to the position of 
anything that is, in conception. Or what other position will the 
Son have, Who surpasses the nature of things made, yea rather 
is Himself the Maker ? For all things were made by Him, as 
by the Power, as by the Wisdom of God the Father, not 
hidden in the Nature of Him Who begat Him, as in man is 
for instance his innate wisdom and power, but existing se- 
parately and by Himself, yet proceeding according to the 
ineffable mode of Generation from the Father, that the Wis- 
dom and Power of the Father may be conceived of as truly- 
existing Son. 

But though the blessed Evangelist says that all things were 
made through Him, the saying will not I deem at all minister 
damage to the words concerning Him. For not because it is 
said that the things that are were made through Him, will the 
Son be introduced as an underworker, or a minister of others' 
wills, so that He should be no longer conceived of as being 
by Nature Creator, nor will He be one given the power of 
Creation by some other, but rather being Himself Alone the 
Strength of God the Father, as Son, as Only-Begotten, He 
works all things, the Father and the Holy Ghost co-working 
and co -with Him : for all things are from the Father through 
the Son in the Holy Ghost. And we conceive of the Father as 
co-with the Son, not as though He were powerless to work 
ought of things that are, but as being wholly in Him, by reason 
of unchangeableness of Essence, and His entire kin and the 
absence of any medium towards His Natural Procession from 
Him. As though one were to say that to the sweet scent of a 
flower, the flower itself was co-present for the operation 
of the sweet scent, since it proceeds from it naturally. 
But the force of the example is slight and the Nature That 
is above all will overpass this too, receiving of it little- im- 
presses of ideas. Since how shall we understand, My 
Father worketh hitherto and I work ? For not separately 
and by Himself does the Son say that God the Father 
works ought regarding things that are, and that Himself 
again likewise works apart from the Father, the Essence 

The Persons of the Holy Trinity not severed One from Another. 53 


Whence He is after some sort resting : for so the Creator Chap. v. 
would be two and not One, if Either work apart and sepa- 
rately. Moreover the Father will be recipient of the power 
of not having the Son ever in Him, and the Son likewise will 
be seen to not have the Father ever in Him, if it were possible 
that Either should work apart and separately with regard 
to things that are, as we said before, and the Son will 
not be true, when He says, I am in the Father and the Father Infra xiv. 
in Me. For it is not, I suppose, merely after likeness of Es- 
sence, that we see the Son in the Father as Express Image, or 
again the Father in the Son as Archetype ; but we hold that 
the Son beams forth by Generation from the Essence of the 
Father, and is and subsists in It and of It in distinct Being, 
God the Word : and that the Father again is in the Son, as 
in Oonsubstantial Offspring, Connaturally, yet severally, ac- 
cording to simply the difference of being, and being conceived 
of as that which He is. For the Father remains that which 
He is, even though He be Connaturally in the Son, 
as we say that the Sun is in its brightness. And 'the Son 
again will be conceived of, as not other than He is, even if 
He be Connaturally in the Father, as in the sun its 
brightness. For thus, the Father being conceived of and 
being in truth Father, the Son again being and conceived 
of as Son, the Holy Ghost having His place with them, the 
number of the Holy Trinity mounts to One and the Same 

For how will God be at all conceived of as One, if Each of 
the Persons mentioned withdraw into a complete individu- 
ality, and, while wholly removed from Connature and Essen- 
tial participation with the Other, be called God ? Therefore let 
us conceive of Father, Son and Spirit, according to the mode 
of individual being, not mixing up the difference of the Persons 
or names in regard to That Which Each IS : but while we 
reserve severally to each the being and being called what He 
IS, and thus believe, referring them still of Nature to One 
Godhead, and refusing to hold a complete severance, because 
the Son is called the Word and Wisdom and Brightness and 
Express Image and Might of the Father. For He is Word and 



Heretics take only ivhat seems on their side. 

I- fc 

Book I. Wisdom, "by reason of these being, immediately and without 

cap. i. 3» • . . . 

any intervention, of the mind and in the mind, and because of 
the reciprocal interpassing into one another so to say of both. 
For the mind is seen in word and wisdom, and word in its 
turn in the mind, and there is nought that intervenes, or severs 
the one from the other. He is called Power again, as being a 
quality inherent without any interval in those who have it, 
and that can nowise be severed from them in the manner of 
an accident, apart from the destruction of the subject : Express 
Image again, as being even connate, and unable to be severed 
from the essence of which it is the express image. 

Hence since Either is naturally and of necessity in Other, 
when the Father works the Son will work, as being His Na- 
tural and Essential and Hypostatic Power. Likewise when 
the Son works, the Father too works, as the Source, of the 
Creating Word, Naturally In-existent in His Own Offspring, 
even as the fire too in the heat that proceeds from it. 

It is clear then, that vainly has been iterated the accusa- 
tion of the opponents against the Only-Begotten, who intro- 
duce Him to us as creator by having learnt, yea rather as minis- 
ter too ; because of the Blessed Evangelist saying, All things 
weremade through Him andwithoutHim was not anything'made. 
Much do I marvel at the unholy heretics : for whatever seems 
any way to undo the Dignity of the Only-Begotten and to shew 
Him second to Him Who begat Him, according to their own 
view, this they hunt with much zeal, and from all sides 
bring to it the drugs of their own stubbornness ; whatever 
again are healthfully and rightly said and bring the Son up 
to the Glory of the Father, these things they bury most 
surely in deep silence, as having one sole aim, to in vain 
revile Him Who is glorified of all the creation. For when 
they hear that All things were made through Him, they hotly 
bring on Him the name of service, dreaming that the Son is 
bond instead of free, and worshipper rather than Lord. 
But when they learn that without Him was not anything 
made, they do not mount up to think ought great and mar- 
vellous of Him. For since it is not in God the Father to create 
otherwise than by His own Offspring, Which is His Wisdom 

God the Son created man Equally with the Father. 55 

and Power, the Evangelist says that nought at all was made ^" p AP j" J' 
without Him. For therefore is the Only-Begotten the Glory 
of God the Father (for He is glorified as Creator through the 
Son) ; for He worketh all things and bringeth into being 
things that are not. 

And well will one conceive of the words, without Him was 
not anything made, if he consider with himself what was said 
at the creation of man. For Let us make man, says he, Gen. i. 26. 
in Our image after Our likeness. For here specially one 
can behold in the Son of a truth nought that is lowly, 
as in a minister according to their phrase. For God the 
Father does not command the Word, Make man, but as Co- 
with Him by Nature and His inseparably so to say In- exist- 
ing Co-worker, He made Him also Partaker of His Counsel 
respecting man, not anticipating the knowledge that is in 
the Son in regard to any conception, but as Mind in- 
separably and apart from time manifested in the in-imaged 
and in-existing Word. 

Let God-befitting contemplations again be above the 
reach of the example. Yet we say that He co-works 
with the Son, not conceiving as of two severally, lest 
there be conceived to be two gods, nor yet as though 
both together were one, in order that neither the Son be 
compressed into Father, nor again the Father into Son, but 
rather in such sort as if one allowed to be co-existent in the 
brightness from light the light whence it flashed forth : for 
in such examples the generator seems to be separated in idea 
from the generated and that which springs forth from it in- 
divisibly ; yet are both one and the same by nature, and the one 
in no wise separate from the other. But above this too will 
God again be, inasmuch as He is both Super- substantial and 
has nothing wholly like Him in things originate, that it should 
be taken as a image of the Holy Trinity, without any differ- 
ence, in exactness of doctrine. But if they deem that the 
word, through Whom, said of the Son, can bring down His 
Essence from Equality and Natural likeness to the Father, so 
as to be minister rather than Creator, let those insane consider 
and come forward and make answer, what we are to conceive of 



Through does not imply inferiority. 

Book I. the Father Himself also, and Whom we are to suppose Him too 
to be, seeing that He clearly receives the words through Whom 
lCor. i.9. in the Divine Scripture : for God, says he, is faithful, through 
Whom ye were called unto the fellowship of His Son, and 
Ep"'/ l -P au l an Apostle of Jesus Christ through the will of God : and 
Gal. iv. 7. again Paul writeth to some, Wherefore thou art no more a 
servant but a son ; and if a son, then an heir through God a . 
All these then have reference to the Person of God the 
Father, and no one I suppose will rush to that extreme of 
madness (except perchance he hold with the above mentioned), 
as to say that the name and fact of service, is reasonably 
predicated of the very glory of the Father, because the word 
through Whom is applied to Him too. For the Divine 
Scripture is sometimes indifferent in regard to its words, 
in no wise wronging the subject thereby, but applying to the 
things signified in a less proper sense both the words them- 
selves and those whereby it deems that they are well ex- 
Prov.xxv. pi ame d # B u t it is well to say of those, that The glory of the 
LXX. Lord veileth speech. For little in truth is all might of words 
unto the exact exposition of the Ineffable and God-befitting 
glory. Wherefore one must not be offended at the meanness 
of the things uttered, but must rather yield supremacy, and 
might in tongue, and keenness of every mind, to the Divine 
and unutterable Nature, for thus shall we be and not in small 
degree pious. 

a S. Cyril with the uncial MSS. of God through Christ. 
ABC. has through God in the place of 


That the Sen is by Nature Life and therefore not originate, but of 
the Essence of God the Father. 

4 a That which was made, in it urns Life. 

Yet doth the Blessed Evangelist make to us his discourse 
concerning God the Word, and he seemeth to me profitably 
to go through all that pertains to Him by Nature, that he 
may both put to shame the outrages of the heretics, and may 
fortify those who would fain excel in right faith, with reason- 
ings thereunto tending, not providing from words of worldly 
wisdom unpersuasion, but in demonstration of the Spirit lCor.ii.4. 
marvelling at the beauty of the truth. 

What he would then teach through the words before us, is 
this. He shewed us just now that the Son is by Nature Maker 
and Creator, saying that all things were made by Him and 
that without Him not so much as one thing was called into 
being. But since on the creation He bestows not only to 
be called into being, but also holds it together when made 
through Himself, immingling in some way Himself with 
those who have not by their own nature eternity of being, 
and becoming life to those that are, that having become 
they may abide, and that each may be preserved according 
to its own limit of nature; — needs does he say, That which was 
made, in it was life. Not only, says he, were all things made 
by Him, but also whatever vms made, in it was the Life, that 
is, the Only-Begotten Word of God, the Beginning and Sub- 
sistence of all things both visible and invisible, heavenly and 
earthly and infernal. For Himself being the by-Nature 
Life, bestows manifoldly on things that are, being and life and Acts xvii. 
motion, not in any way of partition and change passing into 
each one of things that are by nature distinct : but their 

a S. Cyril punctuates thus, with, many 
of the Fathers and with the uncial MSS. 



Ood the Son in all as Life. 

ii 3i 

i Hi 

-i f' 


Book I. nature, viewed by itself, is variously fashioned by the in- 
effable Power and Wisdom of the Creator, while One is the 
Life of all passing into each, in such sort as befits it, and 
it is able to partake thereof. But smce that which is 
brought from not being into being must needs also decay, 
and that which has beginning surely hasteth unto its 
end (for to the Divine and All- superior Nature Alone 
beseemeth the being preceded by no beginning and being 
free from ending) : the Creator wisely deviseth for the weak- 
ness that is in things made, and contriveth for them by His 
skill an eternity. For the perpetual succession unto each 
of its like, and the natural progression of things connatural 
or kin unto one another looking ever towards onward course, 
make the creation ever-visible and ever-co-enduring with 
God its Maker. And this (contrivance) is that every one of 
# things that are, soweth seed in itself after its kind and after 

its likeness, according to the unspeakable sentence of its 
Creator. In all then was the Life ; for this is our subject. 
But, excellent sir, may one with reason say to the heretic 
warring against the truth, what will you say to this too, when 
you hear him who bears within him the Spirit say, that in 
all things that were made was the Life, that is, the Word That 
is in the beginning ? Will you dare to say now too, that the 
Son is not of the Essence of God the Father, that He may 
be deemed of as originate and created ? How then will one 
not cry out against thine unlearning, thou, and that with 
justice ? For if in things that were made was the Word, as 
Life by Nature, immingling Himself by participation with 
things that are, He is then Other than those wherein He 
is believed to be. But He being by Nature Other than 
what the creation is, how will He not be the God over all ? 
But if you remain shameless, and cease not to imagine that 
originate is the Son Who is in things made, as Life : — first 
of all He will be conceived of as being somewhat in Himself, 
then besides. He will Himself be partaker of Himself b , and 

b S. Cyril means to say that first, He of Him as their source of Life, He must 

would have His own actual Being : and needs partake of Himself as source of 

that over and above this, if He were ori- Life to Himself, 
ginate, since all things originate partake 

The Son quickens as God. 


Life, if being in things made, He be conceived to be Himself c "ap. 
too one of them. But the fighter against God sees surely cap. i. 4. 
himself too, how great the absurdity of thinking thus. There- 
fore if the Word Who quickens them is by participation in 
things originate, He will not be Himself too among the par- 
ticipators, but other than they. And if so, not originate, but 
in them as by Nature Life. 

This again we shall see by the subjoined considerations. 

Thoughts or arguments. 

If the Son be not of the Essence of God the Father, but from 
without He have subordinated Him according to them, He is 
originate and made. How then does He quicken all things, 
Who is among things made ? Or what distinction shall we 
find any longer in the Divine Nature ? or how does the most 
wise Paul say, as something admirable of Him That is by 
Nature God, Who quickeneth all things ? For if the Son being 1 Tim. vi. 
originate, quickeneth all things, the creation quickeneth itself, ' 
in no wise needing thereto God its Maker. There is then no- 
thing in God more than in the creation ; For it inworketh not 
less than God can do. But this is absurd. Not originate then 
is the Son, but God and therefore by Nature Life also. 

Another. The Psalmist marvelleth exceedingly and that 
with reason at the Divine Nature, and in particular attri- 
buteth to It a most fair dignity saying, For with Thee is the Ps.xxxvi. 
Fountain of life. But if the Father have set the Son below ' 
Him, and have Him not of His own Nature, and He even being 
so, quickens things originate and is by Nature Life as quicken- 
ing, why vainly strives the Psalmist saying that the fountain of 
life is with God Alone ? For the nature of things originate 
also is recipient of this, if the Son, albeit not of the Divine 
Essence according to the uncounsel of some, quickens. But 
this is absurd. Therefore Life by Nature is the Son, as God 
of God, and Life of Life. 

Another. If the Son being by Nature Life be originate 
and created, as not having His Being of the Essence of God 
the Father, according to their fantasy, the nature of things 
originate will be recipient of being and being called life, and 


God the Son God, because 

Book. I, 
cap. i. 4, 







all things will be life in potential, even if they have 
not yet the exercise of the thing itself. For that which 
has the natural power of being ought, will surely be so 
I ween, even if it be not so as yet ; for it has the 
power inherent in its nature. When then the being life 
is common to the creature, the special and alone prerogative 
Infra xiv. f nonej ^fay vainly does the Son vaunt of Himself, I am the 
Life ? for He should, I suppose, have rather said, I am along 
with you the life. This would I suppose have been truer, 
if being indeed originate He is Life too. But since He 
puts about Himself Alone as His special good the being 
Life, it is at length clear that He classes Himself, not with 
things originate, but with the Divine Essence of the Father, 
whereto the being Life also pertains. 

Another. That which is participate of life is not in its own 
right life, for it is clearly in it as other than itself. If then 
the Son is by participation in things originate as Life, He 
will be other than the things that are participate of Him and 
lack life. Therefore not originate is He, nor seeking to be 
quickened by another. He is therefore God as quickening ; 
but if so, He will be confessedly of the Essence of the Father, 
if we worship One God, and serve none other than Him 
Who is. 

Another. Accurately testing the nature of things that 
are, we see God and the creation and nought else besides. 
For whatever falleth short of being God by Nature, that is 
surely originate; and whatever escapeth the catalogue of 
creation, will surely be within the limits of Deity. Since 
then we have well established this, let them tell us who 
thrust forth the Son from the Essence of God the Father, 
how He can quicken as Life, seeing that the Divine Nature 
has this as its own property, and yields it to none else. 
But if being originate He can be Life also, the grace of the 
excellence will surely overtake all things that are originate, 
and all will be by nature life. What need will they have 
therefore of participation of the Son, or what more will they 
gain hence ? for they too possess the being by nature life. 
But this is not true, but they partake of necessity as need- 

He gives Life. 


ing life, of the Son. Alone then is the Only-Begotten by Chap. 
Nature Life, and therefore will He not be reckoned among C ap. il 4. 
things originate, but will mount up unto the Nature of Him 
Who begat Him : for Life by Nature is the Father too. 

Another. The Son being by Nature Life, is either Other 
than the creation, I mean by nature, or con -natural with it. 
If then He be connatural and consubstantial, how will He 
not lie in saying, I am the Bread of Life Which cometh down Infra vi. 
from Heaven and giveth life unto the world ? for the creation ' 
hath from its own the being life, but life is imparticipate of 
life, that it may shew itself life. But if He is not con- 
natural, He will also escape being originate, withdrawing 
from the creation together with Himself His own proper 
good also. For the creation will not be by nature Life, 
but rather lacking and participate of life. 

Another. If the Son being by Nature Life is connatural 
with things made, by reason of not being of the Essence of 
Glod the Father, according to their speech, wherefore does 
the blessed Psalmist say that the heavens shall perish, and Ps.cii.26, 
shall wax old like a garment : but to Him did he attribute 
His own proper prerogative, crying aloud, But Thou art the lb. 27. 
Same and, Thy years shall have no end ? For either He 
will perish and fail along with us, as connatural, and will no 
longer be conceived of as Life, or our natural connection 
with Him will draw up us too to be ever the same and to 
unfailing number of years. But verily He shall be ever the 
same, and we shall fail : He is therefore not originate as we ; 
but since He is of the Life by Nature He will also quicken 
as Life the things that lack life. 

Another. If nought is participate of itself, but the creation 
partakes of the Son as Life ; He is not the creation, nor yet 
is the creation Life, which the Son is. 

Another. If to quicken is one thing, to be quickened 
another, as action and passion, and the Son quickens, the 
creation is quickened : therefore not the same is Son and 
creation, since neither is the in worker with the inwrought. 



That the Son is by Nature Light and therefore not originate, but of 
the Essence of God the Father, as Very Light from Very Light. 

And the Life was the light of men. 

In these words too does the blessed Evangelist shew us 
that the Son is by Nature God and Essentially Heir of the 
good things of Him Who begat Him. For having taught 
before that being by Nature Life, He was in all things that 
were made by Him, holding them together and quickening 
them and granting them of His unutterable Power to pass 
from not being into being, and preserving them when made, 
he advances to another train of ideas, from all sides minded 
to lead us by the hand unto the apprehension of the truth, 
as was right. Therefore in things made was the Word, as Life. 
But since the rational living creature among them on earth 
recipient both of mind and knowledge and participant of the 
wisdom that is from God, is man, needs does the Spirit- 
bearer shew us clearly the Word as Bestower of the wisdom 
that is in man, that God the Father may be conceived of 
being all things in all through the Son ; — life in them that 
lack life, light again and life in them that lack life and 
light. And therefore he says, And the Life was the light 
of men, that is, God the Word Who quickeneth all things, the 
Life in all that are, both enlighteneth the rational creature, 
and lavisheth understanding upon those who are recipient of 
understanding : that so that may be kept and have full force 
l Cor. iv. that is said to the creature, for what hast thou that thou didst 
4 ' not receive ? For nought of wealth from itself hath the ori- 

ginate and created nature, but whatever it is seen to 
possess, this is surely of God, Who bestoweth both being, and 

God the Son, Who giveth Light, God. 


Cf. S. Luke 
xxi. 15. 

how one ought to be. And well was the was put of the life, that c«-ap. 
it might signify in every way the eternal Being of the Word, CAP . i/4, 
and might cut off the triflings of those void of understanding, 
who introduce to us the Son, of the things that are not, which 
manifestly warreth against the whole of Divine Scripture. 

In regard then of the Eternity of the Word with the Fa- 
ther ; — having already sufficiently gone through it both in the 
present Book, and in that called the Thesaurus, we deem 
that we may be silent. But what the mind of the words 
before us introduces, this with all readiness examining to 
the extent of our power, we will be diligent to profit both 
ourselves and those who shall hereafter read it, God again 
opening to us both doors and a mouth to our words. 

What then will the fighter against Christ say to us, when he 
learns that the Life, that is, the ever-living God the Word, is 
the Light of men ? What arguments will he sling at us, 
when we come forward and say, If the Son be not by 
Nature God, and Fruit of the Essence That begat Him, if 
He have not beamed forth to us Yery Light from Very 
Light, but Himself too being from without is subordinated 
according to your unlearning : He is connatural with things 
made, and will in no wise escape being originate. How 
then, O ye filled full of all folly, doth He illuminate, they 
receive illumination from Him ? For is not that which illumi- 
nates one thing, that which is illuminated another ? but this 
is plain and clear to every one. For if we grant that they 
are the same, as regards kind of essence and the mode of 
existence, what is there more in that which has power 
of illumining, what again less in that which lacketh light ? 
For whatsoever cometh, will come to both of them, and 
apart to each, and that which is in need of light will be 
light, and the light will not differ from the illumined. But 
great is the confusion of ideas manifest herein, and necessity 
of reason severs each of the things named and puts in its 
own proper nature the supplier herein apart from the sup- 
plied. Not therefore connatural with things made is the 
Son, but He will abide in the Essence of the Father, being 
Very Light of Very Light. 


God the Son God because 

Book I. And it were nothing hard, by transferring the method 
of reasoning in the foregoing, which we made con- 
cerning the Son being by Nature Life, and demonstrated 
that He is Other than the things wherein He is, to give 
clear proof in this chapter too. — But in order not to leave 
the labour of this to others, nor to appear overmastered by 
sloth, I myself will endeavour, so far as I can, to transfer 
the form of argument used in the foregoing reasonings. For 
as in those, He being Life by Nature, is shewn to be Other 
than those wherein He is, so here too, said to be and in 
verity being the Light of men, He will be found to be Other 
than things that lack light and partake thereof; as we shall 
see more clearly in the following. 

Proofs by demonstrations, that the Son who illumineth is Other 
than the creation that is illumined. 

If the Word was in the things spoken of, as Light by Na- 
ture, immingling Himself by means of participation in things 
that are, He is then Other than the things wherein He is 
believed to be. But He That is by Nature Other than what 
the creation participant of Him and by Him illumined is, 
how will He not needs be the God Who is over all ? 

Another. If the fighter against God says that the Son 
being by Nature Light is in things originate as originate, 
illumining things that lack light : — first of all He will be 
conceived of as being in Himself, then besides, He will Him- 
self be partaker of Himself and Light, if being in things 
originate, He one and the same be conceived to be of 
Ps.xc.12. them. But he that has applied his heart unto wisdom, as it 
is written, sees surely how great the absurdity of thinking 
thus. Therefore if the Word Who illuminateth them is by 
participation in things Originate, He will not Himself be 
among the participants and illumined, but Other therefore 
than they. And if so, He is then not originate, but as 
Light by Nature and God in things that lack Light. 

Another. If the Son be not of the Essence of God the 
Father, but being from without He have subordinated Him 
according to them, He is then originate and created : how 


He giveth Light. 


then is He in things made, enlightening them ? or what C yij' 
special shall we find any longer in the Divine Essence ? or cap. i. 4. 
how does the most wise Psalmist say as something marvellous 
of Him Who is by Nature God, In Thy Light shall we see light ? Ps - xxxvi. 
For if the Son being originate illumines all things, the crea- 
tion will illumine itself, having no wise need thereto of God 
its Maker. There is then nothing more in God than in the 
creature, and it inworks no less than God could do. But 
this is absurd. The Son then is not originate, but God 
rather, and therefore Light by Nature, as is the Father. 

Another of the same. If the Son being the Light of God 
the Father (as is said, In Thy Light shall we see Light and, lb. 
send out Thy Light and Thy Truth], is originate and Ib.xliii.3. 
brought into being, there is no longer ought to hinder, 
by equal analogy, all things originate from being called 
the Light of God the Father. For if the nature of things 
created at all admits this, it will be in potential common 
to them all, and not the own property of the One Son. But 
this is absurd : for to the Son Alone will it pertain to be 
called and to be the Light of God the Father. Not there- 
fore originate is He, but Light, as God from God Who illu- 
mineth through Him things lacking light. 

Another. If the Son being by Nature Light is not of the 
Essence of the Father, but being from without is subordi- 
nated, according to the uninstructed speech of the fighters 
against God, it follows that He is connatural and kin to 
things created, as having forsooth fallen away from the 
Divine Essence. How then is He called and is Light, but 
of the holy Baptist it is said, He was not the Light, albeit Infra ver. 
the blessed Baptist is light in potential, and not he alone, if 
it be once granted that the Son being originate, can be by 
Nature Light ? For that which has once had place in the 
nature, is I suppose common to each that partakes of such 
nature, according to the law of consequence. But John was 
not Light, the Son Light. Other therefore by Nature is He 
and not connatural with things made. 

Another of the same. If the Son being by Nature Light is 
originate and created, as not possessing forsooth the being 

VOL. i. f 

God the Son Ood, 

Book I. 

cap. i. 4, 


of the Essence of God the Father, as some surmise, the 
nature of things originate will admit of being and being 
called light ; it will be altogether light according to the law 
of potential. For that which has in its nature to be anything, 
will I suppose surely be so, even if it have not yet been. 
Since then the being light is common to the nature of things 
originate, and the property in aloneness of none, why in vain 
does the Son vaunt of Himself, saying, I am the Light ? for 
He ought I suppose to say, I am with you the Light. But 
since He puts it about Himself Alone as His own proper 
goody joining to Himself no one else, He clearly classes Him- 
self, not with things originate, but with the Divine Essence 
of God the Father, whereto belongs the being by Nature 
Light. . 

Another. That which is participate of light is not in its 
own right the Light ; for it is clearly one thing in another. 
If then the Son be by participation in things originate, as 
Light ; He will be other than those that partake of Him and 
lack Light. Therefore not originate is He, nor seeking, as 
things originate, to be illumined by another : it remains 
therefore that He is God and able to illuminate. If so, He 
will be conceived of also as sprung of the Essence of the 
Father, if we worship One God, and serve none other than 
the True God. 

Another. Accurately testing the nature of things that 
are, we behold God and the creature, and nought else 
besides. For whatever faileth of being by Nature God, is 
wholly originate, and whatever escapeth the category of being 
made, is wholly and entirely within the limits of Divinity. 
Since then we have established this, let them tell us who 
thrust forth the Son from being of the Essence of God 
the Father, how He can illumine as Light, seeing the 
Divine Nature retaineth this as Its own, and yields it to 
none else. But if the Son being originate, can be also Light, 
the grace of this excellence will surely overtake all things 
originate, and all will be by nature light. What further need 
then have they of participation with the Son, or what more 
will they gain hence, having themselves too the being by 

Who giveth Light. 


nature light, even as the Son hath it in them ? But the Chap. 

-f • • • VII 

creature does need the Illuminator, not having this of its own. CAP , 1/5. 

God then by Nature is the Son, and therefore Light, as able 

to illumine things that lack Light. 

Another. The Son being by Nature Light, is either 
Other than the creature, in regard that is of the mode of 
being, or connatural with it. If then He be cognate and 
consubstantial, vainly, as it seems, did He come to us say- 
ing, i" am come a Light into the world ; for the creation has Infra xii. 
of its own itself also the being light : but light is impartici- 
pate of light, that it may be understood to be light. But if 
He be not connatural, but the creature lack light to whom 
belongs, What hast thou that thou didst not receive ? needs 1 Cor. iv. 
will the Son escape being originate, withdrawing from the 
creation together with Himself His own proper good. For 
the creature will not be by nature light, but rather lacking 
and participate of light. 

Another. If nought be participate of itself and the crea- 
ture partake of the Son as Light : He is not a creature, 
nor yet the creature Light, which the Son is. 

Another. If to illumine be one thing, to be illumined 
another, as action and passion, and the Son illumines, the 
creature is illumined; therefore not the same is Son and crea- 
ture, since neither is the in worker with the inwrought. 

5 And the Light shineth in darkness, and the darkness compre- 
hended it not. 

Needs does the most wise Evangelist hasten to expand 
to us by this too that is now before us the thought expressed 
above. For he did not think, I suppose, that it would suffice 
to the hearers unto being able to think unerringly of God 
the Word, that He is verily the Light of men, by only saying, 
And the Life ivas the Light of men. For it was like I sup- 
pose that some would arise who should hear the things uttered 
without weighing them, and should moreover set forth or 
try to teach others also that the Word of God is indeed verily 
Light, but not Giver of light to all, but in whomsoever He will 
He infuses the light of understanding, approving him who 

f 2 


Tlie creature darkness, 

Book I. ought to receive it and is worthy of so bright a gift : and that the 
nature of the rest of the rational creation either gets the power of 
understanding from its natural seed, or God the Father ingrafts 
into it mind and understanding, as though the Son were unable 
to do this. In order then that God the Word, Who was in God 
the Father, may be clearly shewn to be both Life and Light, 
not of some individually, of others not, but by some ineffable 
mode of participation, as wisdom and understanding (which 
is what is called light in things rational), immingling Him- 
self in all things that are, that the things rational may become 
rational, and things recipient of sense may have sense, which 
in no other way they could have had : — needs does he say, 
And the Light shineth in darkness and the darkness compre- 
hended it not. 

As though he with all exactitude crieth aloud to his hearers 
after this sort : I said, sirs, teaching the truth with all my 
power, that the Life was the Light of men, not that any 
should suppose from these words that they who shew 
themselves righteous and good receive from another, as the 
reward of their conduct, the illumination from Him, but that 
ye might learn, that as the Word is Life in all things that have 
been made, quickening things recipient of life ; so He is in 
them Light also, rendering things recipient of understanding 
and sense, what they are. For God the Father through the 
Son in the Spirit is all things in all. 

Darkness he calls the nature that lacks illumination, i. e. 
the whole originate nature. For since he calls Him the Light, 
to shew that the rational creation which lacks and is impar- 
ticipate thereof is other than It, he turns the force of the 
epithet used to the very contrary, doing this also, after my 
judgment, not without an aim, but considering in himself 
this above all, that the nature of things originate, producing 
nothing whatever from its own self, but receiving its whole 
being and well-being such as it is from its Creator, has 
l Cor. iv. rightly said to it, What hast thou that thou didst not receive ? 
And since along with the rest, it has light itself also God- 
given, not possessing it does it receive it : but that which has 
not of itself light, how will it not be the contrary, or how 


the Son Light. 


will it not be called darkness ? For that the Light shineth in 
darkness is a credible demonstration (yea rather one follow- 
ing from very necessity), that the creation is darkness, the 
Word of God Light. For if the nature of things originate 
receive the Word of God by participation, as Light, or as of 
Light 1 : it receives it then as itself darkness, and the Son shineth 
in it, as the light doth in darkness, even though the darkness 
know not a whit the Light. For this, I suppose, is the 
meaning of The darkness comprehended it not. For the 
Word of God shineth upon all things that are receptive of 
His Irradiance, and illumineth without exception things 
that have a nature receptive of illumining. But He is un- 
known of the darkness. For that which is the rational 
nature upon earth, I mean man, served the creature more than 
the Creator : it comprehended not the Light, for it knew not 
the Creator, the Fountain of wisdom, the beginning of under- 
standing, the root of sense. Things originate possess never- 
theless, of His love to man, the light, and are provided with 
the power of perception implanted concurrently with their 
passing into being. 

But we must again note here, that no argument will per- 
mit to suppose that the Son of God is originate or created, 
but in every way does He surpass our measure, and rise above 
the nature of the creature, and is wholly Other than they are 
and far removed as regards quality of essence, even as 
the light is not the same as darkness, but soothly contrary and 
parted by incomparable diversity into physical alieniety. 

Having now sufficiently gone through the method of rea- 
soning hereupon in the foregoing, we will go on to what 


CAP.i.6, 7. 

1 &>s <pus 
fy us e'jc 

Rom. i. 

6 7 There was a man sent from God, whose name was John. The 
same came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light. 

Having before Explained about God the Word, and most 
accurately gone through the things whereby He is shewn to 
be by Nature Son of God the Father, he fortifies their 
faith in what they had already heard by his words. And 
since (according to what was said by God through Moses), At Deut.xix. 


The Evangelist and Baptist 

Book I. 
cAP.i.6, 7. 


■ if: 

Supra 1,2. 
lb. 3. 
lb. 4. 

Isa. xl. 3, 

1 Cor.viii, 

lb. 5. 

Infra Tiii 

the mouth of two and three witnesses shall every word be 
established, wisely does he bring in addition to himself 
the blessed Baptist, and introduces him along with him- 
self a most noteworthy witness. For he did not suppose 
that he ought, even if of gravest weight, to demand of the 
readers in his book concerning our Saviour credence above 
that of the law, and that they should believe him by himself 
when declaring things above our understanding and sense. 

Therefore the blessed Evangelist himself testifies that 
The Word was in the beginning and the Word was God and 
was in the beginning with God and that all things were 
made by Him, and He was in the things made as Life, 
and that the Life tvas the Light of men, that by all these 
he might shew that the Son is by Nature God. And the 
Divine Baptist too testifies in addition to him, crying aloud, 
Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight the paths 
of our God. For soothly one will say that He is Very God, in 
Whom is by Nature inherent the dignity of lordship and it 
accrues not to any other rightly and truly, since to us there 
is one God the Father, and one Lord Jesus Christ, as Paul 
saithj and though there be many called gods by grace and 
lords both in heaven and earth, yet the Son is One with 
the Father Yery God. 

Therefore, most noteworthy is the pair of holy witnesses, 
and credence no longer capable of blame is due to the things 
said, both as having received the fulness of the law, and sup- 
ported by the notability of the persons. For the blessed 
Evangelist then to say ought concerning himself, and to 
take hold of his own praises, were in truth burdensome 
and moreover ill-instructed. For he would rightly have 
heard, Thou bearest record of thyself, thy record is not true. 
Therefore he commits to those who know him to form their 
opinion of him, and goes to his namesake, doing well in this 
too, and says that he was sent by God. For it behoved him 
to shew that not of his own accord nor with self-invited zeal 
does the holy Baptist come to his testimony respecting our 
Saviour, but yielding to the commands from above, and 
ministering to the Divine Will of the Father. Wherefore he 

two witnesses. 


says, There was a man sent from God, whose name was Chap. 

John - caL.6,7. 

But we must notice how unerringly and fitly he expressed 

himself as to each, and correspondently to the nature of the 

things indicated. For in the case of God the Word, ivas 

is fitly introduced indicating every way His Eternity, and His 

being more ancient than all beginning that is in time, and 

removing the idea of His having been created. For that 

which always is, how can it be conceived of as originate ? 

But of the blessed Baptist, befittingly does he say, There 

was a man sent from God, as of a man having an originate 

nature. And very unerringly does the Evangelist herein 

seem to me not merely to say that There was, but by adding 

the word a man, to overthrow the most unadvised surmise 

of some. 

For already was there a report bruited of many, commonly 
saying that the holy Baptist was not really a man by nature 
but one of the holy angels in heaven, making use of human 
body and sent by God to preach. And the plea for this 
surmise they found in its being said by God, Behold I send, s. Matth. 
My messenger before Thy Face, which shall prepare Thy way Mai. iii. 
before Thee. But they err from the truth who imagine thus, ' 
not considering that the name of Angel is indicative of 
ministry rather than of essence, even as in the history of the 
blessed Job messengers a one after the other run to announce Job i. 
his manifold sufferings and ministering to those incurable 
afflictions. Something like this does the most wise Paul 
himself define respecting the holy angels, writing thus : Are Heb. i. 
they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them 
who shall be heirs of salvation ? 

John the blessed Baptist then is called an angel by the 
mouth of the Lord, not as being actually by nature an angel, 
but as sent to announce and crying aloud, Prepare ye the way 
of the Lord. Very profitably does he declare moreover that 
the angel * was sent by God, shewing that his witness is most ! rbv 
sure. For he that was sent by God to preach, would not a njel °r 

a &yy fKoi. The Greek word " angel " 
signifying literally a messenger and used 

in classic Greek in that meaning. 


72 8. John Baptist accredited, as sent. 

Book I. utter anything in his teaching that was not wholly according 
"to the will of Him Who put the mission on him. True there- 
fore is the witness as being God-taught. For the most wise 
Gal. i. l. p au l a l S o telling us that he was sent by Jesus Christ, affirmed 
that he learned the power of the mystery not of any other, 
lb. 12. "j^t ]jy revelation of Him Who sent him, signifying the re- 
* ffwnn- velation in sum so to say and briefly 2 , in saying that he was 
Kollsia" sent by Jesus Christ. Hence the being God-taught wholly 
a-rarws f u ows on being sent by God. And that freedom from lying 
is wholly the aim of the ministers of the truth is undoubted. 
The man's name he says was John. It needed that he who 
was sent should be recognized by the mark of the name, which 
introduces, as I suppose, great authenticity to what is said. 
S- Luke J? 0r an angel (namely Gabriel that stand in the presence of God, 
as himself says) when he declared toZacharias the good tidings 
of his birth of Elizabeth, added this to what he said, namely 
lb. 13. that his name shall be John. It is I suppose clear and con- 
fessed by all that he was so named of the angel according to 
the Divine purpose and appointment. How then will not he 
who was crowned by God with so great honour be conceived 
of as above all praise ? Wherefore the mention of his name 
is profitably and necessarily brought in. 

But since the Evangelist has added that the holy Baptist 
was sent by God/or a witness that all men through him might 
believe, we will further say when our opponents fall foul and 
say, „Why did not all believe the God -sent ? how came 
„ he who was fore -appointed by the decree from above to be 
„ powerless to persuade any?" — It is meet, sirs, that we 
should not blame John for want of zeal herein, but should 
exclaim against the obstinacy of those who disbelieved. For 
so far as pertains to the aim of the herald, and the mode of his 
apostolate from above, none would have been found impartici- 
pate in the teaching, nor would have remained in unbelief : 
but since there was diversity of disposition in the hearers and 
each has power over his own free-choice, some receiving not 
the faith missed what was profitable. Wherefore we must 
Ezek. iii. say to them (as it is in the prophet), He that heareth, let him 
hear ; and he that forbeareth, let him forbear. 

God the Son Light, the Baptist a lamp. 73 

This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light. 

The word This is full of declaration of virtue and praise of 
person. For he that was sent, he says, from God, he that 
with reason struck with astonishment the whole of Judaea, 
by the gravity of his life and its marvellous exercise in virtue 3 , 
he that is fore-announced by the voice of the holy Prophets : 
called by Isaiah, The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, 
and by the blessed David, a lamp fore-ordained for Christ h ; 
This man came for a witness to bear witness of the Light. 
He here calls God the Word Light, and shews that He is 
One and strictly 4 the very actual Light, with Whom there is 
by nature nought else that has the property of illumining, and 
that is not lacking light. Therefore foreign and, so to say^ 
of other nature than the creature is the Word of God, since 
verily and truly is He strictly Light, the creature par- 
ticipate of light. He then that is unclassed with things 
made, and conceived of therefore as being of other nature 
than they, how will He be originate, rather how will He not 
be within the limits of Deity and replete with the Good 
Nature of Him who begat Him ? 

8 He was not the Light, but was sent to bear witness of the Light. 

The Baptist having esteemed desert-abodes above the haunts 
of the cities, and having shewn forth an unwonted persistence 
in exercise of virtue, and having mounted to the very sum- 
mit of the righteousness attainable by man, was most rightly 
wondered at, and even by some imagined to be Christ Him- 
self. And indeed the rulers of the Jews led by his achieve- 
ments in virtue to some such notion, send some to him bid- 
ding them to inquire if he be the Christ. The blessed 
Evangelist then not ignorant of the things that were by many 
bruited of him, of necessity puts, He was not the Light, that 
he might both uproot the error as to this, and again build 
up some weight of credence to him who was sent from God 
for a witness. For how is he not eminent exceedingly, how 
is he not every way worthy of marvel, who is so clad with 
great virtue and so illustrious in righteousness as to imitate 

•» " Mine Anointed," E. V. " My Christ," LXX. 


cap. i. 8. 

3 Ka\ ra7s 
eis &<TK-J]- 
ffiv v-rrtp- 
Isa. xl. 3. 



The Saints have light, not from themselves. 

Book I. 
cap. i. 8, 

S. Matt, 
v. 14. 

Infra v. 

Phil. ii. 
15, 16. 

Infra xiv, 

Christ Himself, and by the choice beauty of his piety, to be 
even imagined to be the Light Itself ? 

He was not then, says he, the Light, but sent to bear wit- 
ness of the Light. In saying the Light, with the addition of 
the article, he shews that it is really one : for so it is in truth. 
For that both the blessed Baptist and each of the other saints, 
may be rightly called light we will not deny, seeing that it 
is said of them by our Saviour, Ye are the light of the world. 
And again it is said of the holy Baptist, I have ordained a 
lamp for My Christ, and, He was a burning and a shining light, 
and ye were willing for a season to rejoice in his light. But 
even though the saints be light, and the Baptist a lamp, we 
are not ignorant of the grace that was given them and of 
their supply from the Light. For neither is the light in the 
lamp its own, nor the illumination in the saints, but they are 
rendered bright and lightsome by the enlightening of the 
Truth and are lights in the world, holding forth the word of life. 
And what is the Life, whose word they holding forth are 
called light, save surely the Only-Begotten, Who saith, I am 
the Life ? Therefore, One of a truth is That Which is verily 
Light, lighting, not enlightened : and by participation of the 
One, whatever is called light, will be so deemed of by imita- 
tion of It. 


That the Son of God alone is Very Light, the creature not at all, 
being participate of Light, as originate. 

9 That was the true Light. 

The Divine Evangelist again profitably recapitulates what 
has been said, and clearly marks off That Which is in truth 
the Light, the Only-Begotten, from those that are not so, 
namely things originate : he severs clearly That Which is 
by nature from them which are by grace, That Which is par- 
taken of from those which are participate of it, That Which 
ministereth Itself to those who lack from those who are in 
enjoyment of Its largess. And if the Son is Very Light, 
nought save He is in truth Light, nor hath of its own in poten- 
tial the being called and being Light, nor yet will things 
originate produce this as fruit of their own nature; but just as 
from not being they are, so from not being Light will they 
mount up to being light, and by receiving the beams of the 
Very Light, and irradiated by the participation of the Divine 2 S. Pet. 
Nature, will they in imitation of It alike be called and be 

And the Word of God is Essentially Light, not being so 
of grace by participation, nor having th,is dignity as an ac- 
cident in Himself, nor yet imported, as grace, but the un- 
changeable and immutable good of the Uncreated Nature, 
passing through from the Father into the Heir of His 
Essence. But the creature, not so will it bear about it the 
being light, but as not having it receives, as darkness it is illu- 
mined, it has, as an accruing grace, the dignity from the love 
to man of Him Who giveth it. Hence the One is Very Light, 
the other not at all. So great therefore beiriP- thp cK#n-^^~~ 


God the Son God, 

Book I. between, and so great a notion severing off, the Son of God 
from the creature in respect to sameness of nature, how must 
one not and with reason deem that they are foolish, yea rather 
outside of all good understanding, who say that He is origi- 
nate, and rank with things made the Creator of all, not 
seeing, as seems to me, how great impiety their daring will 

l Tim. i. risk, not knowing either what they say nor whereof they 

For that to those who are used to test more accurately the 
truth in the words before us, the Only-Begotten, that is, the 
True Light, will be shewn to be in no way originate or made, 
or in any thing at all con-natural with the creature, one may 
on all sides see and that very easily, and not least through 
the thoughts that are in order subjoined, collected for the 
consideration of what is before us. 

Thoughts or syllogisms whereby one may learn that the Son Alone 
is Very Light, the creature not at all ; hence neither is He con- 
natural therewith. 

If the Son being the Brightness of the glory of God the 
Father, is therefore Yery Light, He will not be connatural 
with the creature, that the creature too be not conceived of 
as the brightness of the glory of God the Father, having in 
potential the being by nature this which the Son is. 

Another. If the whole creation have the power of being 
Very Light, why is this attributed to the Son Alone ? For 
one ought I suppose by reason of equality to give to things 
made also the title of being the Yery Light. But no one of 
things originate will this befit, but it will be predicated of the 
Alone Essence of the Son. Of right therefore and truly will 
it rest on Him, on created things not at all. How then will 
He be connatural with the creation, and not rather belong to 
what is above the creation, as being above it with the 
Father ? 

Another. If that which is not in truth light be not the same 
as the in truth Light (for the enunciation of either has some- 
what of diversity), and the Son be called Very Light, and be so 
of a truth: the creature will therefore not be Yery Light. 

Who giveth light. 


Hence neither are things thus severed from one another ^||[' 
connatural. cap. i. 9. 

Another. If not only the Only-Begotten be the Yery Light, 
but the creature too possesseth the being very light, where- 
fore does He light every man that cometh into the worldl For 
since the originate nature too possesseth this of its own, 
the being lightened by the Son were superfluous. Yet 
verily doth He light, all we are partakers of Him. Not 
therefore the same in regard to quality of essence, are the 
Son and the creature : as neither with the participator that 
whereof it is participate. 

Another. If not only to the Son by Nature accrues the 
being Very Light, but the creature too have it, clearly of 
superfluity as I think will the Psalmist say to some, Look Ps.xxxiv. 
unto Him and be ye lightened. For that which is wholly of a 
truth light, will not become light by participation of some 
other, neither will it be illumined by enlightenment from 
other, but rather will be endowed with perfect purity from 
its own nature. But we see that man lacks light, being of 
created nature ; and true is the Psalmist crying aloud as to 
the Word of God, For Thou wilt light my candle, the Lord my lb. xviii. 
God will enlighten my darkness. Not then of a truth light ' 
are we, but rather participate of the Word that lighteth, and 
alien by nature from the Very Light, which is the Son. 

Another of the same. If the mind of man is called a candle, 
as it is sung in the Psalms, For Thou wilt light my candle, lb. 
how shall we be of a truth light ? for to the candle the light is 
imported and given. And if the Only -Begotten Alone lights 
the darkness that is in us, how is not He rather of a truth 
light, we not at all ? But if this be true, how can He be 
connatural with the creature, Who is so far above it ? 

Another. If to be very light can accrue to the creature, even 
as to the Son, man will be very light, as being a portion of 
it. To whom then did God the Father promise by the holy 
Prophets saying, But unto you that fear My Name shall the Mal.iv.2. 
Sun of Righteousness arise ? For whatever need of the Sun 
to illumine it had the of a truth light ? Yet did God the 
Father promise to give it us as being in need, and we have 


God the Son Light, 

Book I. received it and are lighted. Other then than we and the 
' creature in regard to identity of essence is the Only-Begotten, 
being Very Light and able to lighten things that need light. 
Another. If not the Son Alone is Very Light, but the 
creature too possess this, it will be consequently in us too. 
Ps.xliii.3. What then induced the saints to cry aloud to God, send 
out Thy Light and Thy Truth ? Wherein thinking to help 
us thereby did they oftentimes send forth, tell me, those 
words ? For if they knew that man is in need of light and 
that he lacks this addition from another, how will any say with 
truth, that he too is Very Light ? but if he needed not the 
lighting word, why to no purpose did they call on Him Who 
could in no wise aid them ? But one cannot say that the 
mind of the saints failed of the truth, and God the Father 
Himself sends the Son as to those who lack light. Other 
therefore by Nature in respect of fhe creature is the Only- 
Begotten, as lighting things that lack Light. 

Another. If we say that the creature lacks light, and that 
the Only-Begotten lightens it, the creature does not bring 
itself to the Light ; hence neither is it Very Light as the 
Son is. 

Another. If that which is by nature and truth light does 

not admit of darkness, and the Only-Begotten is Very Light, 

and the creature likewise Very Light, why does the Scripture 

Supra say of the Son, The darkness comprehended it not : but of us 

2 e c'or.' iv. P au l saith, In whom the god of this world hath blinded the 

4 - eyes of them which believe not? and again the Saviour Himself, 

Infra xii. While ye have the light, walk in the light, lest darkness come 

upon you. For it is I suppose clear to all, that unless it were 

possible for some of us to be apprehended by the darkness, 

our Saviour would not have said ought of this. How then 

will any longer be the same in nature the Only-Begotten and 

the creature, the Unchangeable with the changing, He Who 

may not suffer ought that injures with the darkened and that 

can acquire lighting, as something, that is, accruing to it, and 

not inherent in it by nature ? 

Another. If the Only -Begotten be not Alone Very Light, 
but the creature have it too, as connatural with Him, how 


the creature lighted. 


cry we aloud to God the Father, In Thy Light shall we see 
light ? For if we be very light, how shall we be enlightened 
in another ? But if we as needing light from without us say 
this, we clearly are not in truth light. Hence neither are 
we connatural with the Word Who is by Nature so far 
above us. 

Another expository. Our Lord Jesus Christ is found to 
say in the Gospel, And this is the condemnation, that light is 
come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, 
because their deeds were evil. For every one that doeth evil 
hateth the light, neither cometh to the light. But if the Only- 
Begotten is the Very Light, and the creature is capable of 
being likewise very light : how cometh He in order to lighten 
it, and it loved darkness ? How at all cometh it not to the 
light, if itself be the very light ? For things that pertain to 
any by nature have their" possession inherent : things that 
are eligible of the will, have not that inherence : as for ex- 
ample ; — not of one's own will does one attain to being a ra- 
tional man ; for one has it by nature : but one will have it 
of one's own will to be bad or good, and will likewise of 
one's own power love righteousness or the reverse. If the 
creature is by nature the light (for this is the meaning of 
very), how cometh it not to the light ? or how loveth it the 
darkness, as though it possessed not by nature the being very 
light, but made through choice rather its inclination to the 
better or the worse ? 

Either therefore let our opponents dare to say that the 
endowments above those of the creature are not naturally in- 
herent in the Son, that they may be convicted of more naked 
blasphemy and may hear from all, The Lord shall cut off 
all deceitful lips, and the tongue that speaketh proud things, 
or if they surely confess that these goods are in Him Essen- 
tially, let them not connect with Him in unity of nature, 
the nature that is not so, as we have just shewn. 

Another. If the Word of God be not Alone the Very 
Light, but the creature too possess the being very light, as 
He does, why does He say, I am the light of the world ? or 
how shall we endure one to despoil our nature of its most 


cap. i. 9. 

Infra iii. 
19, 20. 


Ps. xii. 3. 

Infra viii. 



God the Son Light, 

Book I. 
cap. i. 9. 



excellent pre-rogative, if it is any way possible that we too 
should be very light, the originate nature likewise possessing 
this ? But if the Only-Begotten says truly, I am the Light 
of the world, by participation it is plain with Him, and no 
otherwise, will the creature be light. If so, it is not conna- 
tural with Him. 

Another. If the Son be not Alone in truth Light, but this 
exist in things originate also : — what shall we say, when 
the most wise Paul writes to us, But ye are a chosen genera- 
tion, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people, that 
ye should shew forth the praises of Him Who hath called you out 
of darkness into His marvellous Light ? For what kind of dark- 
ness at all is there in us, or in what darkness were we, being 
ourselves also the in truth light ? how have we been called 
unto the light, who are not in darkness ? But neither does 
the herald of truth speak untrulySvho was bold to say, Do 
ye seek a proof of Christ speaking in me ? and we are called 
into His marvellous Light, as from darkness that is, and no 
otherwise. But if this be true, the creature is not of a truth 
light, but the Son is alone truly and strictly Light, and 
things originate are so by participation of Him, and there- 
fore they are not connatural with Him. 

Ps. iv. 6. 

Infra xiv, 

Others with citation of utterances, gathering the readers by simpler 
thoughts to the confession that the Son of God Alone is the Very 
Light, the nature of things originate lighted by largess from Him, 
not possessing the being light essentially as He is. 

The Psalmist says, The light of Thy Countenance was im- 
pressed upon us, Lord. And what is the Countenance of 
God the Father Whose Light has been impressed upon us ? 
Is it not surely the Only -Begotten Son of God, the Express 
Image, and Which therefore says, He that hath seen Me hath 
seen the Father ? But it was impressed on us, making us 
of like form with Himself and engraving the illumination 
which is through His own Spirit as a Divine Image upon those 
who believe on Him, that they too may now be called as He 
both gods and sons of God. But if ought of things origi- 
nate were the very light, how was it impressed upon us ? For 

the creature lighted. 


the Light shineth in darkness, according to the unlying Cha. viii. 
voice of the Spirit-clad. For how will light be manifest in Supraver. 
light? " ■ ' 5 ' 

Another. The Psalmist says, Light sprang up for the Ps. xcvH. 
righteous. If to him who hath and lacketh not, it is super- 
fluous. But if the Light springeth up as to one who hath 
it not, the Only-Begotten Alone is Light, the creature par- 
ticipate of Light and therefore alien-in-nature. 

Another. The Psalmist says, For they got not the land in 
possession with their own sword, neither did their own arm 
save them : but Thy Right Hand and Thine Arm and the 
Light of Thy Countenance. The light of the countenance of 
God the Father he here calls His revelation from the Son 
through the Spirit, and His conducting thereof unto all things 
that are, which alone was what saved Israel and liberated 
them from the tyranny of the Egyptians. If then not the 
Only-Begotten Alone be the very light, but an equal dignity 
be inherent in the creature too, why were these of whom he 
speaks not saved by their own light, but are set forth as sup- 
plied by additions from an alien and needless light ? But 
it is clear that the Only Begotten shone forth as on those lack- 
ing Light. Hence is He (and that alone) the Very Light, 
and the creature borrows of Him the grace. If so, how will 
it any longer be connatural with Him ? 

Another. The Psalmist says, Blessed is the people that know ib.lxxxix. 
the joyful sound : they shall walk, Lord, in the Light of Thy 
Countenance. Why shall not they too walk rather in their own 
light ? why, tell me, do they gathering illumination from 
another, hardly attain for themselves salvation, if they 
too are in truth light, as is the Countenance of God the 
Father, that is, the Son ? But it is I suppose plain to every 
one from this too, that the Word bestoweth illumination 
on the creature, as lacking it, it is saved by receiving what 
it has not. How then are the Only-Begotten and the things 
made through Him any longer the same in essence ? 

Another. The Psalmist says, Unto the upright He hath Ib.cxii.4. 
sent forth light in the darkness. How was the upright in 
darkness at all, being himself too very light, if the nature of 

VOL. i. G 



Testimonies that God the 

Book I 
cap. i. i 




tilings originate have this, just as the Only-Begotten ? But 
if the Light is sent to the upright as not having it, we shall 
not need many words ; for the very nature of things will 
proclaim aloud that not the same in essence is the needy 
with the Perfect, the Bestower out of abundance with the 
Isa. lx. l. Another. Arise, shine, Jerusalem :for thy Light is come, 
and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee. If the nature 
of things originate have light from its own resources, and this 
be strictly what we say that the Only -Begotten is in regard 
of being Very Light, how did Jerusalem lack one to light 
her ? But since she receives illumination as a grace, Very 
Light Alone is the Son Who lights her and gives her what 
she has not. If so, how is He not wholly Other by Nature 
than she ? 

Another. Behold I have given Thee for a covenant of the 
people, for a light of the Gentiles. For how should the rational 
creature that is on earth at all need light, if to be very light 
is inherent in it by nature ? For God the Father gives His 
Own Son to it as having it not already : and it receiving Him 
proclaims by the very nature of the thing, both the poverty 
of its own nature and the Rich Dignity of Him Who 
lights it. 

Another. house of Jacob, come ye and let us walk in the 
light of the Lord. Why do these not rather walk in their 
own light, but the Only- Begotten holds forth light to them, 
implanting in them the own good of His Essence ? But 
trusting not in what is their own, do they borrow what is 
another's : as not having therefore, they know how to do this. 

Another. The Saviour saith, I am the Light of the world : 
he that followeth Me shall not walk in darkness but shall have 
the Light of life. Let the creature too dare to utter such a 
word, if it too be by nature light. But if it shrink back from 
the word, it will also flee the thing itself, confessing the true 
Light, that is, the Son. 

Another. The Lord saith, While ye have light, believe in 
the Light, that ye may be the children of light. Would they who 
were by nature light, by not believing, lose the light ? if it 

lb. H. 5. 

Infra viii 


Son is our Light. 


be indeed any way possible for the originate essence to be Cha. yiii. 
the very light. And how could this be ? For not as to 
things that of essence accrue to any does the loss of them at 
all happen through negligence, but as to things whereof the 
will works the possession, and that can accrue and de- 
part without the damage of the subject. As for example, 
a man is rational by nature, a ship -builder by will, or infirm 
in body by accident. He cannot at all become irrational ; 
he may lose his ship-building experience, if for example he 
be negligent, and he may drive away what befalls him 
of sickness, hastening to improvement through medi- 
cine. Therefore things that accrue to any essentially 
have their position radical. If then the nature of things 
originate can at all be the very light, how do they who will 
not believe lose the light, or how will they who believe be- 
come children of light ? For if they too are by nature the 
light, they are called children of themselves. And what is 
the reward to them that believe ? for they who do not re- 
ceive the faith are rather their own children. From such 
considerations inferring the truth, we shall say that the Only 
Begotten is Alone the Very Light, the creature lacking light 
and hence other in nature. 

Another. Jesus then said unto them, Yet a little while is Infra xii. 


the light with you : walk while ye have the light, lest darkness 
come upon you. To this too you may apply well the argu- 
ment used above. For that which is by nature light, will 
never be apprehended by darkness. 

Another. John saith, He that saitli he is in the light and \ s - Jolin 
hateth his brother is in darkness even until now. Of choice 
then is the light in us, and of will rather than of essence ac- 
crues it to things originate, if he that hateth his brother is in 
darkness. But the Only-Begotten is Light by Nature, for He 
hath not the dignity as the fruit of choice. Hence neither is 
He connatural to things originate "Who is so far above them. 

Another akin to this. He that loveth his brother abideth Ib - "• 10 - 
in the light. Love imparteth to things originate what they 
have not, Light that is, but the Only -Begotten is Light : 
Other therefore is He than they in whom through love He is. 

g 2 


Acts x. 3. 

1 Kara 
vovv avrcf 




Dan. viii, 
15, 16. 

That the soul of man does not exist prior to the body, nor is the 
embodiment as some say a consequence of former sins. 

Which lighteth every man that cometh into the world. 

Sure is the Divine, for he not only thinks that he ought 
to declare that the Only-Begotten is indeed the Yery Light, 
but he adds forthwith to the things that he has said the 
demonstration thereof, all but crying aloud with most earnest 
voice, I say that He is the Yery Light which lighteth every 
man that cometh into the world. 

Do then, (may one say who would fain receive the Divine 
doctrines not without search,) the angels not lighten 
the mind of men ? Cornelius, tell me, from whom 
did he learn that he must by Baptism be saved by God ? 
And Manoah the father of Sampson, was he not by an angel's 
voice fore-instructed of things to come ? The Prophet 
Zechariah likewise does he not clearly tell us, And the 
angel that talked with me said unto me I will shew thee what 
these be ? And again going through the same words, does 
he not clearly shew that angels used to reveal the know- 
ledge of hidden things spiritually to him x ? And behold, says 
he, the angel that talked with me went forth and another an- 
gel went out to meet him and said unto him Hun, speak to this 
young man saying, Jerusalem shall be inhabited as toivns with- 
out walls for the multitude of men and cattle therein. What, 
tell me, does not the most wise Daniel too, falling in with mar- 
vellous visions, gain through the voice of angels the revela- 
tion of the things beheld by him ? For hear him saying 
And it came to pass when I, I Daniel had seen the vision and 
sought for the meaning, then behold there stood before me as the 

The creature aids from what it receives. 


Chap, ix 
cap. i. t). 

Acts viii. 

S. Matt. 
v. 11. 

appearance of a man, and I heard a man's voice between the 
banks of TJlai which called and said Gabriel, make this man 
to understand the vision. Hence the power of lighting 
is in angels, and not only in them, but even man too bor- 
rows illumination from man. And of a truth that Eunuch 
eager after learning when he understood not the prophecies 
about our Saviour says to Philip, I pray thee, of whom speak- 
eth the Prophet this ? of himself or of some other man ? And 
they who hasten to this world's teachers, go to them I sup- 
pose for no other reason than this alone. And why do we yet 
linger in these things, when it is in our power to free 
ourselves easily, producing as proof what was said by our 
Saviour to the holy Apostles, Ye are the light of the world ? 

Such things is it like that one in his perplexity will say, but 
he will hear from us the reply, We see my friend that in the 
creature is what is compound, and nought of simple is in it : 
hence he who can give wisdom to others, if he be originate, 
is not wisdom itself, but a minister of the wisdom that is in 
him : for in wisdom is the wise man wise. And he who . 
teaches the prudent, is not prudence itself, but the minister 
of prudence that is in him ; for in prudence are these too 
prudent. And he again who has skill to enlighten others, 
is not the light itself, but the lender of the light that is in 
him, imparting it to others alsp by teaching, and communi- 
cating to the rest the good that he has received. Where- 
fore it was said to the holy Apostles also, Freely ye have ib. x. 8. 
received, freely give. For whatever goods there were in them, 
these were surely God- given, and the nature of men may not 
a whit boast itself of its own goods, nor yet that of the holy 
Angels. For after the being called into being, each of 
things that are has of God the mode of its existence, and 
we lay it down for certain that nought is in them essentially 
which is not a gift of the liberality of Him Who created, and ' 
has for its root the Favour of the Maker. 

Since therefore things originate are compound, there will 
be in them no light strictly and simply or without com- 
pound, but this too with everything else they will have of 
participation and receiving it of God. But the Very Light, 


TJie Son lights and gladdens 

S. Matt, 
v. 14. 

Book I. is that which lightens, not which is lighted of another ; and 
cap. i. . ^ s £k e Only-Begotten is, considered in simple and uncom- 
pounded nature : for the God-head withdraws from ought 
of double. 

These things then are thus. But the opponent will haply 
say again to us, If the saints were not by nature light, why 
did the Saviour call them not partakers of light, but light ? 
And how is the creature other in nature than He, if as He 
is called Light, so too is the rational creation ? For Ye are 
the light of the world, did the disciples hear. 

What then, excellent sir, will we reply ? Sons of God 
and gods are we called by the Divine Scriptures, according 
Ps.lxxxii. as it is said, I have said Ye are gods and all of you are 
children of the Most High. Shall we then, leaving off being 
what we are, mount up to the Divine and unutterable 
Essence, and deposing the Word of God from His very 
Sonship, in place of Him sit with the Father and make the 
kindness of Him Who honours us a pretext for impiety ? 
God forbid; but the Son will be unchangeably in that 
which He is, we, adopted unto sonship and gods by grace, 
not ignorant of what we are : and in this way do we believe 
that the saints are light. 

I think that we should consider and look at this also. 
The rational portion of the preation being enlightened en- 
lightens by participation of ideas out of the mind inpoured 
into another's understanding, and such sort of enlighten- 
ment will rightly be called teaching rather than revelation. 
But the Word of God lighteth every man that cometh into the 
world, not after the manner of teaching, as the angels for 
example or men, but rather as God after the mode of crea- 
tion He engrafteth in each of those that are called unto being, 
the seed of wisdom or of Divine knowledge, and implanteth a 
root of understanding and so rendereth the living creature 
rational, shewing it participate of His own Nature, and 
sending into the mind as it were certain luminous va- 
pours of the Unutterable Brightness, in way and mode 
that Himself knoweth : for one may not, I deem, say on these 
subjects anything overmuch. Therefore our forefather 

the creature with His own Light. 


Adam too is seen to have attained the being wise not in time, 
as we, but straightway from the first beginnings of his being 
does he appear perfect in understanding, preserving in 
himself the illumination given of God to his nature as yet 
untroubled and pure, and holding the dignity of his nature 

The Son therefore lights after the manner of creation, 
as being Himself the Very Light, and by participation with 
the Light the creature shines forth, and is therefore called 
and is light, mounting up to what is above its nature by the 
kindness of Him Who glorified it and Who crowneth it 
with divers honours, so that each one of those who have been 
honoured, may with reason come forth and lifting up 
prayers of thanksgiving, sing with loud voice, Bless the 
Lord my soul and forget not all His benefits, Who forgiveth 
all thine iniquities, Who healeth all thy diseases, Who re- 
deemeth thy life from destruction, Who crowneth thee with 
loving kindness and tender mercies, Who satisfieth thy mouth 
with good things. For verily doth the Lord mercies, render- 
ing those that are little and a mere nothing 3 according to their 
own nature, great and worthy of marvel through His Goodness 
toward them, even as He has, as God, willed to adorn us 
ungrudgingly with His own goods, and hence calls us gods 
and light, and what of good things does He not call us ? 

What does he say next ? That He was in the world. 
Profitably does the Divine add this also, introducing there- 
by a thought most needful for us. For when he said, He 
was the Very Light which lighteth every man coming into 
the world, and it was not wholly clear to the hearers, whether 
it meant that the Light lighteth every man that cometh 
into the world, or that the Very Light itself, passing as from 
some other place into the world, maketh its illumination of 
all men : needs does the Spirit-bearer reveal to us the truth 
and interpret the force of his own words, saying straightway 
of the Light, that He was in the world : that hence you might 
understand the words coming into the world of man, and that 
it might be predicated rather of the enlightened nature, as 
being called out of not being into being, j^or like a 

Chap. ix. 
cap. i.9. 

Ps. ciii. 


lb. 6. 

2 e{ou0e- 

Christ in the world and everywhere, 

Book I. 

cap. i. 9, 




certain place seen in thought is the not being to things ori- 
ginate, whence in a sort of way passing into being, it takes at 
length another place, that namely of being. Hence more 
properly and fitly will the nature of man admit of itself that it 
was lighted immediately from the first periods, and that it re- 
ceived understanding coincident and co -fashioned with its 
being from the Light Which is in the world, that is the 
Only-Begotten, Who fills all things with the unspeakable 
light of the God-head, and is present with the angels in 
Heaven, is with those on the earth, leaves not even Hellitself 
empty of His God-head, and everywhere abiding with all re- 
moves from none, so that with reason does the most wise 
Psalmist marvelling thereat say : Whither shall I go from Thy 
Spirit? or whither shall I flee from Thy Presence? If I as- 
cend up into Heaven, Thou art there : if I make my bed in 
Hell, behold Thou art there. If I take the wings of the morn- 
ing and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea, even there 
shall Thy Hand lead me, and Thy Might Hand shall hold 
For the Divine Hand graspeth every place and all 

Infra xii. 


Ps. xliii. 



creation, holding together into being things made and 
drawing together unto life things lacking life, and implant- 
ing the spiritual light in things recipient of understanding. 
Yet It is not in place, as we have already said, nor does 
it endure motion of place (for this is the property of bodies), 
but rather fulfils all things as God. 

But perhaps some one will say to this, What then do we 
say, good sir, when any brings forward to us Christ saying, 
I am come a light into the world ? what when the Psalmist 
speaks, send out Thy Light and Thy Truth ? For lo here 
He Himself clearly says that He is come into the world, as 
not being in it, that is : and the Psalmist again was entreating 
that He Who was not yet present should be sent, according, 
that is, to the meaning of the words, and its declaration of 
His being sent to us. 

To this we say, that the Divine having clad the Only- 
Begotten with God-befitting dignity says that He is ever 
and unceasingly in the world, as Life by Nature, as Light 
by Essence, fulfilling the creation as God, not circumscript 

— w 



the creature enters at its creation. 


by place, not meted by intervals, not comprehended by 
quantity, neither compassed at all by ought, nor needing to 
pass from one place to another, but in all He dwells, none 
He forsakes : yet he asserted that He came in the world 
(although present therein) by the Incarnation. For He 
shewed Himself upon earth and conversed with men with flesh, 
making His Presence in the world more manifest thereby, 
and He Who was aforetime comprehended by idea, seen at 
length by the very eyes of the body also, implanted in us a 
grosser so to speak perception of the knowledge of God, 
made known by wonders and mighty deeds. And the Psalm- 
ist entreats that the Word of God may be sent to us to en- 
lighten the world, in no other way as seems to me, but in 
this. But I think that the studious should consider this 
again, that keener is the mind than all speech, sharper the 
motion of the understanding than the tongue. Hence as far 
as pertains to the delicacy of the mind and its subtil motion, 
we behold the varied beauty of the Divine Nature : but we 
utter the things respecting it in more human wise and in 
the speech that belongs to us, the tongue not being able to 
stretch forth unto the measure of the truth. Wherefore Paul 
too, the steward of the Mysteries of the Saviour, used to ask 
of God utterance to open his mouth. Nought then will the 
poverty of our language hurt the Natural Dignities of the 
Only-Begotten, but what belongs to Him will be conceived of 
after a Divine sort, but will be uttered as matter of neces- 
sity in more human wise, both by Him for our sakes and 
by the Saints of Him according to the measure of our 

It were then, it seems, not amiss to be content with what 
has been already said in explanation of the words before us. 
Yet since I deem that the pen that ministers to the Divine 
doctrines should be above sloth, come let us bringing forward 
the lection again examine more exactly how the words coming 
into the world predicated of man, as is fit, should be under- 
stood. For the light was in the world, as the Evangelist also 
himself testified to us, and we have maintained that it was 
not the Light that cometh into the world but rather the man 

Chap. ix. 

cap. i. y. 

Bar. iii. 

Eph. vi. 



Foolish imagination of some. 

Book I. 
cap. i. 9, 
Jer. xxiii, 

Ps. cxix. 

Rom. vii, 

Ezek. xii, 

Ps. Ixxvi, 

who is being lighted. Some therefore say, belching forth 
of their own heart and not out of the mouth of the Lord, as it is 
"written, that the souls of men were pre-existent in Heaven 
before the fashioning of their bodies, passing long time in un- 
embodied bliss, and enjoying more purely the true G-ood. 
But when the sate of better things came into them and, de- 
clining at length to the worser, they sank to strange thoughts 
and desires, the Creator justly displeased sends them forth into 
the world, and entangled them with bodies of earth compel- 
ling them to be burdened therewith, and having shut them as 
it were in some cave of strange pleasures, decreed to instruct 
them by the very trial itself, how bitter it is to be carried 
away to the worser, and to make no account of what is good. 
And in proof of this most ridiculous fable of theirs, they 
wrest first of all this that is now before us : He was the Very 
Light Which lighteth every man coming into the world, and, 
besides, certain other things of the Divine Scripture, such 
as, Before I was afflicted I went astray, and moreover not 
ashamed of such foolish prating say, Lo the soul says that 
before its humiliation, that is, its embodiment, it transgressed 
and that therefore it was justly afflicted, brought in bondage 
to death and corruption, even as Paul too stileth the body 
saying wretched man that I am ! who shall deliver me from 
the body of this death ? But if the soul, he says, goeth 
astray before it was afflicted, it also cometh into the world, 
as having that is a previous being (for how could it sin at 
at all if it existed not yet ?) ; and cometh into the world, set- 
ting out that is from some quarter. Such things as these 
they stringing against the doctrines of the Church and heap- 
ing up the trash of their empty expositions in the ears of the 
of the faithful will rightly hear, Woe unto the foolish pro- 
phets that follow their own spirit and have seen nothing ! 
For visions in truth, and auguries by birds and prophecies 
of their own heart they setting against the words spoken by 
the Spirit, do not perceive to how great absurdity their 
device will run ; as the Psalmist says unto God, Thou, Thou 
art to be feared : and who may stand in Thy Sight when 
once Thou art angry ? 

The soul not prior to the body. 


But that it is most exceedingly absurd to suppose that the Chap. ix. 
soul pre-exists, and to think that for elder transgressions it 
was sent down into bodies of earth, we shall endeavour to 
prove according to our ability by the subjoined considera- 
tions, knowing what is written, Give instruction to a wise Prov « ix - 
man, and he will be yet wiser : teach a just man, and he will 
increase in learning. 

Thoughts or considerations of a complex kind in the way of demon- 

1. If the soul of man have existence prior to the for- 
mation of the body, and, declining to evil according to the 
surmises of some, has for punishment of its transgression a 
descent into flesh, how, tell me, does the Evangelist say that 
it is lighted on coming into the world ? For this I suppose 
is honour and the addition of fair gifts. But not by being 
honoured is one punished, nor yet chastised by being made 
recipient of the Divine good things, but by meeting with 
what is of the wrath of the punisher. But since man 
on his coming into the world is not in this condition, but on 
the contrary is even lighted, it is I suppose clear that he 
that is honoured with flesh has not his embodiment for a 

2. Another. If before the body the soul were a mind yet 
pure, living in bliss, and by turning aside to ill fell, and 
therefore came to be in flesh, how is it lighted on its entry 
into the world ? For one must needs say that it was desti- 
tute of light before it came : if so, how any longer was that 
pure mind which had then scarce a beginning of being 
lighted, when it came into the world, and not without flesh ? 

3. Another. If the soul of man existed before the body; and 
the mind therefore existed yet pure, attached more properly 
to the desire of good things, but from turning aside to the 
worser is sent into earthly body, and being therein, no 
longer rejects the will to transgress, how is it not wronged, 
not then specially entrusted with the doing of this, when it 
existed with a greater aptness for virtue, not as yet in 
bondage to the ills that proceed from the body, but when it 


Souls not created 

Book I. had come into the turbid waters of sin, then out of season 

cap. i. 9. 

' compelled to do this ? But the Divinity will not miss of 
the befitting time, nor that injure to Whose Nature doing 
injury belongeth not. In season then and rightly do we 
refuse sin when in the flesh, having this season alone of 
being, in which with bodies we come into the world, leav- 
ing the former not being, as though a certain place, and 
from it passing into a beginning of being. 

4. Another. What reason is there, I would fain ask 
them, in the soul that sinned prior to the body being sent 
into the body, that it might learn by experience the dis- 
grace of its own lusts ? For they are not ashamed to set forth 
this too, although it ought rather to have been withdrawn 
from the very imagination of its ills, not thrust down to the 
very depth of base pleasures. For this rather than the 
other were a mode of healing. If then it has the embodi- 
ment an increase of its disease in order that it may revel in 
the pleasures of the body, one would not praise the Correc- 
tor, injuring that which was sick by the very means where- 
by He thought to advantage it. But if it has it in order 
that it may cease from its passions, how is it possible that it 
having fallen into the very depth of lust should arise, and 
not rather have spurned the very beginning of the disease, 
while it was free from that which dragged it down into 

5. Another. If the soul in pre-existence transgressed and 
was for this reason entangled with flesh and blood, receiv- 
ing this in the nature of punishment, how is it not the duty 
of them who believe in Christ and who received there- 
by the remission of sin, to go forthwith out of their bodies 
and to cast away that which is put about them as a punish- 
ment ? How, tell me, does the soul of man have perfect 
remission while yet bearing about it the method of its pu- 
nishment? But we see that they who believe are so far from 
wishing to be freed from their bodies, that together with 
their confessions in Christ they declare the resurrection of 
the flesh. No method of punishment then will that be 
which is honoured even with the confession of the faith, 

before their bodies. 


witnessing, through its return back to life, to the Divine Chap. ix. 
Power of the Saviour the being able to do all things easily. 

6. Another. If the soul pre-existing according to them sin- 
ned and was for this reason entangled with flesh, why does 
the Law order the graver offences to be honoured with 
death, and suffer him who has committed no crime to live ? 
For I suppose that it would rather have been right to let 
those who are guilty of the basest ill linger long in their 
bodies, that they might be the more heavily punished, and 
to let those who had committed no crime free from their 
bodies, if the embodiment ranks as a punishment. But on 
the contrary, the murderer is punished with death, the 
righteous jnan suffers nothing in his body. The embodiment 
does not therefore belong to punishment. 

7. Another. If souls were embodied for previous sins, and 
the nature of the body were invented as a species of punish- 
ment for them, how did the Saviour profit us by abolishing 
death ? how was not rather decay a mercy, destroying that 
which punished us, and putting an end to the wrath against 
us ? Hence one might rather say that it were meeter to 
give thanks to decay than on the contrary to Him Who laid 
on us endless infliction through the resurrection of the dead. 
And yet we give thanks as freed from death and decay 
through Christ. Hence embodiment is not of the nature of 
punishment to the soul of man. 

8. Another from the same idea. If the souls of men were 
entangled with earthly bodies in satisfaction of elder trans- 
gressions, what thank tell me shall we acknowledge to God 
Who promises us the Resurrection ? For this is clearly a 
renewal of punishment and a building up of what hurts us, if 
a long punishment is clearly bitter to every one. It is then 
hard that bodies should rise which have an office of punish- 
ment to their wretched souls. And yet nature has from 
Christ, as a gift renewing it unto joy, the resurrection. 
The embodiment is not therefore of the nature of punish- 

9. Another. The Prophetic word appears as publishing 

to us some great and long desired-feast. For, says it, the j*- xxvi. 




Souls and bodies alike created 

Book I. 
cap. i. 9. 

7 t 

Gen. xv. 


Deut. i. 

10, 11. 

S. James 
iv. 3. 

dead shall arise, and they that be in the tombs shall be raised. 
But if the embodiment were indeed of the nature of punish- 
ment to the wretched souls of men, how would not the Prophet 
rather sorrow when proclaiming these things as from God ? 
How will that proclamation be in any way good which brings 
us the duration of what vexes us ? For he should rather hare 
said, if he wished to rejoice those who had received bodies 
by reason of sin, The dead shall not arise, and the nature of the 
flesh shall perish. But on the contrary he rejoices them 
saying that there shall be a resurrection of bodies by the will 
of God. How then can the body wherein both ourselves rejoice 
and God is well pleased be (according to the uncounsel of 
some) of the nature of a punishment ? 

10. Another. God, in blessing the blessed Abraham 
promised that his seed should be as the multitude innume- 
rable of the stars. If it be true that the soul sinning before 
the body is sent down to earth and flesh to be punished, 
God promised to the righteous man, an ignoble multitude of 
condemned, runagates from good, and not a seed participant 
of blessing. But God says this as a blessing to Abraham : 
hence the origin of bodies is freed from all accusal. 

11. Another. The race of the Israelites spread forth 
into a multitude great and innumerable. And indeed justly 
marvellous at this does the hierophant Moses pray saying 
to them, And behold ye are this day as the stars of hea- 
ven for multitude: the Lord God of your fathers make you 
a thousand times so many more as ye are. But if it were 
punishment to the souls of men to be in the world with 
bodies, and they must needs so be, and not bare of them, 
Moses' saying will be found to be verily a curse, not a bless- 
ing. But it is not so, it was made as a blessing : the em- 
bodiment therefore is not of the nature of punishment. 

12. Another. To those who attempt to ask amiss God 
endures not to give. And an unlying witness to us will be 
the disciple of the Saviour, saying, Ye ask and receive not, 
because ye ask amiss. If then it were a punishment to a 
soul to be embodied, how would not one with reason say 
that Hannah the wife of Elkanah missed widely of what was 

in Blessing to us from God. 


fit, when she so instantly poured her prayer unto God and 
asked for a man child. For she was asking for the down- 
fall of a soul and its descent into a body. How then came 
God to give her the holy Samuel as her son, if it were wholly 
of necessity that a soul should sin, in order that so, en- 
tangled with a body, it might fulfil the woman's request. 
And yet God gave, to Whom it is inherent to give only good 
things and, by readily assenting to her, He frees her request 
from all blame. Hence embodiment is not a result of sin, 
nor yet of the nature of punishment as some say. 

13. Another. If the body has been given as a punish- 
ment to the soul of man, what induced Hezekiah the king 
of Jerusalem, although good and wise, to deprecate not 
without bitter tears the death of the body, and to shrink from 
putting off the instrument of his punishment, and to beseech 
that he might be honoured with an increase of years, al- 
though he surely ought, if he were really good, not to have 
deprecated death, but to have thought it a burden to be en- 
tangled with a body and to have acknowledged this rather 
than the other as a favour. And how did God promise him 
as a favour saying, Behold I will add unto thy days fifteen 
years, albeit the promise was an addition of punishment, 
not a mode of kindness, if these set forth the truth ? Yet 
the promise from above was a gift and the addition a 
kindness. Hence the embodiment is not a punishment to 

14. Another. If the body is given to the soul of man in 
the light of punishment, what favour did God repay to the 
Eunuch who brought up Jeremiah out of the dungeon, say- 
ing, I will give thy life for a prey and will save thee from 
the Chaldeans ? For He should rather have let him die that 
He might also honour him, releasing him from the prison and 
punishment. What tell me did He give to the young men 
of Israel, in delivering them from the flame and from the 
cruelty of the Babylonians ? why did He rescue the wise 
Daniel from the cruelty of the lions ? But verily He doeth 
these things in kindness and is glorified because of them. 
The dwelling in the flesh is not then of the nature of punish- 

Chap. ix. 
cap. i. 9. 
1 Sam. i. 



Cf Jer. 
xxxix. 17, 


Dan. ii 
lb. vi. 


Bodies given us not for punishment 

Bqok I. 

cap .i .9, 

2 Cor. v. 

Rom. xii, 

Cf Phil, 
iv. 18. 

Rom. v. 


Infra ix. 


ment, in order that honour and punishment at God's hands 
may not be one and the same. 

15. Another. Paul teaching us that there shall be in due 
time an investigation before the Divine Judgment-seat of 
each man's life says, For we must all appear before the judge- 
ment-seat of Christ, that every one may receive the things done 
in his body, according to that he done, whether it be good or bad. 
But if it be only for the things done in the body that a man 
either receiveth punishment at the hands of the Judge, or is 
accounted worthy of befitting reward, and no mention is 
made of prior sins, nor any charge previous to his 
birth gone into : how had the soul any pre-existence, or how 
was it humbled in consequence of sin, as some say, seeing 
that its time with flesh is alone marked out, for that the 
things alone that were done in it are gone into ? 

16. Another. If souls were embodied on account of pre- 
vious sins, how does Paul write to us saying, Present your 
bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God ? For if 
in the nature of punishment they were given to our wretched 
souls, how should we present then for an odour of a sweet 
smell to God ? how will that be acceptable through which 
we received our sentence ? or what kind of virtue at all will 
that admit of, whose nature is punishment, and root sin ? 

17. Another. Shewing that corruption is extended against 
the whole nature of man, because of the transgression in 
Adam, Paul saith, Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to 
Moses even over them that had not sinned after the similitude 
of Adam's transgression. How then does he say that death 
reigned even over them that had not sinned, if the mortal 
body were given us in consequence of former sins ? For 
where at all are they that have not sinned, if the embodi- 
ment be the punishment of faults, and our being in this 
life with our body is a pre-existing charge against us ? 
Unlearned then is the proposition of our opponents. 

18. Another. The Disciples once made enquiry of our 
Saviour concerning one born blind, and said, Master who did 
sin, this man or his parents, that he was bom blind ? For 
since it is written in the prophetic Scriptures, of God, that 

but in God's good pleasure. 


He visits the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, the 
disciples began to imagine that such was the case with 
this man. What then does Christ say to this ? Verily I 
say to you, neither hath this man sinned nor his parents, but 
that the works of God should be made manifest in Mm. How 
then does He exempt them from sin, although not free from 
blame as to their lives ? for being men, they were surely 
liable also to faults. But it is manifest and clear that 
the discourse pertains to the period prior to birth, during 
which they not yet existing, neither had they sinned, that 
Christ may be true. 

19. Another. The blessed Prophet Isaiah explaining the 
reason of the earth being made says, He created it not in vain, 
He formed it to be inhabited. But it was altogether right 
that the earth should be inhabited, not filled with bare spirits, 
nor with fleshless and unclad souls, but with bodies suit- 
able to it. Was it then Divine Counsel that wrought that 
souls should sin, in order that the nature of bodies should also 
come into being, and thus at length the earth be shewn to 
have been created not in vain ? But this is absurd ; the 
other therefore has the better. 

20. Another. Wisdom the Artificer of all things says of 
herself in the book of Proverbs I was she in whom He re- 
joiced, the Creator of all that is, and I daily rejoiced always 
before Him when He rejoiced in having consummated the world 
and toolc delight in the sons of men. When then on His com- 
pletion of the world, God rejoices exceedingly in the form- 
ing of man, how will he not be bereft of all sense who 
subjects the soul to previous sins and says that it was there- 
fore embodied, and was punished after this fashion ? 
For will not God be the maker of a prison rather than a 
world ? will He not be delighting contrary to reason in 
those who are undergoing punishment ? And how will 
He be Good who delights in things so absurd ? But verily 
He is Good and therefore the Maker of things good : the 
embodiment will not therefore be of the nature of punish- 

21. Another. If the soul of man by its entanglement 

VOL. 1. H 

Chap. ix. 
c.i. 9, 10. 
Exod. xx. 

Infra ix. 

Isa. xlv. 

Prov. viii. 
30, 31. 


Bodies a kindness, not a punishment. 

Book I. with flesh pays the penalty of transgressions prior to its 
' ' birth in the world, and the body occupies the position of a 

2 S. Pet. punishment to it, why was the Flood brought in upon the 
world of the ungodly, and Noah being upright was pre- 
served and has this recompense of his faith from God ? For 
ought not rather those who had sinned exceedingly to have 
lingered longer time in the body that they might be punished 
also more severely, and the good to have been set free from 
their bonds of flesh and received the release from the body 
as the recompense of their piety toward God ? But I suppose 
that the Creator of all being Righteous lays on each rank 
the sentence due to it. Since then He being Righteous 
punishes the ungodly with the death of the body, gladdens 
again the righteous with life together with the body : bodies 
are no punishment to the souls of men, that God be not un- 
righteous, punishing the ungodly with favour, honouring 
again the righteous with punishment. 

22. Another. If to pay the penalty of previous offences the 
soul has descended into flesh and body, how did the Saviour 
love Lazarus, raising him, and compelling him who was 
once set free from his bands to return to them again ? But 
Christ did it helping him and as a friend did Ha honour 
the dead by raising him from the dead. To no purpose then 
is the proposition of the opponents. 

23. Another. If, as those in their nonsense say, the 
body was given to the soul in the light of a punishment, 
devised on account of former sin of its, it was sin that 
brought in the nature of human bodies. But again also death 
entered by sin : sin therefore clearly appears arming itself 
against itself, undoing the beginning by what follows, and 
Satan is therefore divided against himself, how then shall 
his kingdom stand ? as our Saviour saith. But verily so to 
think is incredible: the contrary therefore is true. 

24. Another. God created all things in incorruption and 
He made not death, but through envy of the devil came death 
into the world. But if it be true, that the body was given in 
nature of punishment to the soul of man, why, sirs, should 
we accuse the envy of the devilfor bringing in to us the termi- 



S. Luke 
xi. 18. 

Wisdom i. 
13; ii. 24. 

God the Son Uncreated Light. 


nation of wretchedness and destroying the body which is Chap. ix. 
our punishment ? And for what in the world do we offer 
thanks to the Saviour for having again bound us to the flesh 
through the resurrection ? yet we do indeed give thanks, and 
the envy of the devil has vexed our nature, procuring cor- 
ruption to our bodies. No mode of punishment then is the 
body nor yet is it the wages of our former sin. 


And the world was made by Him. 

The Evangelist in these words needfully indicates that 
the world was made through the Very Light, that is, the Only- 
Begotten. For although, having called Him most distinctly 
Word at the beginning, he affirmed that all things were made Supra ver. 
through Him and that without Sim nothing was brought into 
being, and demonstrated thereby that He was their Maker 
and Creator : yet it was necessary now most particularly to 
take this up again anew, that no room of error and perdition 
might be left to those who are wont to pervert the up- 
rightness of the Divine dogmas. For when he said of the 
Light that it was in the world, that no one wresting the say- 
ing to senseless conceptions, should make the Light connu- 
merate with the visible portions of the universe (as sun and 
moon and stars for example are in the world, but as parts of the 
universe, and as limbs of one body), profitably and of necessity 
does the Evangelist introduce the Only -Begotten as Fashioner 
and Artificer of the whole universe, and thereby again fully 
stablishes us and leads us into an unerring and right appre- 
hension of the truth. For who would be so silly or have such 
great folly in his mind, as not to conceive that wholly other 
than the universe is He through Whom it is said to have been 
made, and to put the creature in its own place, to sever off the 
Creator in reasoning and to conceive that His Nature is Di- 
vine ? For the thing made must needs be other in nature 
than the Maker, that maker and made appear not the same. 

For if they be conceived of as the same, without any in- 
herent distinction as to the mode of being, the made will 
mount up to the nature of the Maker, the Creator descend 
to that of the creatures, and will no longer have Alone the 

h 2 


The world knew not God the Son, 

Book I. power of bringing into being, but this will be found to exist 
* in potential in things made also, if nothing at all severs them 
from being consubstantial with God : and so at length the 
creature will be its own creator and the Evangelist will endow 
the Only- Begotten with a mere title of honour when he says 
that He was in the world, and the v)orld, was made by Him. But 
he knows that the Creator of all things is One in Nature. 
Not as the same then will made and Maker, God and creature 
be conceived of by those who know how to believe aright, 
but the one will be subject as a bondman, acknowledging 
the limit of its own nature : the Son will reign over it, having 
Alone with the Father the power both to call things which 
be not as though they were and by His ineffable Power to 
bring that which is not yet into being. 

But that the Son being by Nature God, is wholly Other than 
the creature, we having already sufficiently gone through in 
the Discourse of the Holy Trinity, will say nothing more here. 
But we will add this for profit, that in saying that the world 
was made through Him he brings us up to the thought of 
the Father, and with the " Through Whom " brings in also 
the " Of Whom." For all things are from the Father through 
the Son in the Holy Ghost. 

Rom. iv. 


■ I :■ i 

And the world knew Him, not. 

The bearer of the Spirit is watchful and hastens to fore- 
stall the sophistry of some ; and you may marvel again at the 
Supra ver. reasoning in his thoughts. He named the Son Very Light, 
and affirmed that He lighteth every man that cometh into the 
world, and besides says that He was in the world and the 
world ivas made through Him. 

But one of our opponents might forthwith say, „ If the 
„ Word, sirs, were light and if it lighted the heart of every 
„ man, unto Divine knowledge that is and unto the under- 
„ standing that befits man, and if it were always in the world 
„ and were Himself its Maker, how came He to be unknown 
„ even during so long periods ? He therefore was not light- 
„ ing nor yet was He at all the Light.' 1 

These things the Divine meets with some warmth saying 

through its own fault. 


The world knew Him not : not on His own account was He Chap. ix. 
unknown, says lie ; but let the world blame its own weak- 
ness. For the Son lighteth, the creature blunts the grace. 
It had imparted to it sight to conceive of Him Who is 
God by Nature, and it squandered the gift, it made things 
made the limit of its contemplation, it shrank from going 
further, it buried the illumination under its negligence, it 
neglected the gift which that it might not befall him Paul \J im - iv - 
commands his disciple to watch. Nought then to the light 2 Tim. iv. 
is the ill of the enlightened. For as the light of the sun rises 
upon all, but the blind is nothing profited, yet we do not 
therefore reasonably blame the sun's ray, but rather find 
fault with the disease of the sight (for the one was lighting, 
the other received not the lighting) : so (I deem) ought we 
to conceive of the Only-Begotten also, that He is Very Light. 
But the god of this world, as Paul too saith, hath blinded the 2 Cor. iv. 
minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the knowledge 
of God should shine among them. We say then that the 
man was subjected to blindness herein, not that he reached 
a total deprivation of light (for the God-given understand- 
ing is surely preserved in his nature) but that he was 
quenching it with his more foolish manner of life and that 
by turning aside to the worse he was wasting and melting 
away the measure of the grace. Wherefore the most wise 
Psalmist too when representing to us the character of such 
an one, then indeed (and rightly) begs to be enlightened, 
saying to God, Open Thou mine eyes that I may behold won- p s . cxix. 
drous things out of Thy law. For He gave them the law to be i s ^ v yj # 
their help, which re-kindled in us the Divine Light and ?°-^ x 
purged away like a sort of humour from the eyes of the 
heart the darkness which came upon them from the ancient 

The world then is under the charge of unthankfulness 
alike and want of perception in this matter, both as ignorant 
of its own Creator, and shewing forth no good fruit from 
being lighted, that that again may be manifestly true of it, 
which was sung by prophet's voice of the children of Israel, 
I looked that it should bring forth grapes, but it brought forth Isa. v. 4 



God the Son not received 


Book I. 

cap. i. 11, 

thorns. For the fruit of being enlightened is verily the true 
apprehension of the Only Begotten,, hanging like a grape- 
bunch from the vine branch, I mean man's understanding, 
and not on the contrary the uncounsel that leads to poly- 
theistic error, like the sharp briar rising up within us and 
wounding to death our mind with its deceits. 

I I 

Ps. xlix. 

Rom. xi. 

1 1 He came unto His own and His own received Him not. 

The Evangelist pursues his plea that the world knew not 
its Illuminer, that is the Only-Begotten, and from the worse 
sin of the children of Israel, he hastens to clench the charges 
against the Gentiles and shews the disease of ignorance 
alike and unbelief which lay upon the whole world. Very 
appositely does he drive forward to discourse of the Incarna- 
nation, and from speaking of the Godhead a , he comes down 
by degrees to the exposition of the Dispensation with Flesh, 
which the Son made for our sakes. 

For it were no marvel if the world knew not, says he, the 
Only-Begotten, seeing that it had left the understanding 
that befits man, and was ignorant that it is and was made in 
honour, and compared to the beasts that perish, as the Di- 
vine Psalmist also said; when the very people who were 
supposed above all to belong to Him shook Him off when 
present with the Flesh and would not receive Him when .He 
came among them for salvation to all, recompensing to faith 
the kingdom of Heaven. But observe how exact is his lan- 
guage about these things. For the world he accuses of not 
at all knowing Him Who lighteth it, elaborating for it a 
pardon so to speak just on this account, and preparing be- 
forehand reasonable causes for the grace given to it : but 
of those of Israel who were reckoned among those specially 
belonging to Him, he says, Received Him not. For it would 
not have been true to say, Knew Him not, when the older 
law preached Him, the Prophets who came after led them 
by the hand to the apprehension of the truth. The sen- 
tence therefore of severity b upon them was just, even as the 

• 4% aitpdrov 6to\oylas " from pure the Flesh. 
Theology," speaking of the Divine Na- b atroToplas as in Rom. 1. c. " cutting 
ture apart from the Dispensation with off." 

by Israel, who was His own. 


goodness too upon the Gentiles. For the world, or the Gen- Chap. ix. 
tiles, having lost their relation c x with God through their 1 lK^iw<nv 
downfall into evil, lost besides the knowledge of Him 
Who enlighteneth them : but the others, who were rich 
in knowledge through the law and called to a polity pleasing 
to God, were at length voluntarily falling away from it, not 
receiving the Word of God Who was already known to them 
and Who came among them as to His own. For the whole 
world is God's own, in regard of its creation, and its being 
brought into being from Him and through Him : but Israel 
will more fitly be called His own d , and will gain the glory 
hereof, both on account of the election of the holy fathers 
and for that he was named the beginning and the first-born 
of the children of God. For Israel is My son, My first-born, Exod. iv. 
says God somewhere to Moses : whom also setting apart for 
Himself as one and picked out, He was wont to call His own 
people, saying to Pharaoh king of Egypt Let My people go. Ib.viii.i. 
Proof from the books of Moses also shews that Israel spe- 
cially pertains unto God. For when, it says, the Most High was Deut. 
dividing the nations, when he was separating the sons of Adam, LXX. ' 
he set the bounds of the nations according to the number of the 
angels of God, and his people Jacob became the Lord's portion, 
Israel the lot of his inheritance. Among whom He also walked, 
as in His own lot and special portion, saying, I am not sent s - Matt. 
but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel. 

But when He was not received, He transfers the grace to 
the Gentiles, and the world which knew Him not at the be- 
ginning is lighted through repentance and faith, and Israel 
returns to the darkness whence he had come forth. Where- 
fore the Saviour too saith, For judgement I am come into this Infra i 
world, that they which see not might see, and that they which 
see might be made blind. 


12 But as many as received Him, to them gave He power to became 
the sons of Gad, to them that believe on His Name. 

A right judgement verily and worthy of God ! The first- 
born, Israel, is cast out ; for he would not abide in-ownness 3 " «V <>««'- 

" oiKtioxfis, the relation of belonging d t<|3 t^s iSiotijtos airoH(K\7)ff(Tai 
to the household. \6y<fi 


Israel rejected, 

Book I. 

cap. i. 12 


\\ ' i 

i H 

8 /xerafio- 

Rom. xi. 

Isa. i. 4. 


1 Cor. xv, 

Gen. i. 27. 

with God, nor did lie receive the Son, Who came among His 
own, he rejected the Bestower of Nobility, he thrust away 
the Giver of Grace : the Gentiles received Him by faith. 
Therefore will Israel with reason receive the wages of their 
folly, they will mourn the loss of good things, they will receive 
the bitter fruit of their own ill- counsel, bereft of the sonship ; 
and the Gentiles will delight them selves in the good things that 
are through faith, they shall find the bright rewards of their 
obedience and shall be planted out 8 in his place. For they 
shall be cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and 
be graffed contrary to nature into a good olive tree. And 
Israel shall hear, Ah sinful nation, a people laden with ini- 
quity, a seed of evildoers, children that are corrupters, they 
have forsaken the Lord, they have provoked the Holy One of 
Israel unto anger : but one of Christ's disciples shall say to 
the Gentiles, But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priest- 
hood, an holy nation, a peculiar people, that ye should shew 
forth the praises of Him Who hath called you out of darkness 
into His marvellous Light. For since they received the Son 
through faith, they receive the power to be ranked among 
the sons of God. For the Son gives what is His alone and 
specially and of nature to be in their power, setting it forth 
as common, making this a sort of image of the love for man 
that is inherent to Him, and of His love for the world. For 
in none other way could we who bore the image of the earthy 
escape corruption, unless the beauty of the image of the hea- 
venly were impressed upon us, through our being called to 
sonship. For being partakers of Him through the Spirit, 
we were sealed unto likeness with Him and mount up to the 
primal character of the Image after which the Divine Scrip- 
ture says we were made. For thus hardly recovering 
the pristine beauty of our nature, and re-formed unto 
that Divine Nature, shall we be superior to the ills that have 
befallen us through the transgression. Therefore we mount 
up unto dignity above our nature for Christ's sake, and we 
too shall be sons of God, not like Him in exactitude, but by 
grace in imitation of Him. For He is Very Son, existing 
from the Father ; we adopted by His Kindness, through 


the Gentiles received. 


grace receiving I have said, Ye are gods and all of you are Chap. ix. 
children of the Most High. For the created and subject p s .ixxxii! 
nature is called to what is above nature by the mere nod and * 
will of the Father : but the Son and God and Lord will not 
possess this being God and Son, by the will of God the Fa- 
ther, nor in that He wills it only, but beaming forth of the 
Very Essence of the Father, He receives to Himself by Na- 
ture what is Its own Good. And again He is clearly seen 
to be Very Son, proved 4 by comparison with ourselves. For 4 SoKina- 
since that which is by Nature has another mode of being 
from that which is by adoption, and that which is in truth 
from that which is by imitation, and we are called sons of 
God by adoption and imitation : hence He is Son by Nature 
and in truth, to Whom we made sons too are compared, 
gaining the good by grace instead of by natural endow- 


13 Which were begotten, not of blood nor of the will of the flesh 
nor of the will of man but of God. 

They who, he says, have been called by faith in Christ unto 
sonship with God, put off the littleness of their own na- 
ture, and adorned with the grace of Him Who honoureth them 
as with a splendid robe mount up unto dignity above nature : 
for no longer are they called children of flesh, but rather 
offspring of God by adoption. 

But note how great guardedness the blessed Evangelist 
used in his words. For since he was going to say that 
those who believe arebegotten of God, lest any should suppose 
that they are in truth born of the Essence of God the Fa- 
ther and arrive at an exact likeness with the Only-Begotten, 
or that of Him too is less properly said, From the womb before Ps. ex. 3. 
the Day star begat I Thee, and so at length He too should 
be brought down to the nature of creatures, even though 
He be said to be begotten of God, needs does he contrive 
this additional caution. For when he had said that power 
was given to them from Him Who is by Nature Son, to be- 
come sons of God, and had hereby first introduced that 
which is of adoption and grace, without peril does he after- 


Israel had the type, 

Book I. 
cap. i. 13. 

5 oiKeiS- 
rt\ra <pv- 

Isa. i. 2. 


lb. ix. 10, 

Rom. viii 

1 Cor. x. 

Gal. iii. 

wards add were begotten of Ood; that lie might shew the 
greatness of the grace which was conferred on them, gather- 
ing as it were into kinness of nature 5 that which was alien 
from God the Father and raising up the bond to the no- 
bility of its Lord, by means of His warm love to it. 

What more then, will one perchance say, or what special 
have they who believe in Christ over Israel, since he too is 
said to have been begotten of God, as in, I begat and exalted 
sons, but they rejected Me ? To this I think one must say, 
first, that the Law having a shadow of good things to come, 
and not the very image of the things, did not give to the 
children of Israel to have even this in truth, but limned as 
in type and outline upon them, until the time of reforma- 
tion, as it is written, wherein they should at length be ma- 
nifested who should more fitly and truly call God Father, 
because the Spirit of the Only-Begotten dwells in them. 
■ For the one had the spirit of bondage to fear, the other the 
spirit of adoption unto liberty, whereby we cry Abba, Father. 
Therefore the people who should attain unto sonship through 
faith that is in Christ, were fore-described in Israel as it 
were in shadow, even as we conceive that the circumcision 
in Spirit was fore-typified in theirs of old in the flesh, and 
in short, all of ours were in them in type. Besides, we say 
that Israel was called to sonship typically through the me- 
diator Moses. Wherefore they were baptized into him too, 
as Paul saith, in the cloud and in the sea, and were re- 
fashioned out of idolatry unto the law of bondage, the com- 
mandment contained in the letter being ministered by angels : 
but they who by faith in Christ attain unto sonship with God, 
are baptized into nought originate, but into the Holy Trinity 
Itself, through the Word as Mediator, Who conjoined to 
Himself things human through the Flesh which was united 
to Him, being conjoined of nature to the Father, in that He 
is by Nature God. For so mounteth up the bond unto 
sonship, through participation with the in truth Son, called 
and so to say raised up to the dignity which is in Him by 
Nature. Wherefore we who have received the regeneration 
by the Spirit through faith, are called and are begotten of God. 

jj we the verity. 107 


: But since some in mad peril dare to lie, as against the Chap. ix. 

Son, so against the Holy Ghost too, saying that He is origi- 
nate and created, and to thrust Him forth altogether from 
Consubstantiality with God the Father, come let us again 
arraying the word of the true Faith against their unbridled 
: tongues, beget occasions of profit both to ourselves and to 

I our readers. For if neither God by Nature, sirs, nor yet 

of God, is He Who is His Own Spirit and therefore Essen- 
tially inexistent in Him, but is other than He, and not re- 
moved from being connatural with things made, how are we 
: ; who are begotten through Him said to be begotten of God ? 

For either we shall say that the Evangelist certainly lies, or (if 
he is true and it be so and not otherwise), the Spirit will be 
:, God and of God by Nature, of Whom we too being accounted 

: worthy to partake through faith to Christ-ward, are rendered 

partakers of the Divine Nature and are said to be begotten of 2 S. Pet. i. 
i. God, and are therefore called gods, not by grace alone wing- 

ing our flight to the glory that is above us, but as having 
»■■ now God too indwelling and lodging in us, according to what 

■I is said in the prophet, I will dwell in them and walk in them. ^ Cor ; vi - 

• 1 r r . 16, e Lev. 

:,* For let them tell us who are filled full with so great un- xxvi. 12. 

; learning, how, having the Spirit dwelling in us, we are ac- J fi Cor * U1 * 

i cording to Paul temples of God, unless He be God by Nature. 

I For if He be a creature and originate, wherefore does God Ib - 17 - 

|! destroy us, as de fling the temple of God when we defile the 

body wherein the Spirit indwells, having the whole Na- 
tural Property 6 of God the Father and likewise of the Only- 6 fayvrliv 
Begotten ? And how will the Saviour be true m saying : i8i6tt)to. 
If a 'man love Me, he tvill keep My Words : and My Father ivill Infra 
love him and we will come unto him and make Our abode with 
him and rest 7 in him? albeit it is the Spirit Who dwells in 7 KaraXv- 


us, and through Him do we believe that we have the Father 
and the Son, even as John himself said again in his epistles, 
Hereby know we that we dwell in Him and He in us, because 1 S. John 
He hath given us of His Spirit. And how at all will He be 
called Spirit of God, if He be not of Him and in Him by 
Nature and therefore God ? For if being, as those say, 
originate, He is the Spirit of God, there is nothing to hinder 





God the Son was made Flesh, 









Book I. 
cap. i. 14. 

De Tri- 

nitate ad 
dial. 7 pp. 
631 sqq. 

the other creatures too from being called spirits of God. For 
this will have already overtaken them in potential, if it is at 
all possible that originate essence should be Spirit of God. 

And it were meet in truth to set forth a long discourse 
upon these things and to satiate more at length, overturning 
the uncounsels of the heretics. But having already suffi- 
ciently gone through what relates to the Holy Ghost, in the 
Be Trinitate, we shall therefore forbear to say much yet. 

Joel ii. 28. 

14 And the Word was made Flesh. 
8 Kadapus He has now entered openly 8 upon the declaration of the In- 
carnation. For he plainly sets forth that the Only-Be- 
gotten became and is called son of man ; for this and nought 
else does his saying that the Word was made Flesh signify : 
for it is as though he said more nakedly The Word was 
made Man. And in thus speaking he introduces again to us 
nought strange or unwonted, seeing that the Divine Scrip- 
ture ofttimes calls the whole creature by the name of flesh 
alone, as in the prophet Joel : I will pour out My Spirit upon 
all flesh. And we do not suppose that the Prophet says that 
that the Divine Spirit should be bestowed upon human flesh 
soul-less and alone (for this would be by no means free from 
absurdity) : but comprehending the whole by the part, he 
names man from the flesh : for thus it was right and not 
otherwise. And why, it is needful I suppose to say. 

Man then is a creature rational, but composite, of soul that 
is and of this perishable and earthly flesh. And when it 
had been made by God, and was brought into being, not 
having of its own nature incorruption and imperishableness 
(for these things appertain essentially to God Alone), it was 
sealed with the spirit of life, by participation with the Divi- 
Gen. ii. 7. nity gaining the good that is above nature (for He breathed, 
it says, into his nostrils the breath of life and man became a 
living soul) . But when he was being punished for his trans- 
lb. Hi. 19. gressions, then with justice hearing Dust thou art and unto 
dust shalt thou return, he was bared of the grace ; the 
breath of life, that is the Spirit of Him Who says I am the 
Life, departed from the earthy body and the creature falls 

giving of His own life to our flesh. 







into death, through the flesh alone, the soul being kept in CHAP.ix. 
immortality, since to the flesh too alone was it said, Dust 
thou art and unto dust shalt thou return. It needed there- 
fore that that in us which was specially imperilled, should 
with the greater zeal 9 be restored, and by intertwining 9 i°n & - 
again with Life That is by Nature be recalled to immor- 
tality : it needed that at length the sentence. Dust thou 
art and unto dust shalt thou return should be relaxed, the 
fallen body being united ineffably to the Word That quick- 
eneth all things. For it needed that becoming His Flesh, 
it should partake of the immortality that is from Him. For 
it were a thing most absurd, that fire should have the 
power of infusing into wood the perceptible quality of its in- 
herent power and of all but transfashioning into itself the 
things wherein it is by participation, and that we should not 
fully hold that the Word of God Which is over all, would in- 
work in the flesh His own Good, that is Life. 

For this reason specially I suppose it was that the holy 
Evangelist, indicating the creature specially from the part 
affected, says .that the Word of God became Flesh, that so we 
might see at once the wound and the medicine, the sick and 
the Physician, that which had fallen unto death and Him 
Who raised it unto life, that which was overcome of corrup- 
tion and Him Who chased away the corruption, that which 
was holden of death and Him Who is superior to death, that 
which was bereft of life and the Giver of life. 

But he says not that the Word came into flesh but that 
It was made Flesh, that you may not suppose that He came 
to it as in the case of the Prophets or other of the Saints 
by participation, but did Himself become actual Flesh, that is 
man : for so we just now said. Wherefore He is also God by 
Nature in Flesh and with Flesh, as having it His own, and con- 
ceived of as being Other than it, and worshipped in it and with 
it, according to what is written in the prophet Isaiah, Men Isa. xlv. 
of stature shall come over unto thee and they shall be thine : LXX. 
they shall come after thee; in chains they shall come over 
and they shall fall down unto thee, they shall make sup- 
plication unto thee, for God is in thee, and there is no God 




God the Son made Flesh a new 

Book I. beside thee. Lo they say that God is in Him, not severing 
'the Flesh from the Word; and again they affirm that 
there is none other God save He, uniting to the Word 
that which He bears about Him, as His very own, that is 
the temple of the Virgin : for He is One Christ of Both. 



H : i 
I « ! '. 

i ; i> 

And dwelt among us. 
The Evangelist profitably goes over again what he has 
said, and brings the force of the thought to a clearer com- 
prehension. For since he said that the Word of God was 
made Flesh, lest any out of much ignorance should imagine 
that He forsook His own Nature, and was in truth changed 
into flesh, and suffered, which were impossible (for the 
Godhead is far removed from all. variableness and change 
into ought else as to mode of being) : the Divine exceeding 
well added straightway And dwelt among us, that consider- 
ing that the things mentioned are two, the Dweller and 
that wherein is the dwelling, you might not suppose 
that He is transformed into flesh, but rather that He dwelt 
in Flesh, using His own Body, the Temple that is from the 

Col. ii. 9. Holy Virgin. For in Him dwelt all the fulness of the God- 
head bodily, as Paul saith. 

But profitably does he affirm that the Word dwelt in us, 
unveiling to us this deep Mystery also : for we were all in 
Christ, and the community of human nature mounteth up 
unto His Person; since therefore was He named the last Adam, 
giving richly to the common nature all things that belong 
to joy and glory, even as the first Adam what pertained to 
corruption and dejection. The Word then dwelt in all 

Rom. i. 4. through one that the One being declared the Son of God 
with jpoiver according to the Spirit of holiness, the dignity 
might come unto all the human nature and thus because of 

Ps. One of us, I have said Ye are gods and all of you are children 

xxxn. . Q j ^ e jfiQgj. jiigfo might come to us also. Therefore in 

Christ verily is the bond made free, mounting up unto mys- 

Phil. H.7. tic union with Him Who bare the form of the servant ; yet in 

us after the likeness of the One because of the relation after 

Heb. ii. the flesh. For why doth He take on Him not the nature of 

16, 17. J 

I Cor. xv 

first-fruit to the whole human nature. 


ana els but the seed of Abraham, whence in all things it be- Chap. ix. 

. . . cap. i. 14. 

hoved Him to be made like unto His brethren, and to become 
in truth Man ? Is it not clear to all, that He descended 
unto the condition of bondage, not Himself giving thereby 
ought to Himself, but bestowing Himself on us, that we through 2 Cor. viii. 
His Poverty might be rich, and, soaring up through likeness 
to Him unto His own special good, might be made gods and 
children of God through faith ? For He Who is by Nature 
Son and God dwelt in us, wherefore in His Spirit do we cry Rom. viii. 
Abba Father. And the Word dwells in One Temple taken 
for our sakes and of us, as in all, in order that having all in 
Himself, He might reconcile all in one body unto the Father, E P h - »• 
as Paul saith. 

And we beheld His glory, the glory as of the Only -he gotten of the 
Father, full of grace and truth. 

Having said that the Word was made Flesh, that is Man, 
and having brought Him down to brotherhood with things 
made and in bondage, he preserves even thus His Divine 
dignity intact and shews Him again full of the own Nature 
of the Father inherent to Him. For the Divine Nature has 
truly stability in Itself, not enduring to suffer change to ought 
else, but rather always unvarying and abiding in Its own En- 
dowments. Hence even though the Evangelist says that the 
Word was made Flesh, he yet affirms that It was not overcome 
by the infirmities of the flesh, nor fell from Its pristine Might 
and Glory, when It clad Itself in our frail and inglorious body. 
For we saw, he says, His Glory surpassing that of others, 
and such as one may confess befits the Only-Begotten Son 
of God the Father : for full was He of grace and truth. 
For if one looks at the choir of the saints and measures the 
things that are wondrously achieved by each, one will 
with reason marvel and be delighted at the good things that 
belong to each and will surely say that they are filled with 
glory from God. But the Divines and witnesses say 
that they have seen the glory and grace of the Only-Begotten, 
not competing with that of the rest, but very far surpassing 
it and mounting up by incomparable excellencies, having no 
measured grace, as though another gave it, but perfect and 

112 God the Son works as God, the rest as servants. 

I i 

! ' I ' 
n \ 

Book I. 
cap.L 15 

1 ISllifjLO- 


2 yvfjcrioi 

Heb. iii. 

Ps. cxviii, 

Jer. vii. 

Infra x. 
37, 38. 

S. Luke 
ii. 52. 

true as in the Perfect, that is, not imported nor supplied 
from without in the way of accession, but essentially in- 
existent, and the fruit of the Father's essential Property l 
passing Naturally to the Son "Who is of Him. 

And if it seem good to any to test more largely what has 
been said, let him consider with himself both the deeds that 
are wonderfully done by each of the saints and those of our 
Saviour Christ and he will find the difference as great as we 
have just said. And there is this besides ; — they are true 2 
servants about the house, He as a Son over his own house. 
And the Divine Scripture says of the Only-Begotten 
Blessed be he that cometh in the Name of the Lord, but of the 
saints God the Father says, I have even sent unto you all my 
servants the prophets. And the one were recipients of the 
grace from above, the other as Lord of Hosts says, If I do 
not the works of My Father, believe Me not : but if I do, 
though ye believe not Me, believe My works. If then the 
Only-Begotten is seen by the very works to be as great in 
power as the Father, He will conformably be celebrated by 
equal honours, as the Doer of equal works, and will surely 
as much surpass, even when in the Flesh, those who have 
been called unto brotherhood, as God by Nature overleaps 
the limits of men, and the Very Son the sons by adoption. 

But since it is written in the blessed Luke, And Jesus 
increased in wisdom and grace, we must observe here that 
the Spirit-clad said that the Son hath His glory full of grace. 
Whither then will that which is full advance, or what ad- 
dition will that at all admit, beyond which there is nought ? 
Hence He is said to increase, not in that He is Word and 
God, but because He ever more greatly marvelled at, ap- 
peared more full of grace to those who saw Him, through 
His achievements, the disposition of those who marvelled 
advancing, as is more true to say, in grace, than He Who is 
Perfect as God. Be these things then spoken for profit, 
though they be somewhat discursive. 

15 John bare witness of Him and cried. 

The most wise Evangelist follows again the course of his 

The two witnesses to our Lord. 



thoughts and makes the sequel duly correspondent to what CHAP.ix. 
preceded. For when he said of the Son of God, we beheld Supra 
His Glory, the Glory as of the Only-Begotten of the Father, 
that he might not appear to alone say this (the word we have 
seen not suiting a single person) , he joins with himself his 
namesake witness, having one and the same piety with him- 
self. I then, says he, bear witness (for I have beheld what 
I said), and the Baptist likewise bears witness. A most 
weighty pair of Spirit-clad, and a notable pair of men fos- 
ter-brothers in truth and unknowing how to lie. 

But see how exceeding forcible he made his declaration. 
For he not only says that John bears witness of Him, but 
profitably adds and cried, taking his proof from the words 
The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, and this too Is. xl. 3. 
exceeding well. For it was possible that some of the op- 
ponents might say, When did the Baptist witness to the Only- 
Begotten or to whom did he impart the things regard- s 
ing Him ? He cried then, says he, that is, not in a 
corner does he utter them, not gently and in secret does he 
bear witness : you may hear him crying aloud more clear 
than a trumpet, (not you alone hearing these things,) wide- 
spread and to all is his speech, glorious the herald, remark-, 
able the voice, great and not unknown the Forerunner. 

This was He of Whom I spake, He that cometh after me is preferred 
[has become ] before me, for He was before me. 

Having named the witness same-minded and same-named 
with himself, and having shewn that he used a great voice 
for the service of his preaching, he profitably adds the mode 
too of his testimony : for it is in this in particular that the 
whole question lies. What then do we find the great John 
crying regarding the Only-Begotten ? He that cometh after 
me has become before me for He was before me. Deep is the 
saying and one that demands keen search into its meaning. 

For the obvious and received meaning is thus : As far as 
belongs to the time of the Birth according to the Flesh, the 
Baptist preceded the Saviour, and Emmanuel clearly fol- 
lowed and came after by six whole months, as the blessed 

VOL. I. I 


How to understand, He that cometh 

3 Oetcpyj 


■i ; i 

Book l Luke related. Some suppose that John said this, that it may- 
be understood thus, He that cometh after me, in point of 
age, is preferred before me. But he who fixes a keener 
eye on the Divine thoughts 3 may see, in the first place, 
that this view introduces us to futile ideas and carries 
us far from the needful subject of consideration. For the 
holy Baptist is introduced as a witness, not in order to shew 
that Christ was once later, then again earlier in the time of 

Supra ver. £Q g B| r th, but as a co- witness of His Qlory, the Glory as of 
the Only -Begotten of the Father full of grace and truth. 

What meaning then can one give to such unseasonably in- 
troduced explanations as these ? or how can one give us any- 
clear interpretation, by understanding of time the words be- 
fore us, He That cometh after me became before me ? For be 
it laid down beyond a doubt that the Lord came after the Bap- 
tist,- as being second to him in time according to the Flesh : 
* how will He be also before him, I mean in time ? for due 

order and sequence call us to this sense analogously to what 
preceded. But I think that it is evident to every one, that 
this is an impossibility. For that which cometh short of 
anything in point of time will never have the start of its 
leader. Hence it is a thing utterly senseless and altogether 
past belief, to imagine that the holy Baptist said of time after 
the Flesh,. He that cometh after me has become before me. 
But understanding it rather in accordance with the line of 
thought that preceded, we will believe that it was said in 
some such sense as this. The blessed Baptist meetly car- 
ries up his mode of speaking from a customary phrase to its 
spiritual import, and advances as it were from an image drawn 
from our affairs to the exposition of subtler thoughts. 

For that which leads is ever considered to be more glori- 
ous than those which are said to follow, and things which 
succeed yield the palm to those that precede them. As for 
example, he who is a skilled worker in brass, or carpenter, 
or weaver, takes the lead and has superiority over him 
who is conceived as following by being a learner and advan- 
cing to perfect knowledge. But when such an one has sur- 
passed the skill of his teacher and leaving that behind attains 


after me has become before me. 




to something superior, I deem that he who is surpassed Chap. ix. 
may not unfitly say of his outstripping pupil, He that cometh 
after me, has become before me. 

Transferring then after this sort the force of our idea to 
our Saviour Christ and the holy Baptist, you will rightly 
understand it. Take now the account of each from the be- 
ginning. The Baptist was being admired by all, he Was 
making many disciples, a great multitude of those who came 
for Baptism was always surrounding him: Christ, albeit 
superior, was unknown, they knew not that He was Very 
God. Since then He was unknown, while the Baptist was 
admired, He seemed I suppose to fall short of him; He came 
a little after him who had still the higher position in honour 
and glory from men. But He That cometh after has become 
before, being shewn to be greater and superior to John. For 
the One was at length revealed by His works to be God, the 
other not surpassing the measure of human nature, is found 
at last to have become after. 

Hence the blessed Baptist said darkly, He that cometh after 
me has become before me, instead of, He who was once behind 
me in honour, is beheld to be more glorious, and surpasses by 
incomparable excellencies the measure that befits and belongs 
to me. Thus understanding the words, we shall find him a 
witness of the Glory of the Only-Begotten and not an unsea- 
sonable setter forth of useless things. For his saying that 
Christ is greater than himself who has a great reputation 
for holiness, what else is it than witnessing to His especial 
glory ? 

For He was before me. 
Having said that He has become before me, he needfully 
adds, For He ivas before me, ascribing to Him glory most 
ancient, and affirming that the precedence of all things ac- 
crued not to Him in time, but is inherent in Him from the 
beginning as God by Nature. For He was before me> says 
he, instead of, Always and every -way superior and more 
glorious. And by His being compared with one among 
things originate, the judgment against all is concentrated in 




116 All that we have a gift from the Son's fulness. 
Book I. behalf of Him Who is above all. For we do not contemplate 

caj'. i. 1G. ...-,. 

the great and glorious dignity of the Son as consisting m this 
alone that He surpassed the glory of John, but in His surpass- 
ing every originate essence. 

16 And of His fulness have all we received. 
* . The Evangelist in these words accepts the true testimony 

of the Baptist, and makes clear the proof of the superiority of 
our Saviour, and of His possessing essentially the surpass- 
ing every thing originate, both in respect of glory itself 
(whereof he is now more especially speaking) and of the bright 
catalogue of all the other good things. 

For most excellently, says he, and most truly does the 
Baptist appear to me to say of the Only-Begotten, For He 
was before me, that is far surpassing and superior. For all 
we too, who have been enrolled in the choir of the saints, enjoy 
the riches of His proper good, and the nature of man is en- 
nobled with His rather than its own excellences, when it is 
found to have ought that is noble. For from the fulness of 
the Son, as from a perennial fountain, the gift of the Divine 
graces springing forth comes to each soul that is found 
worthy to receive it. But if the Son supplies as of His Natu- 
ral fulness, the creature is supplied : — how will He not be con- 
ceived of as having glory not similar to the rest, but such as 
will beseem the Only-Begotten of God, having the superiority 
over all as the fruit of His own Nature, and the pre-eminence 
as the Dignity of His Father's Being ? And I think that the 
most wise Paul too when defining as to the nature of all 
things, was moved thereby to true ideas, so as hence at length 
to address the creature, For what hast thou that thou didst not 
receive ? For together with being, the well-being after such 
and such wise, is God's gift to the creature, and it has nothing 
of its own, but becomes rich only with the munificence of Him 
Who gives to it. But we must note again that he says that 
the Son is full, that is, All-perfect in all things, and so greatly 
removed from being lacking in anything whatever, that He 
can bestow even on all, refusing diminution, and preserving 
the greatness of His own excellence always the same. 

1 Cc 

8. John the Baptist confessed his Lord's superiority. 117 

17 And grace for grace, for the law was given by Moses, but Chap. ix. 
grace and truth came by Jesus Christ. '.' ' 

Having said that the glory of the Only -Begotten was 
found more brilliant than any fame among men, and intro- 
ducing the greatness in holiness incomparable above all saints 
that is in Him, he studies to prove this from those who 
have mounted up to the height of virtue. Of John then the 
Saviour saith, Verily I say unto you, Among them that are s : Matt - 
horn of women there hath not risen a greater than John the 
Baptist. But this so great and exalted man, he brought 
forward but now, as himself says, crying and saying with a 
loud voice, He that cometh after me is preferred before me for Supraver. 
He was before me. But since John's glory was inferior and 
gave place to the Only-Begotten, how must one not needs sup- 
pose that no one of the saints besides is brought up to equal 
measure with the Saviour Christ in regard of the glory which 
appears in the splendour of their actions ? The Saints then 
that lived at the time of the Advent, not being able to sur- 
pass the virtue of John, nor mounting up to the measure 
that accrued to him, will with him yield the victor's palm to 
Christ, if the blessed Baptist gaining the highest summit in 
what is good, and having failed in no manner of excellence, 
receives not through the voice of another the judgment of 
inferiority to Him, but himself sealed it against himself, speak- 
ing, as a saint, truly. But since it was necessary that Em- 
manuel should be shewn to be greater and better than the saints 
of old, needs does the blessed Evangelist come to the hiero- 
phant Moses first : to whom it was said bv God, I know thee Exod. 

J xxxiii. 12 

before all and thou didst find grace in My sight. For that he 
was known before all to God, we shall know by this again : If, Num. xii. 
he says, there be a prophet among you, I the Lord will make 
Myself known unto him in a vision and will speak unto him in 
a dream. My servant Moses is not so, who is faithful in all 
Mine house. With him will I speak mouth to mouth, even ap- 
parently and not in dark speeches. The all-wise Moses having 
therefore so great excellency above the elder saints, he 
shews that the Only -Begotten is in everyway superior and of 
more renown, that He might be shewn in all things to have Col. i, 18. 


Cod tlie Son's gifts contrasted 


Book I. 

Supra ver. 
lb. 16. 

Gal. iii. 

Infra xii. 

the 'pre-eminence, as Paul saith : and therefore he says, 
And grace for grace, for the law was given by Moses, but 
grace and truth came by Jesus Christ : for I think that 
the blessed Evanglist would indicate something of this kind : 
The great Baptist, he says, made true confession declaring 
openly respecting the Only-Begotten, He that cometh after 
me is preferred before me, for He was before me, for of His 
fulness have all we received. And let no one suppose that 
the Only-Begotten surpasses John or the rest of the saints 
who belonged to the times of the Advent, but came short 
of the glory of the elder saints, who were illustrious in 
holiness in the times before the Advent; for he will see Him, 
says he, far surpassing the measure of Moses, although he 
possessed the superiority in holiness as compared with them ; 
for the Lawgiver clearly affirmed that He knew him before 
all. John then was convicted by his own mouth of coming 
behind the glory of Christ : he comes short of His splen- 
dour, and there is no question at all about him, or anything 
to embarrass the finding out of the truth. 

Whence then shall we find that the hierophant Moses 
himself also came short of the glory of the Lord ? Let the 
student, he says, diligently examine the evangelic grace given 
to us by the Saviour, in contrast with the grace of the law 
that was through Moses. For then will he see that the 
Son was as much superior, as He is proved to be the Lawgiver 
of better things than the polity of the law and introducing 
things superior to all those which were through Moses. 
For the law, he says, was given through Moses, grace and 
truth came by Jesus Christ. What then is the distinction 
between the law and the grace that comes through the Savi- 
our, let him again see who is fond of search and an ally of 
good labours; we will say a little out of much, believing 
that boundless and vast is the number of the thoughts 
thereto belonging. The Law therefore was condemning the 
world (for God through it concluded all under sin, as Paul 
saith) and shewing us subject to punishments, but the Savi- 
our rather sets it free, for He came not to judge the world 
but to save the world. And the Law too used to give grace 

with those given of old through Moses. 


to mln, calling them to the knowledge of God, and drawing 
away from the worship of idols those who had been led 
astray and in addition to this both pointing out evil and 
teaching good, if not perfectly, yet in the manner of a 
teacher and usefully : but the truth and grace which are 
through the Only-Begotten, does not introduce to us the 
good which is in types, nor limn things profitable as in 
shadow, but in glorious and most pure ordinances leads us 
by the hand unto even perfect knowledge of the faith. And 
the Law used to give the spirit of bondage to fear, but Christ 
the spirit of adoption unto liberty. The Law likewise brings 
in the circumcision in the flesh which is nothing (for cir- 
cumcision is nothing, as Paul writes to certain) : but our Lord 
Jesus Christ is the Giver of circumcision in the spirit and 
heart. The Law baptizes the defiled with mere water : the 
Saviour with the Holy Ghost and with fire. The Law brings 
in the tabernacle, for a figure of the true : the Saviour bears 
up to Heaven itself and brings into the truer tabernacle, 
which the Lord pitched and not man. And it were not hard 
to heap up other proofs besides, but we must respect our 

But we will say this for profit and need. The blessed 
Paul in few words solved the question, saying of the law 
and of the Saviour's grace, For if the ministration of condem- 
nation be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteous- 
ness exceed in glory. For he says that the commandment 
by Moses is the ministration of condemnation; the grace 
through the Saviour, he calls the ministration of righteous- 
ness, to which he gives to surpass in glory, most perfectly 
examining the nature of things, as being clad with the Spirit. 
Since then the Law which condemns iv as given by Moses, the 
grace which justifies came by the Only-Begotten, how is not 
He, he says, superior in glory, through Whom the better 
things were ordained ? The Psalmist then will also be true, 
crying aloud in the Spirit that our Lord Jesus Christ sur- 
passes the whole illustrious multitude of the saints. For 
who, he says, among the clouds shall be made equal unto the 
Lord ? or who shall be likened unto the Lord among the sons 

Chap. ix. 


Rom. viii. 

1 Cor. vii. 

Rom. ii. 

S. Matt, 
iii. 11. 
Heb. ix. 
lb. viii. 2. 

2 Cor. iii. 




Book I. 

xxxiii. 12. 

S. Matt, 
xi. 11. 

Supra ver, 

t i ■« 

120 Christ's glory that of God, the saints' that of men. 

of God ? For the spiritual clouds, that is the holy Projfhets, 
will yield the palm to Christ, and will never think that they 
ought to aim at equal glory^with Him, when he who was 
above all men known of God, Moses, is brought down to the 
second place : and they who were called sons of God at the 
time of the Advent, will not be wholly likened to Him Who 
is by Nature Son, but will acknowledge their own measure, 
when the holy Baptist says that he himself is far behind, of 
whom He That knoweth the hearts says, Among them that 
are born of women there hath not risen a greater than John 
the Baptist. True therefore is the blessed Evangelist, say- 
. ing that he has seen His glory, the glory as of the Only- 
Begotten of the Father, that is, which beseems the Only- 
Begotten Son of God the Father, and not rather those who 
are called to brotherhood with Him, of whom He is First- 

ft ! 

: , 


That the Only-Begotten is Alone by Nature the Son from the 
Father, as being of Him and in Him. 

18 No man hath seen God at any time; the Only-Begotten God*, 
Which is in the Bosom of the Father, He hath declared Him. 

See again herein the vigilance of the Spirit-clad. He 
was not ignorant that some would surely say, bitterly 1 search- 
ing into the things which are spoken of the Only-Begotten : 
You said, good sir, that you had beheld His Glory, the glory 
as of the Only-Begotten of the Father : then when you ought 
to unfold to us the explanation of this and to tell us some 
thing God-befitting and due, you made your demonstration 
from His superiority to Moses and to the measure of John, 
as though one could not in any other way see His Glory, 
although the blessed Prophet Isaiah says, I saiv 'the Lord 
sitting upon a throne high and lifted up and His train filled 
the temple. Above it stood the Seraphim, each one had six 
wings, with twain he covered his face and with twain he covered 
his feet and with twain he did fly ; and one cried unto another 
and said, Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord of hosts ; the whole 
earth is full of His glory : Bzekiel again cried openly to us 
that he both saw the Cherubim, having a firmament like a 
sapphire resting upon their heads, and upon a throne like- 
wise the Lord of Hosts : his words are these, And there 
was a voice, says he, from the firmament that was over their 
heads, and above the firmament that was over their heads was 
the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone : 
and upon the likeness of the throne was the likeness as the ap- 
pearance of a man above upon it : and I saw as the colour of 

a "The Only-Begotten God." So andrine family and the Codex Sinaiticus 
read the uncial MSS. BCL of the Alexi and so S. Cyril here. 

1 irtKpSrt- 

ver. 14. 

Isa. vi. 

Ezek. i. 
25, 26-28. 

122 The Unseen God how said to have been seen. 

Book I. 
cap. i. 18. 

H : 

xxxiii. 20 

Infra vi. 

Isa. vi. 1. 

Ezek. i. 


ver. 14. 

xiii. 5. 

Ps. xix. 1 

amber, from the appearance of his loins even upwards and 
from the appearance of his loins even downwards, I saw as it 
were the appearance of fire and it had brightness round about, 
as the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of 
rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round about. 
This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the 

Since therefore it was not unlikely that not a few of the 
more unlearned would say some such things to us, needs 
does the blessed Evangelist hasten to cut short their at- 
tempts, saying, No man hath seen God at any time ; for the 
Only -Begotten Himself being God, Which is in the bosom of 
God the Father, made this declaration to us, saying most 
clearly to the hierophant Moses, There shall no man 
see My Face and live : and sometime to His own disciples, 
Not that any man hath seen the Father, save He Which is of 
God, He hath seen the Father. For to the Son Alone That 
is by Nature is the Father visible and that in such wise 
as one may think 2 that the Divine Nature Divinely sees and 
is seen, and to none other of things which are. Yet will the 
speech of the holy Prophets in no way be false when they 
cry aloud that they saw the Lord of Hosts : for they do not 
affirm that they saw that very essential Thing that the Na- 
ture of God is, but they themselves too openly cry out, This 
is the appearance of the likeness of the Glory of the Loed. 
Therefore the fashion of the Divine Glory was darkly formed 3 
out of things such as are ours, and was rather a likeness giving 
things Divine as it were in a picture, while the truth of them 
mounts up to excellence above mind and speech. Most ex- 
cellently then does the most wise Evangelist saying, And we 
beheld His glory, the glory as of the Only-Begotten of the Fa- 
ther, full of grace and truth, bring in the demonstration 
thereof from His superiority to all. For like as from the 
beauty of the creatures proportionably is the Power of the 
Creator of all beheld, and the heavens without voice declare 
the glory of God, and the firmament sheweth His handywork : 
so again will the Only-Begotten be proved superior in Glory 
and more resplendent, surpassing apprehension, as regards the 


God the Son in the Father and from the Father. 123 

power of the eye, as God; and wherein He surpasses the crea- Chap. X. 
ture, therein deemed of and glorified as being above it. Such 
thought then and no other I deem that the words now before us 
are replete with. But we must note again that he both calls 
the Son Only -Begotten God, and says that He is in the Bo- 
som of the Father, that He may be shewn again to be outside of 
any connaturality with the creature and to have His own 
proper 4 Being of the Father and in the Father. For if He 4 ISidfrv- 
is verily Only-Begotten God, how is He not Other in nature 
than they who are by adoption gods and sons ? For the 
Only-Begotten will be conceived of not among many bre- 
thren, but as the Only one from the Father. But since, 
while there are as Paul saith many who are are called gods 
in heaven and earth, the Son is Only-Begotten God, He will 
clearly be outside of the rest and will not be reckoned among 
those who are gods by grace, but will rather be Very God 
with the Father. For so does Paul conjoin Him, saying 
to us, But to us One God the Father of Whom are all things, 
and One Lord Jesus Christ by Whom are all things. For 
the Father being by Nature One God, the Word That is of 
Him and in Him will not remain external from being God, 
eminent in the ownness 5 of Him Who begat Him, and ascend- 
ing essentially to equal Dignity, because He is by Nature 

Therefore does he say that He is in the Bosom of the Fa- 
ther, that you may again conceive His being in Him and of 
Him 6 according to what is said in the Psalms : From the 
womb before the day-star begat I Thee. For as here he puts 
From the womb, because of His being of Him and that 
really 7 , from likeness of things belonging to us (for 
things born of men proceed from the womb) ; so too when he 
says in the bosom, he would plainly shew the Son all but in 
the womb of the Father which begat Him forth 8 , (as it were in 
some Divine gleaming forth and unspeakable forth-come 9 
unto His - own Person 10 ), but which yet possessesHim, since not 
by cutting away x or division after the flesh, did the Divine 
Offspring come forth 2 of the Father. And indeed the Son 
somewhere says that He is in the Father and has again theFa- 

1 Cor.viii. 

5 ISi6t7]TI 

5 rb ivav- 

Ps. ex. 3. 

7 yvriclais 

B €K<j>a.VTl- 


9 TTpo6S(f} 

10 vTr6(rra- 

1 airoKo- 

2 irpotKv- 

*« . 

Infra xiv. 



TJie Bosom of the Father, the Intimate 



' i (/ ! 

1 Cor.viii 
12, 11. 
4 cupvAa- 


Book. I . ther in Him. For the very own of the Father's Essence passing 

» rb ya P * essentially' 3 into the Son, shews the Father in Him, and the 
i0V &v<ri- Father again has the Son rooted in Himself in exact sameness 

kws Strj- of Essence and begotten of Him, yet not by division or inter- 
val of place, but inherent and ever co-existing ; thus rather 
shall we piously understand that the Son is in the Bosom of 
the Father? not as some of 'those who are wont to fight 
( Rom. iii. against God have taken it, whose damnation is just : for they 

Mic. iii. pervert all equity, as the Prophet says, undoing the ears of 
the simpler ones and sinning without heed* against the 
brethren, for whom Christ died. 

What it is then that these both think and say and try to 
teach others, we must needs say. When the holy Evangelist 
says that the Son is in the Bosom of God the Father, and the 
children of the Church think rightly, and affirm that He is 
therefore of the Father and in the Father, and contend and 
that aright, that the true mode of Generation must be pre- 
served ; straightway they that are drunk with all unlearning 
laugh outright and even dare to say : Your opinion, sirs, is 
all nonsense : for not well-instructedly do ye think of God, 
deeming that because the Son is said to be in the Bosom of 
the Father, He is therefore wholly of His Essence, and 
foolishly imagining that He is the Fruit of the Inoriginate 
Nature. For have ye not heard, say they, in the Gospel 
parables, when Christ Himself was discoursing of the Rich 
man and Lazarus, that it came to pass that Lazarus died and 
was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom ? will ye 
then grant, because Lazarus was in the bosom of Abraham, 
that therefore he is of him and in him by nature, or will ye 
not rightly refuse to say this, and yourselves too with us 
allow that love is meant by the " bosom" ? we say therefore 
that the Son is in the Bosom of God the Father, instead of 

S. Luke 
xvi. 22. 

Infra iii. in His love, as Himself also says, The Father loveth the Son. 
But when the fault-finders hit us with these words, though 
they be zealous to nought but railing, then we too will an- 
swer them, arraying against them the right word of the 
truth : The bosom, good sirs, according to you means love : 

Infra m. f or thi s we j us ^ now near d you say. Shall we then, since God 

Oneness with Him of God the Son. 


loved the world, as the Saviour saith, and The Lord, lov- Chap, X. 

• • CAP. 1.18. 

eth the gates of Sion } according to the holy Psalmist, fear- Ps. 
lessly say that both the world itself and the gates of Sion 
are in the bosom of God the Father ? And when He says 
too to the hierophant Moses, Put thine hand into thy bosom, Exod. iv. 
does He bid him, tell me, love his hand and not rather keep 
it hidden ? Then how shall we not incur great laughter 
hereby, yea rather how shall we not behave with impiety to- 
wards the Father Himself, if we say that all things are in 
His Bosom, and make that common to the rest which is the 
special prerogative of the Only-Begotten, in order that the 
Son may have nought above the creature ? 

Hence bidding good bye to their ill-counsel, we will go 
on the straight road of thoughts of the Truth, when the Son 
is said to be in the Bosom of the Father, conceiving of Him as 
of Him and in Him : and accurately taking in the force of the 
thought, we shall find it thus and not otherwise. The Onlij- 
Begotten Qod, he says, Which is in the Bosom of the Father, 
He hath declared. For when he said Only-Begotten and God, 
he straightway says, Which is in the Bosom of the Father, 
that He may be conceived of as Son of Him and in Him Na- 
turally, saying Bosom of the Father instead of Essence, as by 
corporeal simile. For things manifest are types of things 
spiritual, and things among us lead us by the hand to the 
apprehension of the things which are above us : and the 
corporal things are often taken in the way of image and in- 
troduce to us the apprehension of subtler thoughts, even 
though they be in their proper time understood as they were 
uttered, as I mean that to Moses, Put thine hand into thy 
bosom. And it will no way hurt our argument to say that 
Lazarus was laid in Abraham's bosom, but will aid it rather 
and will go along with our thoughts. For the Divine Scrip- 
ture says so to speak thus : Lazarus having died and deceased 
from his life in the body, was carried into Abraham's bosom, 
instead of "was numbered among Abraham's children." For 
"I have made thee a father of many nations," said God to 
him, for so is it somewhere written of him, For a father qf9 en - xvn - 
many nations have I made thee. 


8. John Baptist's testimony. 

Book I. 
c.i. 19^21 

ver. (5, 7. 

lb. 8. 

lb. 20. 

Rom. i. 


.1 . 
' 1 

_ i ' 



i • 


■ J 




5 &s if 


xviii. 15, 

Isa. xl.3: 
S. Matt. 
iii. 3. 

19 And this is the record of John, when the Jews sent priests 

20 and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, Who art thou ? And 
he confessed and denied not ; but confessed, I am not the Christ. 

The Evangelist recalls his own words and endeavours to 
explain to us more fully (doing exceeding well) what he had 
already told us told us briefly as in summary. For having said 
There was a man sent from God, whose name was John : the 
same came for a ivitness, to bear witness of the Light, needs 
does he bring in the mode also of the witness given by him. 
For when, he says, the chiefs of the Jewish divisions after 
the Law, sent priests and Levites to him, bidding them ask him, 
what he would say of himself, then very clearly did he confess, 
spurning all shame for the truth's sake. For he said, I am 
not the Christ. Therefore neither do I, says he, the compiler 
of this Book, lie saying of him, He was not the Light but to 
bear witness of the Light. 

21 And they asked him, What then ? Art thou Elias ?and he saith, 
I am not. Art thou that Prophet ? And he answered, No. 

Having said by way of explanation, he confessed, I am not 
the Christ ; he tries to shew how or in what manner the con- 
fession was made; and he appears to me to wish thereby to lay 
bare the ill-instructedness of the Jews. For professing them- 
selves to be wise they became fools, and puffed up at their know- 
ledge of the Law, and ever putting forward the command- 
ments of Moses and asserting that they were perfectly 
instructed in the words of the holy Prophets, by their foolish 
questions they are convicted of being wholly uninstructed. 
For the hierophant Moses saying that the Lord should be 
revealed as a Prophet 5 foretold to the children of Israel, The 
Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Propliet from the midst 
of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me, unto Him shall ye hearken; 
according to all that thou desiredst of the Lord thy God in 
Horeb* The blessed Isaiah, introducing to us the fore- 
runner and fore-messenger, says, The voice of one crying in 
the wilderness Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make His paths 
straight : and in addition to these the Prophet Joel b says of 
b Joel. S. Cyril quotes apparently from memory. 

Prophecies of Christ. 


the Tishbite (he was Elias) Behold, I send you Elijah the 
Tishbite c who shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, 
and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just, lest I come and 
smite the earth with a curse. 

There being then three, who were promised should come, 
Christ and John and Elias, the Jews expect that more will 
come, that they may rightly hear, Ye do err not knowing the 
Scriptures. For when they enquired of the blessed Baptist 
and learned that he was not the Christ, they answer, What 
then ? art thou Elias ? and on his saying I am not, when they 
ought to have asked respecting the fore-runner (for he it was 
that remained) they ignorantly return to Christ Himself, Who 
was revealed through the Law as a Prophet. For see what 
they say, not knowing what was told them through Moses, Art 
thou the Prophet ? and he answered, No. For he was not 
the Christ, as he had already before declared. 

Chap. X. 

Mai. iv. 
5, 6. 
S. Luke 
i. 17. 

S. Matt, 
xxii. 29. 

22 23 What say est thou of thyself ? /am the voice of one crying- 
in the wilderness. 

He accuses them sharply as knowing nothing, and ac- 
credits the design or purpose entrusted to him by Prophetic 
testimony. For I come, he says, to say nothing else than 
that He, The Looked for, is at length at the doors, yea rather 
the Lord within the doors. Be ye ready to go whatsoever 
way He bids you, ye have gone the way given you through 
Moses, take up that by Christ : for this the choir of the holy 
Prophets foretold you. 

A setting forth of sayings concerning the way that is after Christ. 

Isaiah. Come ye and let us go up to the mountain of the Isa. ii. 3. 
Loed, to the house of the God of Jacob, and He will teach us 
of His ways and we will walk in His paths. 

The same. And an highway shall be' there and a way, and ib. xxxv. 
it shall be called The way of holiness ; no lion shall be there 
nor any ravenous beast shall go up thereon, but the redeemed 
shall walk there. 

<= Tishbite LXX. " Prophet" Heb. 



The Pharisees pretending to honour 

li ■; 



,i i:!i 

Book I. 
cap. i. 24. 
Isa. xli. 

lb. xlii. 

The same. I will give beginning d to Sign, and will exhort 
Jerusalem unto the way. 

The same. And I will bring the blind by a way that they 
knew not : I ivill lead them in paths that they have not 

Jeremiah. Stand ye in the ways and see and ask for the 
old paths, where is the good way and walk therein, and ye 
shall find rest for yoiw souls. 

What then is the good way and that purifies those who 
Infra xiv. wa lk m [t } l e t Christ Himself say : I am the Way. 

24 And they had been sent from the Pharisees. e 
They who were sent from the Jews (they were Levites and 
certain of those who belonged to the priesthood) were con- 
victed of asking foolish questions. For supposing that Christ 
was one person, the Prophet declared by the Law another, 
they said, after the holy Baptist had said, I am not the Christ, 
Art thou the Prophet ? But lo, the multitude of the Pharisees 
also is caught in conceit of wisdom 6 rather than having really 
an accurate knowledge of the Divine oracles. For why, it says, 
baptizest thou at all, if thou be not the Christ nor Elias neither 
the Prophet? and they are shewn again to be full of no small 
senselessness against the Baptist. For they do not, it seems, 
vouchsafe to put him in the number of those expected, but 
sick with the haughtiness that was their foster-sister f , they 
deem that he is nought, albeit he be fore-announced by the 
Prophet's voice. For though they heard, I am the voice of 
one crying in the wilderness Prepare ye the way of the Lord : 
receiving not his word, they rebuke him without restraint 
saying after this sort : There is nought in thee, Sir, worthy 
of credit, nor wondrous nor great : why baptizest thou even 
at all ? why dost thou, who art absolutely nothing, take in 
hand so great a thing ? It was the habit of the ungodly 
Pharisees to act thus, to disparage one who was already 

d apxh", " beginning " or " sove- jueVot in place of ol aiziffTaKfitvoi. 

reignty"; vide supra p. 14. „* f r^v Se iavrots ffWTtdpa/j./j.4vriv 

e So the uncial MSS. ABCL & the voaovvres a\a£ayeiav 
Codex Sinuiticus read, giving an«TTa\- 

ver. 20,21, 

6 8oKT)(Tt- 


Matt. iii. 

the coming, reject the come. 


come, to pretend to honour one who was to come. For Chap. X. 
in order that they might always procure for themselves CAF ' 1 ' ' 
honours at the hand of the Jews, and might procure to them- 
selves incomes 7 of money, they desire that none save them- 7 ™p»- 
selves should appear illustrious. For thus slew they the ^"^ 
heir Himself also, saying Come let us kill Him and let us s. Matt. 
seize on His inheritance. xxi - 38, 

26 / baptize with water. 

Much enduringly 8 does the blessed Baptist bear with the 
fault finders : and very seasonably does he make the declara- 
tion regarding himself a basis of saving preaching : and 
teaches those who were sent from the Pharisees now even 
against their will that Christ was within the doors. For I, he 
says, am bringing in an introductory 9 Baptism, washing those 
defiled by sin with water for a beginning of penitence and 
teaching them to go up from the lower unto the more per- 
fect. For this were to accomplish in act, what I was sent to 
preach, Prepare ye, I mean, the way of the Lord. For the 
Giver of the greater and most notable gifts and Supplier of 
all perfection of good things, standeth among you, unknown 
as yet by reason of the veil of flesh, but so much surpassing 
me the Baptist, that I must deem myself not to have the 
measure even of a servant's place in His Presence. For 
this I deem is the meaning of, I am not worthy to unloose 
His shoe-latchet. 

And in saying what is true, he works something else that 
is useful, for he persuades the haughty Pharisee to think 
lowlily, and brings himself in as an example of this. 

But he says that these things were done in Bethabara Z>e- 
yond Jordan, putting this too as a sign of accurate and care- 
ful narration. For we are all accustomed, so to speak, in 
our accounts of things that require it to mention also the 
places where they happened. 

8 'Avel-t- 

9 iraiSa- 

Cyril Arch-Bishop of Alexandria on the Gospel according 1 to 
John, Book I. 

VOL. I. 


Chapter 1. That the Holy Ghost is in the Son, not by participation, 
nor from without, but Essentially and by Nature : on the words, 
And John bare record, I saw the Spirit descending from Heaven 
like a dove and It abode upon Him. 

Chapter 2. That the Son is not in the number of things originate, 
but above all, as God and of God, on the words, He that cometh 
from above is above all. 

Chapter 3. That the Son is God and of God by Nature, on the 
words, He that hath received His testimony, hath set to his seal 
that God is true. 

Chapter 4. That not by participation are the Properties of God 
the Father in the Son, but Essentially and by Nature, on the words, 
The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into His 

Chapter 5. That the Son is not in the number of worshippers, in 
that He is Word and God, but rather is worshipped with the 
Father, on the words, Ye worship ye know not what, we know 
what we worship. 

Chapter 6. That the Son is not inferior to the Father, either in 
power, or in operation for any work, but is Equal in Might, and 
Consubstantial with Him, as of Him and that by Nature, on the 
words, The Son can do nothing of Himself, but what He seeth 
the Father do : for what things soever He doeth, these also doeth 
the Son likewise. 

Chapter 7« That nought of God-befitting dignities or excellences 
is iu the Son, by participation, or from without, on the words, 
For the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judg- 
ment unto the Son. 

Chapter 8. That the Son being God and of God by Nature, and 
the Exact Image of Him Who begat Him, hath equal honour and 
glory with Him, on the words, That all men should honour the 
Son even as they honour the Father. 

Chapter 9. That the Son is in nothing inferior to God the Father, 
butis of Equal Might in operation as to all things, as God of God, on 
the words, / can of Mine own Self do nothing : as I hear, I judge. 



Archbishop of Alexandria 




29 The newt day he seeth Jesus coming to him. 

In a very little time, the Baptist is declared to be Prophet 
alike and Apostle. For Whom he was heralding as coming, 
Him now come he points out. Therefore, he bounded beyond 
even the measure of prophets, as the Saviour Himself saith 
when discoursing with the Jews concerning him, What went s. Matt. 
ye out into the wilderness for to see ? A prophet, yea, I say xu 9 * 
unto you and more than a prophet. For they in their times 
prophesied that Christ should be revealed, but he, crying 
that He shall come, also pointed Him out come. For the 
next day, saith he, he seeth Jesus coming to him. 

And saith, Behold the Lamb of God, Which taketh away the sin of 

the world. 

No longer has prepare ye the way fit place, since He at 
length is seen and is before the eyes for Whom the preparation 
is made : the nature of the thing began to need other words. 
It needed to explain, Who He is Who is come, and to whom 
He maketh His descent Who hath come to us from Heaven. 
Behold, therefore, saith he, the Lamb of God Which taketh 
away the sin of the world, Whom the Prophet Isaiah did 
signify to us, saying, He is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, Isa. liii. 
and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb : Whom of old, too, 
saith he, the law of Moses typified, but then it saved In part, 
not extending mercy to all (for it was a type and shadow) : 
but now He Who of old was dimly pictured, the very Lamb, 
the spotless Sacrifice, is led to the slaughter for all, that He 

k 2 

132 We in Christ, because human nature is one. 


■! j; i j 

, Gen. iii 
19. - 


2 Cor. v 

lb. 15. 

Isa. xxv 



Book 2. might drive away the sin of the ivorld, that He might overturn 
" the destroyer of the earth, that dying for all He might bring 
to nought death, that He might undo the curse that i$ upon 
us, that He might at length end Dust thou art, and unto dust 
shalt thou return, that He might become the second Adam, 
1 Cor. xv. not of the earth, but from heaven, and might be the beginning 
of all good to the nature of man, deliverance from the imported 
corruption, Bestower of eternal life, foundation of our recon- 
ciliation to God, beginning of godliness and righteousness, 
way to the Kingdom of Heaven. For one Lamb died for all, 
saving the whole flock on earth to God the Father, One for 
all, that He might subject all to God, One for all, that He 
might gain all : that at length all should not henceforth live to 
themselves but to Him Which died for them and, rose again. For 
since we were in many sins, and therefore due to death and 
corruption, the Father hath given the Son a redemption for us, 
One for all, since all are in Him, and He above all. One died 
for all, that all should live in Him. For death having swal- 
lowed up the Lamb for all, hath vomited forth all in Him 
and with Him. For all we were in Christ, Who on account 
of us and for us died and rose again. But sin being de- 
stroyed, how could it be that death which was of it and because 
of it should not altogether come to nothing ? The root dying, 
how could the shoot yet survive ? wherefore should we yet 
die, now that sin hath been destroyed ? therefore jubilant 
55, from in the Sacrifice of the Lamb of God we say : death, where 
14. ' ' is thy sting ? grave, where is thy victory ? For all iniquity, 
4 |j CV1U as the Psalmist sings somewhere, shall stop her mouth, no 

... longer able to accuse those who have sinned from infirmity. 

33, 34. For it is God that justifieth, who is he that condemneth ? 
Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a 
curse for us, that we might escape the curse from transgression. 

30 This is He of Whom I said. 

He leads the hearers to remembrance of his words, and 
yields to Christ the superiority in glory, accomplishing the 
work, not of love, but rather of truth and necessity. For 
the creature is subject, even if it willeth not, to the Creator? 

1 Cor. xv. 



How 8. John Baptist knew not Clirist. 


the bond to the Lord, the supplied to the Giver. But in what Book 2. 

. CAP ' 01 

manner Christ was after John, but preferred before him, for v "*" i •" i, 
He was before him, as himself confesseth, we have spoken Supra pp. 
sufficiently in what has preceded. 

113 sqq. 

31 And I knew Him not, but that He should be made manifest to 
Israel, therefore am I come baptizing with water. 

He that leaped in the depth of the womb of his mother at the 
voice of the Holy Virgin while yet bearing the Lord, prophet 
before the travail-pang, disciple in the womb, says of the 
Saviour, I knew Him not, and says truly, for he does not lie. 
For God knows all things of Himself and untaught, but 
the creature, by being taught. For the Spirit indwelling in 
the Saints, fulfils what is lacking, and gives to human na- 
ture His Own good, I mean, knowledge of things to come, 
and of the hidden mysteries. Therefore the holy Baptist 
saying that he does not know the Lord, will by no means 
speak untruly, in regard of the property of human nature, 
and the measure befitting the creature, but will attribute the 
knowledge of all things to God Alone, Who through the Holy 
Ghost enlighteneth man to the apprehension of hidden things. 
And very profitably doth he say that of himself he knew not 
Christ, but is come for that very purpose, to make Him ma- 
nifest to Israel, that he may not seem to run of his own ac- 
cord to bear testimony, nor be thought by any the minister 
of his own will, but the worker of the Divine dispensation, 
the minister of the Counsel from above revealing to him the 
Lamb Which talceth away the sin of the world. 

In order therefore that the Jews may the more easily come 
to believe on our Saviour Christ, and may have the most 
worthy conception of Him, he says that having not known Him, 
he knows Him, that they may understand then at length God 
Who revealed Him, and awestruck 1 at the judgment from l twovap- 
above, may receive his word concerning Him, and, seeing the K * aavrs * 
servant so great, may proportionally estimate the Dignity of 
the Master. For his saying, that he was come to make 
Him manifest to Israel, how does it not denote the care 2 be- " Qtpanil- 
longing to a servant ? . * 





1 &r«£ep- 

* .itXotu 


That -the Holy Ghost is in the Son not by participation, not from 
without, but Essentially and by Nature. 

32 And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending 

33 from Heaven like a dove, and It abode upon Him. And I knew 
Him not : but He That sent me to baptize with water, the Same 
said unto me, Upon Whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending 
and remaining upon Him, the Same is He Which baptizeth with 

the Holy Ghost. 

- *. 
Havbjg said above that lie knew Him not, he profitably 

explains 1 and uncovers the Divine Mystery, both shewing 
that He Who told him was God the Father, and clearly re- 
lating the manner of the revelation. By all does he profit 
the mind of the headers ; and whereby he says that the 
Mystery of Christ to men- ward was taught him of God, he 
shews that his opposers are fighting against the decree from 
above, and to their own peril arraying themselves against the 
aiighty purpose of the Father. For this was the part of one 
skillfully persuading them to desist from their vain counsel, 
and to receive Him Who by the goodwill of the Father came 
for the salvation of all. He therefore testifieth, both that he 
saw the Spirit descending from Heaven upon Him, in the form 
of a Dove, and that It abode upon Him. Then besides, he 
says that himself was the ear- witness of Him Who sent him to 
baptize with water, that He upon Whom the Spirit came and 
abode upon Him is He which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost. 
Most worthy of belief then the witness, supernatural the sign, 
above all the Father Who revealed. 

And these things are thus. But perchance the heretic fond 
of carping will jump up, and with a big laugh 2 , say ; What 
again, sirs, say ye to this too, or what argument will ye bring 

The Son Perfect because the Father Perfect. 135 

forth, wresting: that which is written ? Lo, he saith that the Chap. l. 

c.i 3^ 33. 
Spirit descendeth upon the Son; lo, He is anointed by God 

the Father j That Which He hath not, He receives forsooth, the 
Psalmist co-witnessing with us and saying, as to Him : Where- ^ s - xlv - 
fore God, Thy God, hath anointed Thee with the oil of gladness 
above Thy felloivs. How then will the Son any more be 
Consubstantial with the Perfect Father, not being Himself 
Perfect, and therefore anointed ? To this then I think it 
right to say to those who overturn the holy doctrines of the 
Church, and pervert the truth of the Scriptures : Awake, ye Joel i. 5. 
drunkards, from your wine, that viewing the clear beauty of 
the truth, ye may be able with us to cry to the Son : Of a S. Matt. 
truth Thou art the Son of God. For if thou fully believe that X1V " 
He is by Nature God, how will He not have perfection ? For 
time is it that ye now speak impiously against the Father 
Himself also : for whence must He needs, as thou sayest, have 
perfection ? how will He not be brought down to the abase- 
ment of His Offspring, which according to you is imperfect, 
in that the Divine Essence in the Son has once received the 
power of not having Perfection, according to your unlearned 
and uninstructed reasoning ? For we will not divide that Great 
and Untaint Nature into different Words, so that it should 
be imperfect perchance in one, and again Perfect in the other. 
Since the definition of human nature too is one in respect of 
all men, and equal in all of us, what man will be less, qua 
man ? but neither will he be considered more so than another. 
And I suppose that one angel will differ in nothing from ano- 
ther angel in respect of their being what they are, angels to 
wit, from sameness of nature 3 , being all linked with one ano- s 6/j.oeM- 
ther unto one nature. How then can the Nature Which is Di- as 
vine and surpassing all, shew Itself in a state inferior to things 
originate in Its own special good, and endure a condition 
which the creature cannot endure ? How will It be at all 
simple and uncompounded, if Perfection and imperfection 
appear in It ? For It will be compounded of both, since 
Perfection is not of the same kind as imperfection. For if ' 

they be of the same kind, and there be no difference be- 
tween them, every thing which is perfect will without dis- 


The Son by Nature God and Perfect, 

■J If 



Book 2. tinction be also imperfect : and if ought again be imperfect, * 
* ' ' ' this too will be perfect. And the charge against the Son 
will be nought, even though according to your surmisings 
He appear not Perfect : but neither will the Father Himself, 
though witnessed to in respect of His Perfection, surpass the 
Son, and there is an end of our dispute. But if much in- 
terval severs imperfection from perfection, and the Divine 
Nature admits both together, It is compound, and not 

But perchance some one will say, that contraries are in- 
compatible, and not co-existent in one subject at the same 
time, as for instance in a body white and black skin to- 
« yopyus gether. Well, my friend, and very bravely 4 hast thou 
backed up my argument. For if the Divine Nature be One, 
and there bo none other than It, how, tell me, will It admit of 
contraries ? How will things unlike to one another come 
together into one subject ? But since the Father is by Nature 
God, the Son too is by Nature God. He will therefore in 
nothing differ, in respect of being Perfect, from the Father, 
since He is begotten of His Divine and most Perfect Essence. 
For must not He needs be Perfect Who is of a Perfect 
Heb. i. 3. Parent, since He is both His exact Likeness, and the express 
Image of His Person, as it is written ? But every one will 
I suppose consent and agree to this. Or let him come for- 
ward and say, how the Son is the exact Image of the Per- 
fect Father, not having Perfection in His Own Nature, 
according to the uncounsel of some. For since He is the 
Impress and Image, He is Himself too perfect as He, 
Whose Image He is. 

But, says one, John saw the Spirit descending from Hea- 
ven upon the Son, and He has Sanctification from without, for 
He receives it as not having it. Time then is it to call Him 
openly a creature, barely honoured with a little excellence, 
perfected and sanctified in equal rank with the rest, and hav- 
ing His supply of good things an acquired one. Then how 
Supra does the Evangelist not lie, wheu he says, Of His fulness 
ver ' * have all ive received ? For how will He be full in His Own 
Nature, Who Himself receiveth from Another ? Or how 

lest the Father cease to be Father or Perfect. 137 

will Grod be at all conceived of as Father if the Only- Chap. l. 
Begotten is a creature, and not rather Son ? For if this be l " 1 "°*' 
so, both Himself will be falsely called Father, and the Son 
will not be Truth, having upon Him a spurious dignity, and 
a title of bare words. The whole therefore will come to 
nothing; the Father being neither truly father, nor the Son 
this by Nature, which He is said to be. But if God be 
truly Father, He surely has whereof He is Father, the 
Son, that is, of 5 Himself. 6 H 

Then how will the Godhead Holy by Nature beget that of 
Itself which is void of holiness, and bring forth Its own 
Fruit destitute of Its own inherent Properties 6 ? For if 6 «8«»/«*- 
He hath sanctification from without, as they babbling say ; — 
they must needs confess, even against their will, that He 
Was not always holy, but became so afterwards, when the 
Spirit descended upon Him, as John saith. How then 
was the Son holy even before the Incarnation ? for so did 
the Seraphim glorify Him, repeating the Holy, in order, isa. vi. 3. 
from the first to the third time. If then He was holy, even 
before the Incarnation, yea rather being ever with the Fa- 
ther, how needed He a sanctifier, and this in the last times, 
when He became Man ? I marvel how this too escapes 
them, with all their love of research. For must we not needs 
conceive, that the Son could at any time reject sanctifica- 
tion, if it be not in Him essentially, but came to Him as it does 
to us, or any other reasonable creature ? But that which 
falls away from sanctification, will it not be altogether under 
the bonds of sin, and sink to the worse, no longer retaining 
power to be apart from vice ? Therefore neither will the 
Son be found to be unchangeable, and the Psalmist will lie 
crying in the Spirit as to Him, But Thou art the Same. Ps.cii.27. 

Besides what has been already said, let this too be consi- 
dered, for it brings in a kindred idea : All reasoning will 
demonstrate that the partaken is somewhat other by nature 
than the partaker. For if this be not true, but that shall | 

in no wise differ from this, and is the same ; that which par- 
takes of ought partakes of itself, which is incredible even to 
think of (for how can any one be imagined to partake of P p. 61,67, 


God the Son always Holy ; else exalted, 

Book 2- 





But if the things mentioned lie altogether in 
natural diversity one to another, and the necessity of reason- 
ing separates them, let them who give the Spirit by par- 
ticipation to the Only-Begotten, see to what a depth of im- 
piety they sink unawares. For if the Son is partaker of the 
Spirit, and the Spirit is by Nature holy, He Himself will 
not be by Nature holy, but is shewn to be hardly so through 
combination with another, transelemented by grace to 
the better, than that wherein He was at first. But let the 
fighter against God again see, into how great impiety the 
question casts him down. For first some change and turn- 
ing, as we said before, will be found to exist respecting the 
Son. And being according to you changed, and having ad- 
vanced unto the better, He will be shewn to be not only not 
inferior to the Father, but even somehow to have become 
superior : and how this is, we will say, taking it from the Di- 
vine Scripture. The divine Paul says somewhere of Him : Be 
each among you so* minded, according to what was also in Christ 
Jesus, Who 'being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be 
equal with God, but emptied Himself, and took upon Him the 
form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men, and 
being found in fashion as a Man, He humbled Himself. 
Since then even before the Incarnation, He was in the form 
and equality of the Father, but at the time of the Incarna- 
tion receiving the Spirit from Heaven was sanctified, ac- 
cording to them, and became by reason of this better alike 
and greater than Himself, He surpasses at length it is plain 
even the measure of His Father. And if on receiving the 
Spirit He mounted up unto dignity above that of the Father, 
then is the Spirit superior even to the Father Himself, seeing 
that He bestows on the Son the superiority over Him. Who 
then will not shudder at the mere hearing of this ? For 
hard is it in truth even to go through such arguments, but 
no otherwise can the harm of their stubbornness be driven 
off. Therefore we will say again to them: If when the Word 
of God became Man, He is then also sanctified by receiving 

a S. Cyril reads Tovto <f>povure (or below and'Book 2. c. 5 ; 3. c. 4; 9. : ad 
tppovdrw) tKOffros iv vjmv avrots, a little Herm. 404 E, 718 B ; de recta fide 141 B. 

not lowered by the Incarnation. 


the Spirit : but before the Incarnation was in the Form and Chap. l. 
Equality of the Father, not yet according to them sanctified, ' 
time is it they should boldly say, that God the Father is not 
holy, if the Word Who is in all things altogether Con-formal 
and Equal to Him, was not holy in the beginning, but barely 
in the last times became so. And again, if He is truly 
the Word of God, Who receiveth the Spirit, and is sanc- 
tified in His Own Nature, let our opponents say, whether 
in doing this, He became greater or less than Himself, or 
remained the Same. For if He hath nothing more from the 
Spirit, but remaineth the same as He was, be not offended 
at learning that It descended on Him. But if He was in- 
jured by receiving It, and became less, you will introduce 
to us the Word as passible, and will accuse the Essence of 
the Father as wronging rather than sanctifying. But if He 
became better by receiving the Spirit, but was in the Form 
and Equality of the Father, even before, according to you, 
He became bettered, the Father hath not attained unto the 
height of glory, but will be in that measure of it, in which 
the Son Who hath advanced to the better was Con-formal . 
and Equal to Him. Convenient is it then, I deem, to say 
to the ill-instructed heretics, Behold o foolish people and J e *.v.2l. 
without understanding, which have eyes, and see not ; which 
have ears and hear not ; for the god of this world hath indeed 2 Cor. iv. 
blinded the eyes of them which believe not, lest the light of the 
glorious gospel of Christ should shine unto them : worthy of 
pity are they rather than of anger. For they understand 
not, what they read. 

But that the reasoning is true, will be clear from hence, 
even if we have not, by our previous attempts, made the de- • 
monstration perfectly clear. Again shall this that is spoken 
by the mouth of Paul be brought forward : Be each among you, Phil- "• 
saith he, so minded, according to what was also in Christ 
Jesus, Who being in theForm of God thought it not robbery to 
be equal with God, but emptied Himself, and took upon Him 
the Form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men, and 
being found in fashion as a Man, He humbled Himself Lo, • 
he much marvels at the Son, as being Equal and Con-formal 

140 Words against the Son " words of wickedness." v 

' \ 
i _ B . ?*™ with God the Father, not, by reason of His Love to us, seizing 

' this, but descending to lowliness, through the Form of a ser- 
vant, emptied by reason of His Manhood. But if, sirs, He 

■* • ■ on receiving the Spirit were sanctified rather, when He be- \ 

*i came Man, and were, through the sanctifi cation, rendered ,: 

superior to Himself, into what kind of lowliness shall we see 
Him to have descended ? How is That made low that was 
" exalted, how did That descend that was sanctified, or how 

i did it not rather ascend, and was exalted for the better ? | 

What emptiness hath filling through the Spirit ? or how will if 

He at all be thought to have been Incarnate for our sakes, % 

Who underwent so great profit in respect of Himself? f 

'* 2Cor.yiu. How did the Rich become^oor for our sokes, who was enriched | 

<1% because of us? How was He rich even before His Advent, S 

* ' * ' Who acccording to them received in it what He had not, to :? 

wit the Spirit ? Or how will He not rather justly offer to us | 

; t Jer.ii. 12, thank-offering for what by means of us He gained? Be 1 

I ' astonished, as it is written, ye heavens, at this : and be :| 

' * . . horribly- afraid, saith the Lord : for the people of the heretics | 

1 Tim. i. have in truth committed two evils, understanding neither what fl 

they say, nor whereof they affirm, and think it not grievous | 

thus to incur such danger in the weightiest matters. For else | 

would they, shedding bitter tears fromtheir eyes, and liftingup | 

Ps. ?xli. amighty voice on high, have approached, saying, Set a watch, | 

Lord, before my mouth, keep the door of my lips. Incline I 

not my heart to words of wickedness. For words of wicked- | 

, t ness in truth are their words, travailing with extremest .| 

mischief to the hearers. But we, having expelled their | 

babbling from our heart, will walk in the right way of the I 

'i ,2 Cor. x. faith, bearing in mind that which is written : Gasti?ig down § 

imaginations, and every high thing that exalteth itself against § 

i . the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every thought E 

I : to the obedience of Christ. -Come then, and bringing into 1 

f captivity our mind as to the subjects before us, let us sub- h 

I ,: ject it to the glory of the Only-Begotten, bringing all things | 

«! , wisely to His obedience, that is, to the mode of the Incar- j§ 

Ib.viii.9. nation. For, being Rich, for our sakes He became poor, that 
ive through His poverty might be rich. 

Mail's loss through sin. 


Receive then, if you please, our proof through that also which 
is now before us, opening a forbearing ear to our words. The 
Divine Scripture testifies that man was made in the Image 
and Likeness of God Who is over all. And indeed, he who 
compiled the first book for us (Moses, who above all men 
was known to God) says, And God created man, in the Image 
of God created He him. But that through the Spirit he was 
sealed unto the Divine Image, himself - again taught us, 
saying, And breathed into his nostrils the breath of life. For 
the Spirit at once began both to put life into His formation 
and in a Divine manner to impress His own Image thereon. 
Thus the most excellent Artificer God, having formed the 
reasonable living creature upon the earth, gave him the sav- 
ing commandment. And he was in Paradise, as it is written, 
still keeping the Gift, and eminent in the Divine Image of 
Him That made him, through the Holy Ghost That indwelt 
him. But when perverted by the wiles of the devil, he 
began to despise his Creator, and by trampling on the law 
assigned him, to grieve his Benefactor, He recalled the grace 
given to him, and he that was made unto life then first heard 
Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return. And now 
the Likeness to God was through the inroad of sin defaced,, 
and no longer was the Impress bright, but fainter and 
darkened because of the transgression. But when the race 
of man had reached to an innumerable multitude, and sin 
had dominion over them all, manifoldly despoiling each 
man's soul, his nature was stripped of the ancient grace ; 
the Spirit departed altogether, and the reasonable creature 
fell into extremest folly, ignorant even of its Creator. But 
the Artificer of all, having endured a long season, at length 
pities the corrupted world, and being Good hastened to 
gather together to those above His runaway flock upon 
earth ; and decreed to trans-element human nature anew to 
the pristine Image through the Spirit. For no otherwise 
was it possible that the Divine Impress should again shine 
forth in him, as it did aforetime. 

What then He contrives to this end, how He implanted in us 
the inviolate grace, or how the Spirit again took root in man, 

Chap. 1. 

xxxiii. 17. 

Gen. i. 27. 

lb. ii. 7. 

lb. 8. 

lb. iii. 19. 




V I 

142 God the Son gives again to man the Spirit. 

Book 2. in what manner nature was re-formed to its old condition, it is 

c i 3' 33 - 

' ' J ' ' meet to say. The first man, being earthy, and of the earth, 
and having, placed in his own power, the choice between good 
and evil, being master of the inclination to each, was caught 
of bitter guile, and having inclined to disobedience, falls to the 
earth, the mother from whence he sprang, and over-mastered 
now at length by corruption and death, transmits the penalty 
to his whole race. The evil growing and multiplying in us, and 
our understanding ever descending to the worse, sin reigned, 
and thus at length the nature of man was shewn bared of 

Wisd.i.5, the Holy Ghost Which indwelt him. For the Holy Spirit of 
wisdom will flee deceit, as it is written, nor dwell in the body 

* that is subject unto sin. Since then the first Adam preserved 

. • not the grace given him of God, God the Father was minded 

to send us from Heaven the second Adam. For He sendeth 
in our likeness His own Son Who is by Nature without 
variableness or change, and wholly unknowing of sin, that 
as by the disobedience of the first, we became subject to 
Divine wrath, so through the obedience of the Second, we 
might both escape the curse, and its evils might come to 
nought. But when the Word of God became Man, He re- 
ceived the Spirit from the Father as one of us, (not receiv- 
ing ought for Himself individually, for He was the Giver of the 
Spirit) ; but that He Who knew no sin, might, by receiving 
It as Man, preserve It to our nature, and might again in- 
root in us the grace which had left us. For this reason, I 
deem, it was that the holy Baptist profitably added, I saw 
the Spirit descending from Heaven, and It abode upon Him. 
For It had fled from us by reason of sin, but He Who knew 
no sin, became as one of us, that the Spirit might be accus- 
tomed to abide in us, having no occasion of departure or 
withdrawal in Him. 

Therefore through Himself He receives the Spirit for us, 
and renews to our nature, the ancient good. For thus is He 

^Cor.viii. also said for our sokes to become poor. For being rich, as 
God and lacking no good thing, He became Man lacking all 

l Cor. iv. things, to whom it is somewhere said and that very well, What 
hast thou that thou didst not receive ? As then, being by 

Rom. v. 


The Son Incarnate shamed not to abase Himself. 143 

Nature Life, He died in the Flesh for our sakes, that He Chap i. 

' c. 1.32, 33. 

might overcome death for us, and raise up our whole nature 
together with Himself (for all we were in Him, in that He 
was made Man) : so does He also receive the Spirit for our 
sakes, that He may sanctify our whole nature. For He 
came not to profit Himself, but to be to all us the Door and 
Beginning and Way of the Heavenly Goods. For if He had 
not pleased to receive, as Man, or to suffer too, as one of us, 
how could any one have shewn that He humbled Himself? 
or how would the Form of a servant have been fittingly kept, 
if nothing befitting a servant were written of Him ? Let 
not then the all-wise account of the dispensation be pulled 
to pieces 7 , whereof the divine Paul himself rightly cries in ^ a<rupe " 
admiration : To the intent that now unto the principalities Eph. ^iii. 
and powers in heavenly places might be known by the Church 
the manifold wisdom of God, according to the eternal purpose 
which He purposed in Christ Jesus our Lord. For wisdom 
indeed and God-befitting, is the great mystery of the Incar- 
nation seen to be. 

Such an apprehension of our Saviour do I suppose that 
we who choose to be pious, and rejoice in orthodox doctrines, 
ought to have. For we too will not descend to such lack 
of reason 8 as to suppose that in the Son by Nature was the 8 a\oyiav 
Spirit by participation and not rather essentially inherent 
even as in the Father Himself. For as of the Father, so 
also of the Son, is the Holy Ghost. So did we also read 
in the Divine Scriptures. For it says : After they were come £- cts XV1 » 
to Mysia, they assayed to go into Bithynia, and the Spirit of 
Jesus b suffered them not. 

But if it seem good to any one, with over contentious zeal, 
to object to our words hereon, and to assert again, that the 
Spirit is in the Son by participation, or that, not being in 
Him before, He then came to be in Him, when He was bap- 
tized, in the period of His Incarnation, let him see, into 
what and how great absurdities he will fall. For first, the 
Saviour saith : Among them that are born of women there S- Matt ' 

xi. 11. 

b " The Spirit of Jesus." So reads early Syriac version, containing the 
S. Cyril with oldest MSS. and the first translation of most of the N. T. 


Book 2. 


•; * S.Mark 
i. 7. 

ir i 

S. Luke 
i. 15. 

"lb. 35. 




144 S. John the Baptist sanctified, the Son Essentially holy. 

hath not arisen a greater than John the Baptist. And the 
word is true: but we see him who hath attained to the sum- 
mit of glory and virtue that belong to us, honouring Christ 
with incomparable excellencies. For I am not worthy, says he, 
to stoop doivn and unloose the latchet of His shoes. How then 
is it not absurd, yea rather impious, to believe that John was 
filled with the Holy Ghost, even from his mother's womb, be- 
cause it is so written of him : and to suppose that his Mas- 
ter, yea rather the Master and Lord of all, then first received 
the Spirit, when He was baptized, albeit holy Gabriel says 
to the holy Virgin : The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, 
and the Power of the Highest shall overshadow thee ; therefore 
also that holy Thing which shall be born of thee, shall be 
called the Son of God. And let the lover of learning see, 
with how great a meaning the word travaileth. For of John, 
it saith, he shall be fitted with the Holy Ghost (for the Holy 
Ghost was in him as a gift, and not essentially), but of the 
Saviour, he no longer saith shall be fitted, (in rightness of 
conception,) but that holy Thing which shall be born of thee. 
Nor did he add shall be, for It was always Holy by Nature, 
as God. 

But since I deem that we ought to seek after what is 
profitable from all quarters ; the voice of the archangel hav- 
ing been once brought forward, come, let us exercise our- 
selves a little in it. The Holy Ghost, says he, shall come 
upon thee, and the Power of the Highest shall overshadow 
thee ; therefore also That Holy Thing which shall be born of 
thee, shall ^be catted the Son of God. Let him then, who 
from great unlearning, opposeth the right doctrines of the 
Church, tell us, whether even before the Incarnation the 
the Word of God the Father was Son, or had the glory in 
name only, but was a bastard, and falsely called. For if 
he say that He was not the Son at all, he will deny the Fa- 
ther (for of whom will He be the Father, if He have no 
Son ?) : and he will think contrary to all the Divine Scriptures. 
But if he confess that the Son even before the Incarnation 
both was and was called Son, how does the Archangel tell 
us that That which should be born of the holy Virgin shall 


The Intimate Union between the Son and the Holy Ghost. 145 

be called the Son of God, albeit He was this by Nature 
even long before ? As therefore the Son being from eter- 
nity with the Father, as having Origin of Being, is at 
the time of His Incarnation called Son of God, from His 
appearing in the world with a Body ; so, having in Himself 
Essentially His Own Spirit, He is said to receive It as Man, 
preserving to the Humanity the order befitting it, and with 
it appropriating for our sakes the things befitting it. But 
how can the Word be thought of at all apart from Its Own 
Spirit ? For would it not be absurd to say, that the spirit 
of man, which is in him, according to the definition 9 of nature, 
and for the completeness * of the living-being, was separated 
from him ? But I suppose that this is most evident to all. 
How then shall we sever the Spirit from the Son, Which is 
so inherent and essentially united, and through Him proceed- 
ing 3 and being in Him by Nature, that It cannot be thought 
to be Other than He by reason both of Identity of working, 
and the very exact likeness of Nature. Hear what the 
Saviour saith to His own disciples, If ye love Me, keep My 
Commandments, and I will pray the Father, and He shall 
give you Another Comforter, the Spirit of Truth, Whom the 
world cannot receive. Lo, plainly He calls the Holy Ghost 
Spirit of Truth. But that He and none other than He 
is the Truth, hear Him again saying, I am the Truth. 
The Son by Nature then being and being called Truth, see 
how great Oneness with Him the Spirit hath. For the dis- 
ciple John saith somewhere of our Saviour, This is He that 
came by water and blood and the spirit % Jesus Christ ,- not by 
water only, but by water ajidblood : and it is the Spirit That 
beareth witness, because the Spirit is Truth. Therefore also, 
the Holy Ghost indwelling in our inner man, Christ Himself 
is said to dwell therein, and so it is. And indeed 
the blessed Paul most clearly teaching this, says, But ye are 
not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, If so be that the Spirit of 
God dwell in you. Now if any man have not the Spirit of 
Christ, he is none of His. And if Christ be in you, the body 

« So reads S. Cyril here, cf. De recta and the Spirit;" the latter is also the 
nde p. 95 ; infra Book in. c. 4. " by water reading of the codex Alexandrinus. 
VOL. 1. T 

Chap. 1. 

9 opov 

1 airapri- 

- TTpOKV- 

xiv. 1&, 
16, 17. 

lb. 6.. 

1 S.John 
v. 6. 

Eph. iii. 
Ih. 17. 



God the Holy Ghost, Unseen, as God. 

Book 2. 

Rom. riii. 

1 S. John 
iv. 13. 




Supra ver, 

3 < T X 7 1l JLa - 

S. Matt. 
xi. 29. 

is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is life because of righte- 
ousness. Apply, sir, a quick ear to what is said. Having 
named the Spirit of Christ That dwelleth in us, he straight- 
way added, If Christ be in you, introducing the exact like- 
ness of the Son with the Spirit, Which is His Own and pro- 
ceeding from Him by Nature. Therefore He is called the 
Spirit of adoption also, and in Him we cry Abba, Father. 
And as the blessed John somewhere says, Hereby know we 
that He dwelleth in us, because He hath given us of His Spirit. 

I think then that these things will suffice, to enable the 
children of the Church to repel the mischief of the heretics. 
But if any one be soused in the unmixed strong drink of 
their unlearning, and suppose that the Son then first re- 
ceived the Spirit, when He became Man : let him shew that 
the Word of God was not holy before the Incarnation, and 
we will hold our peace. 

But one may well wonder that the holy Evangelist every 
where preserves with much observance what befits the Di- 
, vine Nature. For since he said above, that no man hath 
seen God at any time, and now says that the blessed Baptist 
saw the Spirit descend from Heaven upon the Son, he adds 
of necessity, I saw the Spirit, but in the form of a Hove, 
not Himself by Nature, as He is, but shadowed 3 in the gen- 
tlest animal ; that in this again He might be shewn to pre- 
serve His Natural Affinity and Likeness to the Son, Who 
saith, Learn of Me, for I am meek and lowly in heart. 
Therefore the Spirit will not fall away from being God by 
Nature : for the never having been seen at any time has 
been preserved to Him, save under the form of a dove, by 
reason of the need of the disciple. For the blessed Bap- 
tist says that the descent of the Spirit was given him by 
way of a sign and token, adding to his testimonies respect- 
ing our Saviour, He that sent me to baptize with water, the 
Same said unto me, Upon Whom thou shalt see the Spirit de- 
scending and remaining on Him, the Same is He Which bap- 
tizeth with the Holy Ghost. Therefore I think we may fitly 
laugh to scorn those senseless heretics who take as matter 
of fact, that which was set forth by way of sign, even though 

The Intimate Union between the Father and the Son. 147 

it took place as part of the ceconomy, as hath been already Chap. l. 
said, for the need's sake of the human race. 

34 And I saw, and bare record that this is the Son of God. 

Sure is the witness; who, what he hath actually seen, that 
he also speak eth. For haply he was not ignorant of that which 
is written, That which thine eyes have seen, tell. I sa,w Prov.xxv. 
then, says he, the sign, and understood That Which was sig- lxx. 
nifiedbyit. I bear record that this is the Son of God, Who was 
proclaimed by the Law that is through Moses, and heralded 
by the voice of the holy Prophets. The blessed Evangelist 
seems to me again to say with some great confidence, 
This is the Son of God, that is, the One, the Only by Nature, 
the Heir of the Own Nature 4 of the Father, to Whom we top, 4 !Sl6t V - 
sons by adoption, are conformed and through Whom we are 
called by grace to the dignity of sonship. For as from God 
the Father every family in Heaven and earth is namicd, Eph. "i- 
from His being properly, and first, and truly Father, so is all 
sonship too from the Son, by reason of His being properly and 
Alone truly Son, not bastard nor falsely- called, but of the 
Essence of God the Father, not by off-cutting or emanation 5 5 V Kara 
or division or severance (for the Divine JNature is altogether -i) peiw 
Impassible) : but as One of One, ever Co-existing and Co- 
eternal and Innate 6 in Him Who begat Him, being in Him, 6 K ^ 7re ^ )v ' 
and coming forth 7 from Him, Indivisible and without Dim en- 7 Tpoexe- 
sions ; since the Divinity is neither after the manner of a 
body, nor bounded by space, nor of nature such as to make 
progressive footsteps. But like as from fire proceedeth the 
heat that is in it, appearing to be separate from it in idea, 
and to be other than it, though it is of it and in it by na- 
ture, and proceedeth from it without suffering any harm in 
the way of off cutting, division, or emanation (foi* it is pre- 
served whole in the whole fire) : so shall we conceive of the 
Divine Offspring too, thinking thereon in a manner most 
worthy of God, and believing that the Son subsists of Him- 
self, yet not excluding Him from the One Ineffable God- 
head, nor saying that He is Other in substance than the 
Father. For then would He no longer be rightly conceived 



Christ taheth away the sin of the ivorld. 

Book 2, of as S on. but something- other than He, and a new god 
" would arise, other than He That Only Is. For how shall 

not that which is not consubstantial with God by Nature, 
wholly fall away from being Very God? But since the 
blessed Baptist is both trustworthy, and of the greatest repute, 
and testifieth that This is the Son of God : we will confess 
the Son to be altogether Very God, and of the Essence of 
the Father. For this and nothing else, does the name of 
Sonship signify to us. 

35 Again the next day after John stood, and two of his 

36 disciples, and looking upon Jesus as He walked, he saith, Behold 
the Lamb of God, Which taketh away the sin of the world. 

Already had the blessed Baptist pointed Him out before; 
but lo, repeating again the same words, he points Jesus 
out to his disciples, and calls Him the Lamb of God, and 
says that He taketh away the sin of the world, all but bring- 
ing his hearers to remembrance of Him Who saith in the 
Isa. xliii. Prophets : I, even /, am He That blotteth out thy transgres- 
sions, and will not remember thy sins. But not in vain does 
the Baptist repeat the same account of the Saviour. For 
it belongs to skill in teaching, to infix in the souls of the 
disciples the not yet received word, not shrinking at repeti- 
tion, but rather enduring it for the profit of the pupils. For 
therefore does the blessed Paul too say, To write the same 
things to you, to me i/ndeed is not grievous, but for you it is 



S. Matt. 
xxv. 18. 
Jb. 27. 


37 And the two disciples heard him speak, and they followed Jesus. 

Seest thou the fruit, handmaid of teaching, yielded there- 
from ? Seest thou how great gain accrued from repetition ? 
Let him then who is entrusted with teaching learn from 
this, to shew himself superior to all indolence, and to esteem 
silence more hurtful to himself than to his hearers, and not 
to bury the Lord's talent in listless sloth, as in the earth, 
but rather to give His money to the exchangers. For the Savi- 
our will receive His own with usury, and will quicken as seed 
the word cast in. You have here a most excellent proof of 

The Lord looks on them who turn to Him. 149 

what has been said. For the Baptist, not shrinking from Chap. i. 
pointing out the Lord to his disciples, and from saying a c ' 1 ' ' 
second time, Behold the Lamb of God, is seen to have so Supra ver. 
greatly profited them, as to at length even persuade them 
to follow Him and already to desire discipleship under 

38 Then Jesus turned and saw them following, and saith unto 
them, What seek ye ? 

Fitly does the Lord turn to them that follow Him, that 
thou may est learn in act that which is sung, I sought the Ps.xxxiv. 
Lord, and hie heard me. For while we do not yet seek the 
Lord by good habits and Tightness in believing, we are in 
some sort behind Him : but when, thirsting after His Di- 
vine law, we track the holy and choice way of righteousness, 
then at length will He look upon us, crying aloud what 
is written, Turn ye unto Me, and L will turn unto you, saith Zech. i. 3. 
the Lord of Hosts. But He saith unto them, What seek ye? 
not as though ignorant (whence could it be so ?), for He 
knoweth all things, as God; but making the question a 
beginning and root of His discourse. 

They said unto Him, Rabbi, where dwellest Thou ? 

Like people well instructed do they that are asked reply. 
For already do they call Him, Master, thereby clearly 
signifying their readiness to learn. Then they beg to know 
His home, as about therein to tell Him at a fit season of 
their need. For probably they did not think it right to 
make talk on needful subjects the companion 8 of a journey, s v i pfl ^ 
Be what is said again to us for a useful pattern. 7 °" 

39 He saith unto them, Come and see. 

He doth not point out the house, though asked to do it, 
but rather bids them come forthwith to it : teaching first, 
as by example, that it is not well to cast delays in the way 
of search after what is good (for delay in things profitable 
is altogether hurtful) : and this too besides, that to those 
who are still ignorant of the holy house of our Saviour 

150 The tenth hour the latter end of the world. 

Book 2. Christ, that is, the Church, it will not suffice to salvation 
' ' " ' that they should learn where it is, but that they should 

enter into it by faith, and see the things mystically wrought 


They came and saw where He dwelt, and abode with Him that 
day : for it was about the tenth hour. 

Assiduously did the disciples apply themselves to the 
attainment of the knowledge of the Divine Mysteries. For 
I do not think that a fickle mind beseems those who desire 
to learn, but rather one most painstaking, and superior to 
feeble mindedness in good . toils, so as during their whole 
life time to excel in perfect zeal. For this I think the 
words, they abode with Him that day, darkly signify. But 
when he says, it was about the tenth hour, we adapting our 
own discourse to each man's profit, say that in this very 
thing, the compiler of Divinity through this so subtle 
handling again teacheth us, that not in the beginning of 
the present world was the mighty mystery of our Saviour 
made known, but when time now draws towards its close. 
For in the last days, as it is written, we shall be all taught 
of God. Take again I pray as an image of what has been 
said about the tenth hour, the disciples cleaving to the 
Saviour, of whom the holy Evangelist says that having once 
become His guests they abode with Him : that they who 
through faith have entered into the holy house, and have 
run to Christ, may learn that it needs to abide with Him, 
and not to desire to be again estranged, either turning 
aside into sin, or again returning to unbelief. 

Isa. liv. 

40 One of the two which heard John speak and followed Him, was 

41 Andrew Simon Peter's brother. He first findeth his own brother 

42 Simon, and saith unto him, We have found the Messias, which 
is, being interpreted, the Christ. And he brought him to Jesus. 

They who even now received the talent, straightway make 
traffic of their talent, and bring it to the Lord. For such 
are in truth obedient and docile souls, not needing many 
words for profit, nor bearing the fruit of their instruction, 


Christ's Divine fore-knoivledge. 


Chap. 1. 
c.i. 42,43. 

after revolutions of years or months, but attaining the goal 
of wisdom along with the commencement of their instruction. 
For give, it says, instruction to a wise man, and he will Prov.ix.9 
be yet wiser : teach a just man, and he will increase in learn- 
ing. Andrew then saves his brother (this was Peter), having 
declared the whole mystery in a brief summary. For we 
have found, he says, Jesus, as Treasure hid in afield, or as 
One Pearl of great price, according to the parables in the 

S Matt, 
xiii. 44. 
lb. 46. 

And when Jesus beheld him, He said, Thou art Simon the son of 
Jona, thou shalt be called Cephas, which is by interpretation, a 

He after a Divine sort looketh upon him, Who seeth the Cf Jer. 
hearts and reins ; and seeth to how great piety the disciple 
will attain, of how great virtue he will be possessed, and at 
what consummation he will leave off. For He Who know- 
eth all things before they be is not ignorant of ought. And Hist. 

• i-i ■ !• i • nil ou.Scinn& 

herein does He specially instruct him that is called, that 42. 
being Yery God, He hath knowledge untaught. For not 
having needed a single word, nor even sought to learn who 
or whence the man came to Him ; He says of what father 
he was born, and what was his own name, and permits him 
to be no more called Simon, already exercising lordship and 
power over him, as being His : but changes it to Peter r< £.y"/"*' * 
from Fetra* : for upon him was He about to found His s -.Matt. 

• L XVI. Lo. 


43 The day following Jesus would go forth into Galilee ; and 
Jindeth Philip, and saith unto him, Follow Me. 

Likeminded with those preceding was Philip, and very 
ready to follow Christ. For Christ knew that he would be 
good. Therefore also He says Follow Me, making the word 
a token of the grace that was upon him, and wherein he bid 
him follow, testifying to him that most excellent was his 
conversation. For Ho would not have chosen him, if he 
had not been altogether good. 

- i 

i • 


152 Christ bom in Bethlehem,- brought up at Nazareth.' 

Book 2. 45 Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him, We have found 
■ ' Him, of Whom Moses in the law and the prophets did write, 
Jesus of Nazareth the Son of Joseph. 

Exceeding swift was the disciple unto the bearing fruit, 
that hereby he might shew himself akin in disposition to them 
that had preceded. For he findeth Nathanael, not simply- 
meeting him coming along, but making diligent search 
for him. For he knew that he was most painstaking and fond 
of learning. Then he says that he had found the Christ 
Who was heralded through all the Divine Scripture, ad- 
dressing himself not as to one ignorant, but as to one ex- 
ceedingly well instructed in the learning both of all-wise 
Moses and of the prophets. For a not true supposition was 
prevailing among the Jews as regards our Saviour Jesus 
Christ, that He should be of the city or village of Nazareth, 
albeit the Divine Scripture says that He is a Bethlehemite, 
2. as far as pertains to this. And thou, Bethlehem, it says, 
in the land of Judah, house of Ephrata, art little to be among 
the thousands of Judah, for out of thee shall He come forth unto 
Me That is to be ruler in Israel, Whose goings forth have been 
from of old, from everlasting. For He was brought up in 
Nazareth, as the Evangelist himself too somewhere testified, 
saying, And He came to Nazareth, where He had been brought 
up ; but He was not thence, but whence we said before, yea 
rather, as the voice of the prophet affirmed. Philip therefore 
following the supposition of the Jews says, Jesus of Nazareth. 

46 Can there any good thing come out of Nazareth ? 
Nathanael readily agrees that something great and most 
fair is that which is expected to appear out of Nazareth d . 
It is, I suppose, perfectly clear, that not only did he take 
Nazareth as a pledge of that which he sought, but bringing 
i ipavi(6- together x knowledge from the law and Prophets, as one fond 
of learning he gained swift understanding. 

Mic. i 

S. Luke 
iv. 16. 

Come and see. 
Sight will suffice for faith, says he, and having only con- 

d As if S. Cyril read, not as a question something good come." 
but affirmatively " Out of Nazareth can 


Christ proves that He is God by His fore-knowledge. 153 

versed with. Him you will confess more readily 3 , and will un- 
hesitatingly say that He is indeed the Expected One. But 
we must believe that there was a Divine and Ineffable grace, 
flowing forth with the words of the Saviour, and alluring 
the souls of the hearers. For so it is written, that all won- 
dered at the gracious words which proceeded out of His Mouth. 
For as His word is mighty in power, so too is it efficacious 
to persuade. 

Chap. 1. 

c.i.47 48. 
2 yopy6- 

S. Luke 
iv. 22. 

47 Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile. 

Not having yet used proof by means of signs, Christ en- 
deavoured in another way to persuade both. His own disciples, 
and the wiser of those that came to Him, that He was by 
Nature Son and God, but for the salvation of all was come 
in human Form. What then was the mode that led to faith ? 
God-befitting knowledge. For knowledge of all things 
befitteth God Alone. He receiveth therefore Nathanael, not 
hurrying him by flatteries to this state, but by those things 
whereof he was conscious, giving him a pledge, that he 
knoweth the hearts, as God. 

48 Whence knowest thou me? 

Nathanael begins to wonder, and is called to a now firm 
faith : but desires yet to learn, whence He has the knowledge 
concerning him 
and pious souls, 
him had been shewn to the Lord by Philip 

For very accurate are learning-seeking 3 3 4>»*°- 
But perhaps he supposed that somewhat of 

Before that Philip called thee, when thou wast under the figtree, 
I saw thee. 

The Saviour undid 4 his surmise, saying that even before his 4 ?Au<rw 
meeting and conversing with Philip, He had seen him under 
the fig-tree, though not present in Body. Very profitably 
are both the fig-tree and the place named, pledging to him 
the truth of his having been seen. For he that has already 
accurate knowledge of what was with him, will readily 
be admitted. 



Angels serve Christ as their God. 


Book 2. 49 Rabbi, Thou art the Son of God, Thou art the King of Israel. 


He knows that God Alone is Searcher of hearts, and 

giveth to none other of men to understand the mind, con- 

Ps. vii. 9. sidering as is likely that verse in the Psalms, God trieth 

the hearts and reins. For as accruing to none else, the 

Psalmist hath attributed this too as peculiar to the Divine 

Nature only. When then he knew that the Lord saw his 

thoughts revolving in his mind in yet voiceless whispers, 

straightway he calls Him Master, readily entering already 

into discipleship under Him, and confesses Him Son of God 

and King of Israel, in Whom are inexistent the Properties of 

Divinity, and as one well instructed he affirms Him to be 

wholly and by Nature God. 

50 Because I said unto thee, I saw thee under the fig tree, believest 
thou ? thou shalt see greater things than these. 

Thou shalt be firmer unto faith, saith He, when thou 
seest greater things than these. For he that believed one 
sign, how shall he not by means of many be altogether 
bettered, especially since they shall be more wonderful than 
those now wondered at ? 

i * 

S. Matt. 
iv. 11. 

51 Verily, verily I say unto you, h..*reafter ye shall see Heaven 
open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the 
Son of Man. 

Common now to all is the word which seals the faith of 
Nathanael. But in saying that angels shall be seen speeding 
up and down upon the Son of Man, that is, ministering and 
serving His commands, for the salvation of such as shall 
believe, He says that then especially shall He be revealed 
as being by Nature Son of God. For it is not one another 
that the rational powers serve but surely God. And this 
does not take away subjection among the angels (for this 
will not be reasonably called bondage) . But we have heard 
of the Holy Evangelists, that angels came to our Saviour 
Christ, and ministered unto Him. 

Christ present at the marriage blesses marriage. 155 

Chap. 1. 
c. ii. 1-4. 

5 a/3ov\ri- 


Chap. ii. And the third day there was a marriage in Carta of 

2 Galilee; and the mother of Jesus was there ; and both Jesus 

3 was called, and His disciples, to the marriage. And when 
they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith unto Him, 
They have no wine. 

Seasonably comes He at length to the beginning of mira- 
cles, even if He seems to have been called to it without set 
purpose 5 . For a marriage feast being held (it is clear that 
it was altogether holily), the mother of the Saviour is pre- 
sent, and Himself also being bidden comes together with 
His own disciples, to work miracles rather than to feast with 
them, and yet more to sanctify the very beginning of the 
birth of man : I mean so far as appertains to the flesh. For 
it was fitting that He, Who was renewing the very nature of 
man, and refashioning it all for the better, should not only 
impart His blessing to those already called into being, but 
also prepare before grace for those soon to be born, and 
make holy their entrance into being. 

Receive also yet a third reason. It had been said to the 
woman by God, In sorrow thou shalt bring forth children. 
How then was it not needful that we should thrust off this 
curse too, or how else could we escape a condemned mar- 
riage ? This too the Saviour, being loving to man, removes. 
For He, the Delight and Joy of all, honoured marriage with 
His Presence, that He might expel the old shame 6 of child- 6 nar4\(pu 
bearing. For if any man be in Christ, he is a new creature ; 
and old things are passed away, as Paul saith, they are become 
new. He cometh therefore with His disciples to the mar- 
riage. For it was needful that the lovers of miracles should 
be present with the Wonderworker, to collect what was 
wrought as a kind of food to their faith. But when wine 
failed the feasters, His mother called the Lord being good 
according to His wonted Love for man, saying, They have 
no ivine. For since it was in His Power to do whatsoever 
He would, she urges Him to the miracle. 

4 Jesus saith unto her Woman, what have I to do with thee ? 
Mine hour is not yet come. 

Most excellently did the Saviour fashion for us this dis- 

Gen. iii. 

2 Cor. v. 

' 1 

156 Christ begins miracles at His mother's instance. 

Ilj j „ B -°°*i 2 n course a l so - F° r it behoved Him not to come hastily 7 to 

7 Spofiaioy action, nor to appear a Worker of miracles as though of 
His Own accord, but, being called, hardly to come thereto, 
and to grant the grace to the necessity rather than to the 
lookers on. But the issue of things longed for seems some- 
how to be even more grateful, when granted not off-hand to 
those who ask for it, but through a little delay put forth 
to most lovely hope. Besides, Christ hereby shews that the 
deepest honour is due to parents, admitting out of rever- 
ence to His Mother what He willed not as yet to do. 

5 His mother saith unto the servants, Whatsoever He saith unto 
* ' you, do. 

The woman having great influence to the performing of 

<ll( the miracle, prevailed, persuading the Lord, on account 

'■,,, of what was fitting, as her Son. She begins the work by 

i » preparing the servants of the assembly to obey the things 

that should be enjoined. 

7 Jesus saith unto them, Fill the waterpots with water. And 

8 they filled them up to the brim. And He saith unto them, 
Draw out now, and bear unto the governor of the feast. And 

t . 9 they bare it. When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water 

that was made wine, and knew not whence it was (but the ser- 
vants which drew the water knew J ; the governor of the feast 
10 called the bridegroom and saith unto him, Every man at the be- 
ginning doth set forth good wine, and when men have well drunk, 
then that which is worse ; but thou hast kept the good wine until 

The ministers accomplish what is commanded, and by 
unspeakable might was the water changed into wine. For 
what is hard to Him "Who can do all things ? He that calleth 
into being things which are not, how will He weary, trans- 
ordering into what He will things already made ? They mar- 
vel at the thing, as strange ; for such are Christ's works to 
look upon. But the governor of the feast charges the bride- 
groom with expending what was better on the latter end 
of the feast, not unfitly, as appears to me, according to the 
narration of the story. 

Restoration of lost nature by the Spiritual Bridegroom. 157 

1 1 This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and Chap. 1. 
manifested forth His glory, and His disciples believed on Him. 

Many most excellent things were accomplished at once 
through the one first miracle. For honourable marriage was Cf Heb. 
sanctified, the curse on women put away (for no more 
in sorrow shall they bring forth children, now Christ has Gen - "*• 
blessed the very beginning of our birth), and the glory of 
our Saviour shone forth as the sun's rays, and more than 
this, the disciples are confirmed in faith by the miracle. 

The historical account then will stop here, but I think we 
ought to consider the other view of what has been said, and 
to say what is therein signified. The "Word of God came 
down then from Heaven, as He Himself saith, in order that 
having as a Bridegroom, made human nature His own 8 , He 
might persuade it to bring forth the spiritual offspring of 
Wisdom. And hence reasonably is the human nature called 
the bride, the Saviour the Bridegroom ; since holy Scripture 
carries up language from human things to a meaning that 
is above us. The marriage is consummated on the third 
day, that is, in the last times of the present world : for the 
number three gives us beginning, middle, end. For thus 
is the whole of time measured. And in harmony with this 
do we see that which is said by one of the prophets, He 
hath smitten, and He will bind us up. After two days will 
He revive us, in the third day He will raise us up, and we 
shall live in His Sight. Then shall we know if we follow on 
to know the Lord ; His going forth is prepared as the morn- 
ing. For He smote us for the transgression of Adam, saying, 
Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return. That which 
was smitten by corruption and death He bound up on the 
third day : that is, not in the first, or in the middle, but in 
the last ages, when for us made Man, He rendered all 
our nature whole, raising it from the dead in Himself. 
Wherefore He is also called the Firstfruits of them that 
slept. Therefore in saying it was the third day, whereon the 
marriage was being consummated, he signifies the last time. 
He mentions the place too ; for he says it was in Ga,na of 

° otKeico- 


Gen. iii. 

1 Cor. xv. 


\ i 

j" ' 

Christ's Bounty. 

Book 2. 
eAP.ii. 14, 

Isa. ix. 1, 

9 vrjipews 

1 7rA.oii<n- 

2 Cor. iii. 

2 Tim. ii. 

Cf. ib. 7. 

Galilee. Let him that loves learning again note well : for 
not in Jerusalem is the gathering, but without Judaea is the 
feast celeb rated, as it were in the country of the Gentiles. 

. For it is Galilee of the gentiles, as the prophet saith. It is 
I suppose altogether plain, that the synagogue of the Jews 
rejected the Bridegroom from Heaven, and that the church 
of the Gentiles received Him, and that very gladly. The 
Saviour comes to the marriage not of His own accord ; for 
He was being bidden by many voices of the Saints. But wine 
failed the feasters ; for the law perfected nothing, the Mosaic 
writing sufficed not for perfect enjoyment, but neither did 
the measure of implanted sobriety 9 reach forth so as to be ablo 
to save us. It was'therefore true to say of us too, They have 
no wine. But the Bounteous l God doth not overlook our na- 
ture worn out with want of good things. He set forth wine 

, better than the first, for the letter hilleth, hut the Spirit giveth 
life. And the law hath no perfection in good things, but 
the Divine instructions of Gospel teaching bring in fullest 
blessing. The ruler of the feast marvels at the wine : for 
every one, I suppose, of those ordained to the Divine Priest- 
hood, and entrusted with the house of our Saviour Christ, is 
astonished at His doctrine which is above the Law. But 
Christ commandeth it to be given to him first, because, ac- 
cording to the voice of Paul, The husbandman tha,i la- 
boureth must be first partaker of the fruits. And let the 
hearer again consider what I say. 

14 And found in the temple those that sold owen and sheep and 
doves, and the changers of money sitting. 

The Jews are again hereby too convicted of despising the 
laws given them, and making of no account the Mosaic writ- 
ings, looking only to their own love of gain. For whereas the 
law commanded that they who were about to enter into the 
Divine temple should purify themselves in many ways ; those 
who had the power of forbidding it hindered not the bankers 
or money-changers, and others besides, whose employment 
was gain, usury and increase, in their lusts (for the whole 
aim of merchants is comprised in these things) : they hinder- 

TJie scourge a punishment befitting slaves. 

ed them not from defiling the holy court, from enteri 
it as it were with unwashen feet, yea rather they the: 
altogether used to enjoin it, that God might say Il^j v*. 
them, Many pastors have destroyed My vineyard, they have ]^'™' 
trodden My portion under foot, they have made My pleasant 
portion a desolate wilderness, they have made it desolate. For 
of a truth the Lord's vineyard was destroyed, being taught 
to trample on the Divine worship itself, and through the 
sordid love of gain of those set over it left bare to all 

15 And when He had made a scourge of small cords, He drove them 
all out of the temple. 

Reasonably is the Saviour indignant at the folly of the 
Jews. For it befitted to make the Divine Temple not an 
house of merchandise, but an house of prayer : for so it is ^j 1 ^ 1 
written. But He shows His emotion not by mere words, 
but with stripes and a scourge thrusts He them forth of the 
sacred precincts, justly devising for them the punishment 
befitting slaves ; for they would not receive the Son Who 
through faith maketh free. See I pray well represented as 
in a picture that which was said through Paul, If any man L Cor ' " 
dishonour the Temple of God, him shall God dishonour. ~ 

16 Take these things hence ; make not My Father's House an house 
of merchandise. 

He commands as Lord, He leads by the hand to what is 
fitting, as teacher ; and along with the punishment He sets 
before them the declaration of their offences, through shame 
thereof not suffering him that is censured to be angry. 
But it must be noted that He again calls God His own 
Father specially 2 , as being Himself and that Alone by Nature ' M°" a5 ' 
of Him, and truly Begotten. For if it be not so, but the 
Word be really Son with us, as one of us, to wit by adop- 
tion, and the mere Will of the Father:' why does He alone 
seize to Himself the boast common to and set before all, say- 
ing, Make not My Father's House, and not rather, our Father's 
House. For this I suppose would have been more meet to 


Christ honours them who honour Him. 



j , 


Book 2, say, if He had known that Himself too was one of those who 
' are not sons by Nature. But since the Word knows that He 
is not in the number of those who are sons by grace, but of 
the Essence of God the Father, He puts Himself apart from 
the rest, calling God His Father. For it befits those who are 
called to sonship and have the honour from without, when 

S. Matt, they pray to cry, Our Father Which art in Heaven : but 
the Only Begotten being Alone One of One, with reason 
calls God His Own Father. 

But if we must, applying ourselves to this passage, har- 

1 \oytKu nionize it more spiritually 3 with that above, the lection must 

TtpOV 1 ■ -l 

be considered differently. 

14 sqq. And found in the temple those that sold oxen and sheep, Sfc. 

See again the whole scheme of the Dispensation to usward 
drawn out by two things. For with the Cananites, I mean 
those of Galilee, Christ both feasts and tarries, and them 
that bade Him, and hereby honoured Him, He made par- 
takers of His Table ; He both aids them by miracles and 
fills up that which was lacking to their joy (and what good 
thing does He not freely give ?) : teaching as in a type that 
He will both receive the inhabitants of Galilee, that is the 
Gentiles, called as it were to them through the faith that is 
insthem, and will bring them into the Heavenly Bridal-cham- 
ber, that is unto the church of the first-born, and will make 
them sit down with the saints (for the holy disciples sat 
down with the feasters) : and will make them partake 
of the Divine and spiritual feast, as Himself saith, Many 
shall come from the east and west and shall sit down with 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of Heaven, nought 
Isa. xxxv. lacking unto their joy. For everlasting joy shall be upon 
their heads. But the disobedient Jews He shall cast forth 
of the holy places, and set them without the holy inclosure 
of the saints ; yea, even when they bring sacrifices He will not 
receive them : but rather will subject them to chastisement 
and the scourge, holden with the cords of their own sins. 
For hear Him saying, Take these- things hence ; that thou 
mayest understand again those things which long ago by 

S. Matt. 
•viii. 11. 

Prov. v. 



commands even those who will not to obey. 


the mouth of the Prophet Isaiah He saith, I am full of the ^ j!^-' ^ 
burnt offerings of rams and the fat of fed beasts, and I delight Isa. i. 
not in the blood of bullocks and of he goats, neither come ye to 
afpear before Me, for who hath required this at your hand ? 
tread not My courts any more. If ye bring an offering of fine 
flour, vain is the oblation, incense is an abomination unto Me ; 
your new moons and sabbaths and great day I cannot 
endure, your fasting and rest and feasts My soul hateth : 
ye are become satiety unto Me, I will no longer endure 
your sins. This He most excellently signifies in type, de- 
vising for them the scourge of cords. For scourges are a 
token of punishment. 

1 7 And His disciples remembered that it was written, The zeal of 

Thine House hath eaten Me up. 

The disciples in a short time get perfection of knowledge, 
and comparing what is written with the events, already shew 
great progress for the better. 

18 What sign shewest Thou unto us, seeing that Thou doest these 

things ? 

The multitude of the Jews are startled at the unwonted 
authority, and they who are over the temple are extremely 
vexed, deprived of their not easily counted gains. And they 
cannot convict Him of not having spoken most rightly in 
commanding them not to exhibit the Divine Temple as a 
house of merchandise. But they devise delays to the flight 
of the merchants, excusing themselves that they ought not 
to submit to Him off-hand, nor without investigation to re- 
ceive as Son of God Him Who was witnessed to by no 

19 Destroy this temple. 

To them who of good purpose ask for good things, God 
very readily granteth them : but to them who come to Him, 
tempting Him, not only does He deny their ambition in re- 
spect of what they ask, but also charges them with wicked- 
ness. Thus the Pharisees demanding a sign in other parts of 

VOL. I. M 



The Temple of God. 

Book 2. 
S. Matt. 

lb. xxvi. 

Ps. XXXV, 


Ps. xxvii 


Ps. lxix. 

the Gospels the Saviour convicted saying, An evil and 
adulterous generation seeketh after a sign, and there shall no 
sign be given to it } but the sign of the prophet Jonas : 
for as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's 
belly, so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights 
in the heart of the earth. What therefore He said to those, 
this to these too with slight change : for these (as did those) 
ask, tempting Him. Nor to those who were in such a 
state of mind would even this sign have been given, but 
that it was altogether needful for the salvation of us all. 

But we must know that they made this the excuse of their 
accusation against Him, saying falsely before Pontius Pilate, 
what they had not heard. For, say they, This Man saith, I 
am able to destroy the Temple of God. Wherefore of them 
too did Christ speak in the prophets, False witnesses did 
rise up : they laid to My charge things that I knew not : and 
again, For false witnesses are risen up against Me, and such 
as breathe out cruelty. But He does not urge them to blood- 
shed saying, Destroy this Temple, but since He knew that 
they would straightway do it, He indicates expressively 4 
what is about to happen. 

20 Forty and siw years was this Temple in building, and wilt 
Thou rear it up in three days ? 

They mock at the sign, not understanding the depth of 
the Mystery, but seize on the disease of their own ignorance, 
as a reasonable excuse for not obeying Him, and consider- 
ing the difficulty of the thing, they gave heed rather as to 
one speaking at random, than to one who was promising 
ought possible to be fulfilled, that that may be shewn to be 
true that was written of them, Let their eyes be darkened, 
that they see not, and ever bow Thou down their backs : in 
order that in a manner ever stooping downwards and 
inclining to the things alone of the earth, they may receive 
no sight of the lofty doctrines of piety towards Christ, not 
as though God Who is loving to man grudged them those 
things, but rather with even justice was punishing them 
that committed intolerable transgressions. 

He Who says, My Father's House, is God. 163 

For see how foolishly they insult Him, not sparing Chap. l. 

c ii 21 22 

their own souls. For our Lord Jesus Christ calls God His ' ' ' 
Father, saying, Make not My Father's House an House of Supra ver. 
merchandise. Therefore when they ought now to deem of 
Him as Son and God, as shining forth from God the Fa- 
ther, they believe Him to be yet bare man and one of us. 
Therefore they object the time that has been spent in the 
building of the Temple, saying, Forty and six years was 
this Temple in building, and wilt Thou rear it up in three 
days ? O drunken with all folly, rightly, I deem, one might 
say to you, if a wise soul had been implanted in you, if ye 
believe that your Temple is the House of God, how ought 
ye not to have held Him to be God by Nature, Who dares 
fearlessly tell you, Make not My Father's House an House of 
merchandise ? How then, tell me, should He have need of 
a long time for the building of one house ? or how should 
He be powerless for anything whatever, who in days only 
seven in number, fashioned this whole universe with inef- 
fable Power, and has His Power in only willing ? For 
these things the people skilled in the sacred writings ought 
to have considered. 

21 22 But He spake of the Temple of His Body. When there- 
fore He was risen from the dead, His disciples remembered that 
He had said this unto them : and they believed the Scripture, 
and the word which Jesus had said. 

Acceptable to the wise man is the word of wisdom, and 
the knowledge of discipline abideth more easily with men of 
understanding, and as in wax not too hard, the impression 
of seals is well made, so in the more tender hearts of men 
the Divine Word is readily infixed : wherefore the hard of 
heart is also called wicked. The disciples then, being of a 
good disposition, become wise, and ruminate the words of 
divine Scripture, nourishing themselves to more accurate 
knowledge, and thence coming firmly to belief. Since the 
Body of Christ is called a temple also, how is not the Only- 
Begotten Word Which indwelleth therein, God by Nature, 
since he that is not God cannot be said to dwell in a Tem- 

m 2 



Christ God, Whose Body is a Temple. 

Book 2-. vile ? Or let one come forward and say, what saint's body 
c ii 21 22 x 

' was ever called a temple ; but I do not suppose any one can 

shew this. I say then, what we shall find to be true, if we 
accurately search the Divine Scripture, that to none of the 
Saints was such honour attached. And indeed the blessed 
Baptist, albeit he attained unto the height of all virtue, and 
suffered none to exceed him in piety, was through the mad- 
ness of Herod beheaded, and yet is no such thing attributed 
to him. On the contrary, the Evangelist devised a grosser 
word for his remains, saying this too, as appears to me by 
an oeconomy, in order that the dignity may be reserved to 
Christ Alone. For he writes thus ; And the blood-shedder 

S. Matt, to wit, Herod, sent and beheaded John in the prison, and his 
xiv. 10, 12. , 

disciples came and took up his carcase c . If the body of John 

be called a carcase, whose temple will it be ? In another 

sense indeed, we are called temples of God, by reason of 

the Holy Ghost indwelling in us. For we are called the 

temples of God, and not of ourselves. 

But haply some one will say : How then, tell me, doth 

lb. xxiv. the Saviour Himself call His own Body a carcase, For 

'■> wTu/xa wheresoever He saith the carcase 5 is, there will the eagles 
be gathered together. To this we say, that Christ saith 
this not of His Own Body, but in manner and guise of a 
parable He signineth that concourse of the Saints to Him, 
that shall be at that time when He appeareth again to us, 

lb.xvi.27. with the holy angels, in the glory of His Father. For like 
as, saith He, flocks of carnivorous birds rush down with a 
sharp whizzing to fallen carcases, so shall ye too be gathered 
together to Me. Which indeed Paul too doth make known 

i Cor. xv. to us, saying, For the trumpet shall sound, and the dead 
shall be raised incorruptible ; And again in another place, 
and we shall be caught up in the clouds to meet the Lord in 
the air, and so shall we ever be with the Lord. That therefore 
which is taken by way of similitude for an image will no 
wise damage the force of the truth. 

1 Thess 
iv. 17. 

' f 

il : 

c wTwixa. S. Mark vi. 29, and so reads uncial MSS. BCDL and the Codex 
S. Cyril in S. Matthew too, as do the Sinaiticus. 


Long growth fy diligence needed for maturity of life. 165 

23 Now when He teas hi Jerusalem at the Passover in the feast Chap. 1. 

day, many believed in His Name, when they saw the miracles " "" * 

which He did. 

Christ ceaseth not from saving and helping. For some 
He leads to Himself by wise words, the rest startling by 
God-befitting Power too, He taketh in His net 6 to the faith, 5 aayr\vtv- 
by the things which they see Him work persuaded to confess, 
that the Artificer of these so great wonders is of a truth 

24 But Jesus did not commit Himself unto them. 

Not firmly established is the judgment 7 of new believers, 7 
nor is the mind firmly built upon fresh miracles. And how 
should they whose course of instruction was yet so to say 
green, be already rooted in piety ? Therefore Christ doth 
not yet commit Himself to the novices, shewing that a great 
thing and most worthy of love 8 is affinity with God, and 8 
that it doth not just lie before those who desire to have it, 
but is achieved by zeal for good, and diligence and time. 

Let the stewards of the Mysteries of the Saviour hence 
learn, not suddenly to admit a man within the sacred veils, 
nor to permit to approach the Divine Tables, neophites un- 
timely baptized and not in right time believing on Christ 
the Lord of all. For that He may be an Ensample to us 
in this also, and may teach us whom fittingly to initiate, 
He receives indeed the believers, but is seen not yet to have 
confidence in them, in that He does not commit Himself to 
them : that hence it may be manifest, that it befits novices 
to spend no small time under instruction ; for scarce even so 
will they become faithful men. 



25 Because He knew all, and needed not that any should testify 
of man ; for He knew what was in man. 

Divine is this excellence too along with the rest which are 
in Christ, and in no one of created beings is it. For to 
Him Alone Who is truly God doth the Psalmist ascribe it, 
saying, He fashioneth their hearts alike, He considcretJo all Ps.xxxiii. 


Christ God Who knoweth the heart. 


Book 2. 


c.iii. 1,2 


Hist. Sus 



h\ : 

Dan. ii. 



:{: . ! 


A; • 
1 i 

u ■ < 


Heb. r 
12, 13. 

Ps. xciv. 



xxxviii. 2 

i/ietr works* But if while God Alone understandeth what is 
in us, Christ understandeth them : how shall He not be God 
by Nature, Who knoweth the secrets, and knoweth the deep and 
secret things, as it is written ? For what man knoweth the things 
of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him ? Though no 
man knoweth, God will not be ignorant, for neither is He 
reckoned in the number of all, of whom " No man " may 
rightly be predicated, but as being external to all, and all 
things under His Feet, He will know. And Paul too will 
testify, saying, For the word of God is quick and powerful and 
sharper than any two edged sword, 'piercing even to the dividing 
asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and 
is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart : neither 
is there any creature that is not manifest in His sight, but all 
things are naked and opened unto the Eyes of Him. For as 
having planted the ear, He hears all things, and as having 
formed the eye, He observeth. And indeed He is introduced 
saying in Job, Who is this that hideth counsel from Me, hold- 
ing words in his heart, and thinketh to conceal them from Me ? 
In order then that we might acknowledge that the Son is by 
Nature God, needs does the Evangelist say that He needed 
not that any should testify of man, for He knew what was in 

Chap. iii. There was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of 
2 the Jews : the same came to Jesus by night and said unto Him, 

More ready is Nicodemus to believe, but overcome by no 
good fear, and not despising the opinion of men, he refuses 
boldness 9 , and is divided in opinion into two, and halts 
in purpose, feeble upon both his knee joints, as it is written, 
forced by the convictions of his conscience to the duty of 
believing by reason of the exceedingness of the miracles, 
but esteeming the loss of rulership over his own nation a 
thing not to be borne, for he was a ruler of the Jews. Deem- 
ing that he can both preserve his repute with them, and be 
a disciple secretly, he cometh to Jesus, making the darkness 
of the night an aider of his scheme, and by his secret com- 
ing convicted of double mindedness. 

8 irapprj- 
1 Kings 
xviii. 21. 

God the Holy Ghost by Nature God. 


Rabbi, we know that Thou art a Teacher come from God ; for Chap. 1. 
no man can do these miracles that Thou doest, except God be c ' m ' ' ' 

3 with him. Jesus answered and said unto him 

In these words he supposes that he can attain complete 
piety, and imagines that it will be sufficient for his salvation, 
to marvel merely at those things which call for wonder : 
nought else but this does he seek. Calling him a Teacher 
from God, and a co-worker with Him, he does not yet 
know that He is by Nature God, nor understand the plan 
of the dispensation with Flesh, but still approaches as to 
a mere man, and hath but slight conception of Him. 

Verily verily I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, 

4 he cannot see the kingdom of God. Nicodemus saith unto Him, 

Faith consisteth not, Nicodemus, in what thou thinkest. 
Speech sufficeth not unto thee for righteousness, neither wilt 
thou achieve piety by mere words. For not every one that S. Matt. 
saith unto Me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of 
Heaven, but he that doeth the will of My Father Which is in 
Heaven. But the will of the Father is, that man be made 
partaker of the Holy Ghost, that the citizen of earth reborn 
unto an unaccustomed and new life, be called a citizen of 
Heaven. When He calls the new birth of the Spirit from 
above, He sheweth clearly that the Spirit is of the Essence 
of God the Father, as indeed Himself too saith of Himself, 
I am from above. And the most wise Evangelist again saith *£ fra viii - 
of Him, He that cometh from above is above all. Infra ver. 

But that the Spirit is of the Essence of God the Father 
we shall speak more largely in its proper place. 

How can a man be born when he is old ? can he enter a second 
5 time into his mother's womb, and be born ? Jesus answered, 

Nicodemus is convicted hereby of being still carnal, and 
therefore no way receiving the things of the Spirit of God. 1 Cor ' n ' 
For he thinketh that this so dread and illustrious Mystery is 
foolishness. And hearing of the birth spiritual and from 
above, he imagineth the carnal womb returning to birth-pang 
of things already born, and, not attaining beyond the law of 

i ij i 

•.' i 


168 The new Birth in Baptism two-fold, for body and souL 


nil ! 


Book 2. our nature, measureth 10 things Divine ; and finding the height 
10 KavovC of its doctrines unattainable by his own conceptions, he 
'" falleth down, and is carried off. For as things that are 

dashed by mighty blows upon the hard stones again rebound, 
so too I deem the unskilled mind falling upon conceptions 
of greater calibre than it, being relaxed returns, and ever 
glad to remain in the measure that suits it, despises an un- 
derstanding better and loftier than itself. In which case the 
ruler of the Jews now being, receives not the spiritual birth. 

Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter 
into the Kingdom of God. 

Since the man did not understand as he ought, what 
the need of being born from above meant, He instructs 
him with plainer teaching, and sets before him the more 
open knowledge of the Mystery. For our Lord Jesus 
Christ was calling the new birth through the Spirit 
from above, shewing that the Spirit is of the Essence 

2 S. Pet. That is above all essences, through Whom we become far- 
takers of the Divine Nature, as enjoying Him Who proceeds 
from It Essentially, and through Him and in Him re-formed 
to the Archetype-Beauty, and thus re-born unto newness 
of life, and re -moulded to the Divine Sonship. But Nico- 
demus not so understanding the word from above, imagined 
it was meant that the future birth should take place after 
the manner of bodies : therefore also falling into imaginations 
which shut him up in impossibility, he was caught alike 
senseless and hard of learning. Of necessity therefore 

» rpvtpt- (j oeg faQ gaviour answer yet more mildly 11 , as to one more 

p&rtpov J . 

infirm of habit, and removing the veil that seemed to be 
thrown over His Words, He now says openly, Except a 
man be born again of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter 
into the Kingdom of God. For since man is compound, and 
not simple in his nature, being combined of two, to wit, the 
sensible body and intellectual soul, he will require two-fold 
healing for his new birth akin to both the fore-named. For 
by the Spirit is the spirit of man sanctified, by the sanctified 
water again, his body. For as the water poured into the 

We are born of the Spirit) how. 



kettle, being associated with the vigour of fire, receives in Chap. \. 
itself the impress of its efficacy, so through the inworking 
of the Spirit the sensible water is trans-elemented to a Di- 
vine and ineffable efficacy, and sanctifieth those on whom it 

6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is bom 
of the Spirit is spirit. 

By another argument again He persuades him to mount 
up to a higher understanding, and on hearing of spiritual 
birth, not to think of the properties of bodies. For as it is 
altogether necessary, saith He, that the offspring of flesh 
should be flesh, so also is it that those of the Spirit should 
be spirit. For in things the mode of whose being is 
different, in these must surely the mode of generation also 
be not the same. But it is to be known that we call the 
spirit of a man the offspring of the Spirit, not as being of It 
by Nature (for that were impossible), but in the first place, 
and that in order of time, because that through Him that 
which was not was called into being, and in the second place 
and oeconomically, because of its being re-formed unto God 
through Him, He stamping l His Own Impress upon us, and x ^o\l$o- 
trans-fashioning our understanding to His own Quality 3 , so to 2 hWttj- 
speak. For so I deem, you will understand aright that too 
which is said to some by Paul, My little children, of whom Gal. iv. 
I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you, and 
again, For in Christ Jesus I have begotten you through the i_Cor. iv. 

7 8 Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again. The 
wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, 
but canst not tell whence it cometh and whither it goeth ; so is 
evert/ one that is born of the Spirit. 

It is the excellence of a teacher, to be able manifoldly 
to manage the mind of the hearers, and to go through 
many considerations 3 , heaping up proofs where the argument a etwpy- 
appears hard. He takes then the figure of the mystery from Ma ™" 
examples, and says, This spirit 4 belonging to the world and * JKf^ 


170 The air, itself unseen, its working seen, a type. 

■r | 

i I 

Boor 2. 

c.iii.9 ; 
5 KT&ircp 

of the air, blows throughout the whole earth, and running 
ii v ' where it listeth, is shewn to be present by sound 5 only, and 
escapeth the eye of all, yet, communicating itself to bodies 
by the subtlest breaths, it infuseth some perception of 
its natural efficacy. So do thou, saith He, conceive of 
the new birth also through the Spirit, led on by little 
examples to what is greater, and by the reasoning brought 
forward as it were in an image, conceiving of what is above 
the senses. 

xxv. 9. 

1; * * 

Rom. xi. 


Isa. vi. 9. 

9 Nicodemus answered and said unto Him, How can these things 

10 be? Jesus answered and said unto him, 

Long discourse nothing profits him who understandeth 
not a whit. Wise then is the saying in the book of Proverbs, 
Well is he that speaheth in the ears of them that will hear. And 
this the Saviour shewed by trial to be true, giving Himself 
an ensample to us in this too. For the teacher will be 
wholly free from the charge of not being able to persuade, 
saying what himself thinks good, though he profit nothing 
by reason of the dulness of the hearers. Besides we learn 
by this, that hardness in part is happened to Israel. For 
hearing they hear and understand not. 


S. Matt. 

Art thou a master of Israel and knowest not these things ? 

By one Christ convicts all, that adorned with the name 
of teachers, and clothed with the mere repute of being 
learned in the law, they bear a mind full of ignorance, and un- 
able to understand one of those things, which they ought not 
only to know, but also to be able to teach others. But if he 
that instructeth be in this condition, in what is he that is in- 
structed, seeing that the disciple exceedeth not the measure 
of his master, according to the word of the Saviour ? For 
the disciple, saith He, is not above his master. But since 
they were thus uninstructed, true is Christ in likening them 
to whited sepulchres. Most excellently doth Paul too say to 
Ood shall smite thee, thou whited 

lb. xxiii, 


Acts xxiii. the ruler of the Jews, 


Teachers must teach step by step. 


I; ' 

11 Verily, verily, I say unto thee, We speak that we do know and Chap. 1. 
testify that we have seen. c * 1U * 

He finds the man careless of learning and exceedingly un- 
instructed and, by reason of his great grossness of mind, 
utterly unable to be led unto the comprehension of Divine 
doctrines, albeit many words had been expended with mani- 
fold examples. Whence letting alone, as was fitting, accu- 
rate explanation, He at length advises him to accept in simple 
faith, what he cannot understand. He testifies that Himself 
knows clearly what He saith, by the illustriousness of His 
Person shewing that yet to gainsay is most dangerous. For 
it was not likely that Nicodemus would forget, who had 
affirmed that he knew it of our Saviour Christ, that He was 
a Teacher come from God. But to resist one who is from Supra 

n • • Ver " %' 

God and God, how would it not be fraught with peril ? for 
the thing is clearly a fighting with God. But hence we 
ought to know, who have authority to teach, that for those 
just come to the faith, faith in simple arguments is better 
than any deep reasoning, and more elaborate explanation. 
And Paul also used to feed with milk some, not yet able to l Cor. iii. 
bear stronger meats. And the most wise Solomon again 
somewhere says to us, Thou shalt wisely 6 know the souls Proy. 
of thy flock, meaning that we should not set before those lxx. 
who come to us the word of doctrine indiscriminately, but v wa " ra ' s 
fitly adapted to the measure of each. 

And ye receive not our witness. 
As having in Himself the Father and the Spirit Natu- 
rally, the Saviour set forth the person of the Witnesses in 
the plural number, that, as in the law of Moses, by the mouth Deut.xix. 
of two or three witnesses, what is said may be established. 
For He shews that the Jews in no wise will to be saved, but 
with unbridled and heedless impetus aretheybeing borne unto 
the deep pit of perdition. For if they can neither from 
their great unlearning understand what is proclaimed to them, 
nor yet receive it in faith, what other means of salvation 
may be devised for them ? Well then and very justly did 
the Saviour say that Jerusalem would be without excuse, as 



God and man One Christ, 

is ' < 

Book 2. snatching: upon herself self-called destruction. Jerusalem, 

Hi 12 13 

S." Matt.' Jerusalem, saith He, that killest the prophets and stonest them 

38. 1H * which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy 

children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under 

her wings, and ye would not ! Behold your house is left unto 

you. - 

7 Siopiff- 

lb. xxvi. 

12 If I have told you earthly things and ye believe not, how 

13 shall ye believe, if I tell you of heavenly things ? And no man; 
hath ascended up to heaven, but He that came down from 

heaven, the Son of man Which is in heaven. 

A doctrine, saith He, not exceeding the understanding' 
befitting man, ye from your extreme folly received not, and 
how shall I explain to you things more Divine ? For they 
who in their own matters are most foolish, how shall they be 
wise in matters above them ? And they who are powerless 
as to the less, how shall they not find the greater intolerable ? 
And if, says He, ye believe not Me being Alone in speaking, 
but seek many witnesses for every thing, whom shall I bring 
to you as a witness of the heavenly Mysteries ? For no man 
hath ascended up to heaven but He That came down from hea~ 
ven the Son of man. For since the Word of God came down 
from heaven, He says that the son of man came down, refus- 
ing after the Incarnation to be divided into two persons, and 
not suffering certain to say that the Temple taken by reason 
of need of the Virgin is one Son, the Word again which ap- 
peared from God the Father another : save only as regards 
the distinction 7 which belongs to each by nature. For as 
He is the Word of God, so Man too of a woman, but One 
Christ of both, Undivided in regard of Sonship and God-be- 
fitting Glory. For how does He clothe as its own the Temple 
of the Virgin, with what befitteth the bare Word Alone : and 
again appropriateth to Himself what befitteth the Flesh only ? 
For now He saith that the Son of man hath come down from 
heaven : but at the time of His Passion, He feareth, and is 
sore afraid, and very heavy, and is- recorded as Himself suf- 
fering the Sufferings which befitted His Human Nature 

The brazen serpent fixed aloft a type of Christ. 173 

14 And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so Chap. 1. 

15 must the Son of man be lifted tip, that whosoever believeth in ' ' 

Him should not perish but have eternal life. 
Having explained sufficiently, and set before him the rea- 
son, why His Word of teaching does not run forth into the 
boundless and supernatural, but descends again to those things 
that were typically done by Moses of old, knowing that he 
could by leadings by means of figures scarce arrive at know- 
ledge of the truth, rather than by the exactitude of spiritual 
inspirations, He saith He must surely be lifted up, as 
the serpent was by Moses, shewing that search of history is 
most necessary, and all but saying to this man of no under- 
standing, Search the Scriptures, for they are they which I" fra v - 
testify of Me. For serpents were springing upon them of 
Israel in the wilderness, and they, falling like ears of corn, 
and not a little distressed at this danger unexpectedly visiting 
them, with most piteous cry called for salvation from above 
and from God. But He, since He was Good and full of 
compassion, as God, commands Moses to set up a brazen Num.xxi. 
serpent ; and commands them therein to have a forethought 8 8 \po^- 
of the salvation by faith. For the remedy to one bitten, 
was to look at the serpent put before him, and faith along 
with the sight wrought deliverance at the last extremity to 
the beholders. So much for the history. But it represents 
in act as it were in a type, the whole Mystery of the Incar- 
nation. For the serpent signifies bitter and manslaying sin, 
which was devouring the whole race upon the earth, mani- 
foldly biting the soul of man, and infusing the varied poison 
of wickedness. And no otherwise could we escape it thus 
conquering us, save by the succour alone which is from 
heaven. The Word of God then was made in the likeness o/? om ' V11U 
sinful flesh, that He might condemn sin in the flesh, as it is 
written, and to those who gaze on Him with more steadfast 
faith, or by search into the Divine doctrines, might become the 
Giver of unending salvation. But the serpent'being fixed up- 
on a lofty base, signifies that Christ was altogether clear and 
manifest, so as to be unknown to none, or His being lifted up Infra xii. 
from the ea/rth, as Himself says, by His Passion on the Cross. 


God's Love, that He gave for us creatures. 

Book 2. 
c. iii. 16. 

I . I 


* 4' 

" {■ 

I ** -. 


28, 29. 

16 For God so loved the world, that He gave His Only Begotten 
Son, that whosoever helieveth in Him should not perish, but have 
everlasting life. 

He desireth to shew openly herein, that He is God by- 
Nature, since one must needs deem that He Who came forth 
from God the Father, is surely God also, not having the 
honour from without, as we have, but being in truth what 
He is believed to be. With exceeding skill does He say this, 
having joined therewith the love of God the Father to us, well 
and opportunely coming to discourse thereon. For He 
shames the unbelieving Nicodemus, yea* rather, He shews 
that he is ungodly also. For the not coming readily to believe, 
when God teaches anything, what else is it, than laying upon 
the Truth a charge of falsehood ? Besides this, in saying 
that He was given for the life of the world, He persuades him 
to consider seriously 9 , of how great punishment they will be 
in danger, who from their mad folly, have made of no ac- 
count so wondrous grace of God the Father. For God, says 
He, so loved the world that He gave His Only Begotten Son. 

Let the Christ-opposing heretic again hear, and let him 
come forward and say, what is the greatness of the Love of 
God the Father, or how we should reasonably marvel at it. 
But he will say that the marvel of the love is seen, in His 
giving His Son for us, and that the Only Begotten. In 
order then that the great love of God the Father may remain 
and be preserved, let Him be held to be Son not a crea- 
ture, I mean Son of the Essence of the Father, that is 
to say, Consubstantial with Him Who begat Him, and 
God verily and in truth. But if, according to thy speech, 
o thou, He possesseth not the being of the Essence of 
God the Father, He will also lose the being by Nature Son 
and God, and the wide-spread marvel of the Love of God 
will at length come to nought : for He gave a creature for 
creatures, and not truly His Son. Vainly too will the 
blessed Paul trouble us, saying, He that despised Moses' 
law died without mercy under two or three witnesses : of how 
much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy 
who hath trodden under foot the Son of God ? For confessedly 

God the Son. 



he that despised trampleth under foot, but not the Very Son, Chap. i. 
but a fellow servant of Moses, if indeed creature be always 
akin to creature, in respect at least of having been made, 
even if it surpass the glory of another, in the excellences of 
being greater or better. But the word of Paul is true ; and a 
severer penalty shall he pay who hath trodden under foot 
the Son, not as though he were transgressing against a crea- 
ture, or one of the fellow servants of Moses. Great then and 
above nature is the Love of the Father, Who for the life of 
the world gave His Own Son and Who is of Himself. 

17 For God sent not His Son into the world to condemn the world, 
but that the world through Him might be saved. 

Having plainly called Himself the Son of God the Father, 
He thought not good to leave the word without witness, but 
brings forward proof from the quality, so to say, of the 
things themselves, making the hearers more steadfast unto 
faith. For I was not sent, saith He, like the law-expounder 
Moses, condemning the world by the law, nor introducing 
the commandment unto conviction of sin, nor do I perform 
a servile ministry, but I introduce loving-kindness befitting 
the Master: I free the embondaged, as Son and Heir 
of the Father, I transform the law that condemneth into 
grace that Justine th, I release from sin him that is holden p rov. v. 
with the cords of his transgressions, I am come to save the 
world, not to condemn it. For it was right, it was right, 
saith He, that Moses, as a servant, should be a minister of 
the law k that condemns, but that I as Son and God should free 
the whole world from the curse of the law and, by exceed- 
ingness of lovingkindness, should heal the infirmity of the 
world. If then the grace that justifieth is better than the 
commandment that condemneth, how is it not meet to con- 
ceive that He surpasseth the measure of the servant Who 
introduceth so God-befitting authority, and releaseth man 
from the bonds of sin ? 

This then is one aim of the passage under consideration, 
and no mean one. A second besides this, revolving through 
the same circuit, and introducing a consideration akin to 

if " 


Christ tries every way not to condemn, 

* ; . 

Book 2. those above, will be given from love of learning 

c. ni. 18. ° ° 


Saviour saw that Nicodemus was cleaving to the law of 
Moses, and was fast held to the more ancient command- 
ment, and was somehow startled at the new Birth through 
the Spirit, shrinking from the new and Gospel polity, sup- 
posing it seems that this would be more burdensome 
than the things already enjoined. Being therefore not 
ignorant, as God, of the fear which from his ignorance 
had sprung upon him, by using one short argument, He 
frees him from all trouble on this score, and shews that 
the commandment of Moses, by reason of its condemning 
the world, is harder to be borne, and introduces Himself as 
a mild Judge, saying, For God sent not His Son into the 
world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him 
might be saved. 

w> '< i 

18 He that believeth on the Son is not condemned ; but he that 
helieveth not is condemned already, because he hath not believed 
in the Name of the Only Begotten Son of God. 

Having proved by facts, that He is both Son of God the 
Father, and introduceth into the world grace which is more 
excellent than the ministration of Moses (for how is not the 
being justified by grace better than the being condemned by 
the law ?), He devised, as God, another way to bring unto 
the faith, from all quarters driving together to salvation them 
that were lost. He puts forth then to the believer as his re- 
ward the not being called to judgement, to the unbeliever 
punishment, bringing into one and the same way by both, 
calling to come readily unto the faith, some by desire for the 
grace, others by fear of suffering. He shews that heinous 
and great is the crime of unbelief, since He is Son and Only 
Begotten. For by how much is that worthy of belief which 
is insulted, so much the more will that which despises 
be condemned for his dire transgression. He says that he 
that believeth not is condemned already, in that he hath al- 
ready determined against himself the due sentence of punish- 
ment, by knowingly rejecting Him Who gives not to be 

condemns those who will be condemned. 


19 And this is the condemnation, that light is come into the world, Chap. 1. 
and men loved darkness rather than light. ' ' 

He lets not the condemnation of the unbelievers remain 
without consideration, but recounts its causes, and shews 
clearly that, according to the words of the Proverbs, Not un- lxx* ^" 
justly is the net spread for the birds. For they, saith He, who 
when it was in their power to be illuminated preferred to 
remain in darkness, how will not they fairly be determiners 
of punishment against themselves, and self-invited to suffer- 
ing which it was in their power to escape, if they had been 
right provers of things, choosing rather to be enlightened 
than not, and studying to make the baser things second to 
the better ? But He preserved the mind of man free from the 
bonds of necessity, and tending by its own impulses to both 
sides, that it might justly receive praise for good things, 
and punishment for the contrary. As indeed He sheweth in 
another place, saying, If ye be willing and obedient, ye shall ^' u 19, 
eat the good of the land ; but if ye refuse and rebel, ye shall 
be devoured with the sword. 

20 For every one that doeth evil hateth the light, neither cometh to 
the light, lest his deeds should be reproved. 

Profitably doth He go over what has been said, and convicts 
indolence unto things helpful of proceeding from love of evil, 
and of having its root in unwillingness to learn those things 
whereby one may become wise and good. For the doer of 
evil, says He, flees from and refuses the being in the Divine 
Light : not hiding from shame on account of evil (for so he 
would have been saved) but desiring to remain in ignorance 
of what is becoming, lest transgressing he should be smitten, 
falling upon the now keener 1 convictions of his own consci- 1 ?iKpo- 
ence, and by means of at length clearly knowing what is Tepo ' y 
good, should pay a more woeful account to the Judge, if he 
should not do what was pleasing to God. But he that doeth 
truth (that is, the lover and doer of the works of the Truth) 
cometh to the light, that his deeds may be made manifest 
thoA, they are wrought in God. For he doth not reject the 
illumination in the Spirit, by It specially led to be able to 

VOL. i. N 

178 Knowledge an aid to a holy life. 

..? < !2?l: understand in all calm collectedness, whether he hath transi- 
tu. 22-24. , . . . 

gressed the Divine commandment, and whether he hath 
wrought all things according to the Law of God. 

It is then a plain proof of an unbridled tendency to evil, 
and unrestrained pleasure in what is worse, not to wish tq 
learn that whereby one may avail to attain unto what is 
better: again of desire for the best, to thirst for illumi- 
nation, and to make His Law a rule so to say and index 
unto a conversation pleasing to God. And the Divine 
Ps. xix. 7, Psalmist knowing that this was so, sings, The Law of the 
Lord imperfect converting the soul : the testimony of the Lord 
is sure, making wise the simph. The statutes of the Lord are 
right, rejoicing the heart : the commandment of the Lord is 
pure, enlightening the eyes. 

22 After these things came Jesus and His disciples into the land 

23 of Judcea. And John also was baptizing in JEnon near to 
Salim, because there was much water there ; and they came, 

24 and were baptized. For John was not yet cast into prison. 

After the conversation with Nicodemus had now reached 
its conclusion, the Divine Evangelist again prepares some^ 
thing else most profitable. For enlightened by the Divine 
■ Spirit to tho exposition of things most needful, he knew 
that it would exceedingly profit his readers to know clearly, 
how great the excellence, and by how great measures, the 
baptism of Christ surpasses that of John. For it was indeed 
. not far from his expectation, that certain would arise who 
of their folly should dare to say, either that there was no 
difference whatever between them, but that they ought to 
be crowned with equal honours; or, having stumbled into 
folly even wilder than this, say, that the vote of superiority 
ought to be taken away from Christ's baptism, and the su- 
periority shamelessly lavished on the baptism by water. For 
what daring is not attainable by the ill-instructed, or through 
what blasphemy do they not rush, who rising up against 
Mic. iii. the holy doctrines of the Church, pervert all equity, as it is 
written? The most wise Evangelist then, that he might 
, destroy beforehand the plea for their vain-babbling, intro- 

S. John Baptist knows the excellence of Christ's Baptism. 179 

is I • I 

duces "the holy Baptist laying before his disciples the solu- iy. 25,*26* 
tiou of the question. Christ therefore baptizes through His 
Own disciples : likewise John too, and not altogether by the 
hands of others, nor yet did he baptize in those same fount- 
ains, where Christ was manifested doing this, but near to 
Salim, as it is written, and in one of the neighbouring fount- 
ains. And through the very distinction (in a way) of the 
fountains of waters does he shew the difference of the bap- 
tism, and signify as in a figure that his baptism is not the 
same as that of our Saviour Christ : yet was it near and 
round about, bringing in a kind of preparation and intro- 
duction to the more perfect one. As then the law of Moses 
too is said to have a shadow of the good things to come, not the Heb. x. 1. 
very image -of the things (for the Mosaic letter is a kind of 
preparatory exercise and pre-instruction for the worship in 
the Spirit, travailing with the truth hidden within), so shalt 
thou conceive too of the baptism unto repentance. 

25 Then there arose a question between some of John's disciples 

26 and a Jew a about purifying. And they came unto John, and 

said unto him, 

The Jews being powerless to commend the purifications 
of the law, and not able to advocate the cleansing through 
the ashes of an heifer, plan something against John's disci- Ib.ix. 13. 
pies, whereby they thought to cause them no slight vexation, 
albeit easily worsted in their own matters. For since they 
who attended the blessed Baptist, appeared to be more ex- 
cellent and of more understanding than the Pharisees, ad- 
miring the baptism of their own teacher, and opposing the 
purifications after the law ; they are vexed at these things, 
who are diligent in reviling only and most ready unto all 
wickedness : and even overturning their own case, they praise 
Christ's Baptism, not rightly disposed, nor pouring forth true 
praise on it, but exasperated to the mere distressing of them ; 
and lending out a statement against their opinion, until their 
purpose should attain its accomplishment. They cannot 

. * So S. Cyril reads with the Vatican MSS. and the Syriac version (dating 
and Alexandrine Codices and other old from the second century). 

K 2 






Trouble of 8. John Baptist's disciples. 


t* ! 

r * 


iii. 26, 27! * nen adduce any reasonable proof, nor do they even support 
Christ out of the holy Scriptures (for, whence were such 
understanding to the uninstructed ?) : but they merely allege 
in confirmation of their own arguments, that very few in num- 
ber are those who come to John, but that they flock together 
to Christ. For haply they in their exceeding folly thought 
that they should carry off the vote of victory, and might speak 
out in behalf of the legal purifications, as having already con- 
quered, by giving the palm over John's to the Baptism be- 
stowed by Christ on those who come to Him. And they vex 
those with whom their dispute was : but they get off with 
difficulty and leave the disciples of John, much more beaten 
by their ill-considered dispute. For they crown with com- 
pulsory praises, and against their will, the Lord. 

Rabbi, He that was with thee beyond Jordan, to Whom thou 
barest witness, behold, the Same baptizeth, and all men come to 
27 Him. John answered and said, 

The disciples bitten by the words of the Pharisees, and 
looking to the very nature of the thing, were not able to 
convict them as liars, but were reasonably at a loss, and 
being ignorant of the great dignity of our Saviour, are ex- 
ceedingly startled at John's shortcoming, and mingling words 
• • of love with reverence and admiration, they desire to learn, 
why He That was borne witness to by his voice, prevents 
him in honour, outstrips him in grace, and in baptizing takes 
in His net, not a portion of the whole Jewish multitude, but 
even all of them. And they made the inquiry as it seems 
2 ovk &0c- no t without the Will of God 2 : for hence the Baptist invites 
them to an accurate and long explanation respecting the 
Saviour, and introduces the clearest distinction between the 

A man can receive nothing, except it be given him from heaven. 

, He says that there is nothing good in man, but must needs 

be wholly the gift of God. For it befits the creation to hear, 

1 Cor. iv. What hast thou that thou didst not receive ? I think then 

that we ought to be content with the measures allotted 

We must deeply prize what God allots us. 


to us, and to rejoice in the honours apportioned to us from £ h ™* 2 q' 
heaven, but by no means to stretch out beyond, nor in 
desire ever of what is greater unthankfully to despise the 
decree from above, and fight against the judgment of the 
Lord, in shame that one should appear to receive what is 
less than the more perfect : but with whatsoever God 
shall please to honour us, to value that highly. Let not 
my disciple therefore, saith he, be ashamed, if I do not 
overleap the measure given me, if I do not contemplate the 
greater, and am contracted to the glory befitting a man. 

28 Ye yourselves bear me witness that I said, I am not the 
Christ, but that I am sent before Him. 

He brings his disciples to the recollection of the words 
which they have already often heard, partly reproving them 
rightly, as steeped in forgetfulness of things profitable, and 
slumbering in respect to this so most dread doctrine, partly 
persuading them to remember the Divine Scripture, as 3 3 t?j m 
having been nourished in zeal for the knowledge of these ™i\£!a9- 
things ; Whom it preaches as the Christ to come, whom again tl<? 
as the Baptist the forerunner. For thus would they, having 
received knowledge of each, be in no wise angry, seeing 
them in the state befitting each. I shall need then, saith 
he, no other witnesses to this, I have my own disciples 
as ear -witnesses, I confessed my state of servitude, when I 
fore-announced, I was sent, I am not the Christ. Let Him 
overcome, prevail, shine forth yet more as Lord and God. 

29 He That hath the bride is the Bridegroom : but the friend of 
the Bridegroom, which standeth and heareth Him, rejoiceth 
greatly because of the Bridegroom's voice ; this my joy 
therefore is fulfilled. 

The discourse again took its rise from likeness to our 
affairs, but leads us to the knowledge of subtle thoughts. 
For types of things spiritual are those which endure the 
touch of the hand, and the grossness of corporeal examples 
introduceth oftentimes a most accurate proof of things spiri- 


Christ is All. 


'r ; 

Book 2. 
c.iii. 30. 


& Tb(nrol5- 

Ps. xlv. 
10, 11. 

Cant. i. 7 

Supra pp 
157, 168. 

tual. Christ then, says he, is the Bridegroom and ruler of 
the assembly 4 , I the bidder to the supper and conducter of 
the bride, having as my chiefest joy and illustrious dignity> 
to be only enrolled among His friends, and to hear the Voice 
of Him That feasteth. I have therefore even now that that 
I long for, and my dearest wish 5 is fulfilled. For not only 
did I preach that Christ would come, but Him already pre- 
sent have I seen, and His. very Voice do I lay up in my ears. 
But ye, most wise disciples, seeing the human nature 
that is betrothed to Christ, going to Him, and beholding the 
nature which was cut off and a run-away from its love to 
Him attaining to spiritual union through holy Baptism, 
grieve not, saith he, that it befits not me, but rather runs 
very gladly to the spiritual Bridegroom (for this were in 
truth just and more fitting) . For He That hath the bride is 
the Bridegroom; that is, seek not in me the crown of the 
Bridegroom, not for me does the Psalmist rejoice, saying, 
Hearken, daughter, and consider, and incline thine ear ; for- 
get also thine own people and thy father's house, for the King 
hath desired thy beauty : nor seeking my chamber doth the 
, bride say, Tell me, Thou Whom my soul loveth, where Thou 
feedest, where Thou mahest Thy flock to rest at noon : she has 
the Bridegroom from Heaven. But I will rejoice, having 
surpassed the honour becoming a bondman, in the title and 
reality of friendship. 

I deem then that the meaning of the passage, has been 
• full well interpreted : and having already sufficiently ex- 
plained the spiritual marriage, I think it tedious to write 
any more about it. 

- &'■ 

30 He must increase, but I must decrease. 

He convicts his disciples of being yet troubled about 
trifles, and of taking unseasonable offence at what they by 
no means ought, and of not yet knowing accurately, Who 
and whence Emmanuel is. For not thus far, saith he, shall 
His Deeds be marvelled at, nor because more are baptized 
by Him, shall He for this alone surpass my honour, but He 

Examples of increase and decrease. 


shall attain to so great a measure of honour, as befitteth Ch .4. p * *• 
b ' c in. 30. 

God. For He must needs come to increase of glory, and, 
through daily additions of miracles, ever mount up to the 
greater, and shine forth with greater splendour to the world: 
but I must decrease, abiding in that measure wherein I ap- 
pear, not sinking from what was once given me, but in 
such a degree inferior to Him That advanceth ever to an 
increase of glory, as He hasteth and passeth on. 

And this the blessed Baptist interpreteth to us. But 
our discourse will advance profitably through examples, 
making the force of what has been said clearer. Let then 
a stake two cubits long be fixed in the ground : let there 
lie near a plant too, just peeping above the ground, putting 
forth green shoots into the air, and ever thrust up to a great- 
er height by the resistless vigour from the roots ; if then 
one could put voice into the stake, and it should then say of 
itself and its neighbour the plant, This must increase, but I 
decrease ; one would not reasonably suppose that it indicated 
any harm to itself, nor that its existing measure would be 
clipped, but it would be affirming its decrease in that sort 
only, in which it is found less than that which is ever advan- 
cing towards increase. Again you may take an example 
akin to this one, and suppose the brightest of the stars to 
cry out saying of the sun, It must increase, but I decrease. 
For while in the gloom of night the depth of the atmosphere 
is darkened, one may well admire the morning star flashing 
forth its golden light, and conspicuous in its full glory : but 
when the sun now gives notice of its rising, and bedews the 
world with a moderate light, the star is surpassed by the 
greater, and gives place to him advancing little by little. 
And it too might well speak the words of John, being in 
that same state, which he says he is enduring. 

i ! 


i* 1 ' 

i !' 


That the Son is not in the number of things originate, but above 
all, as God of God. 

31 He That cometh from above is above all. 

No great thing is it, saith he, nor exceeding wonderful, if 
Christ surpass the glory of human nature : for not thus far 
doth He set the bounds of His own glory, but is over all 
creation, as God, is above all things made, not as 
numbered among all, but as excepted from all, and Di- 
vinely set over all. He adds the reason, shaming the 
gainsayer, and silencing the opposer. He That cometh 
from above, saith he, that is, He That is born of the 
root from above, preserving in Himself by Nature the 
ebQvtav Father's Natural goodness 1 , will confessedly possess the 
being above all. For it would be impossible that the Son 
should not altogether appear to be such as He That begat 
is conceived of, and rightly. For the Son Who excelleth in 
sameness of Nature, the Brightness and express Image of 
the Father, how will He be inferior to Him in glory ? Or 
will not the Property of the Father 2 be dishonoured in the 
Son, and we insult the Image of the Begotten, if we 
count Him inferior? But this I suppose will be mani- 
fest to all. Therefore is it written also, That all men^ 
should honour the Son even as they honour the Father : he 
that honoureth not the Son honoureth not the Father. He 
That glorieth in equal honour with God the Father, by 
reason of being of Him by Nature, how will He not be con- 
ceived of as surpassing the essence of things originate ? for 
this is the meaning of is above all. 

2 rb TOD 


Infra v. 

True meaning of From above. 1 85 

But I perceive that the mind of the fighters against Christ c H iiif " 31 * 
will never rest, but they will come, as is probable, vainly 
babbling and say, „When the blessed Baptist says that the 
„ Lord sprang from above, what reason will compel us to 
„ suppose that He came of the Essence of the Father, by 
„ reason of the word from above, and not rather from heaven, 
„ or even from His inherent superiority above all, so that 
„for this reason He should be conceived of and said to be 
„ also above all ? „ When therefore they aim at us with 
such words, they shall hear in return, Not your most cor- 
rupt reasonings o most excellent, will we follow, but rather 
the Divine Scriptures and the Sacred Writings only. We 
must then search in them, how they define to us the force of 
from above. Let them hear then a certain one of the Spirit- 
clad crying, Every good gift and every perfect gift is from S. James 
above, and cometh down from the Father of lights. Lo, plainly 
he says that from above is from the Father : for knowing that 
nought else surpasseth things originate save the Ineffable 
Nature of God, he rightly attached to it the term from above. 
For all things else fall under the yoke of bondage; God 
alone riseth above being ruled, and reigneth : whence 
He is truly above all. But the Son, being by Nature God 
and of God, will not be excluded from the glory in respect of 
this. But if ye deem that from above ought to be taken as Of 
heaven, let the word be used of every angel and rational 
power. For they come to us from heaven who inhabit the 
city that is above, and ascend and descend, as the Saviour Supra 
somewhere says, upon the Son of man. What then 
persuaded the blessed Baptist to attribute that which was in 
the power of many to the Son Alone specially, and as to 
One coming down from above to call Him, He That cometh 
from above ? For surely he ought to make the dignity com- 
mon to the rest, and say, They that come from above are above 
all. But he knew that the expression was due to the One 
Son, as sprung of the Supreme Root. 

Therefore from above does not mean from heaven : but 
will be piously and truly understood, in the sense we spoke 
of before. For how is He at all above all, if from above 



God the Son God, All the creature. 

* j; 

1 fi 

•Botffc 2. 
c. iii. 31. 

:• I 
: li 

Ps. cii. 

signify not From the Father, but rather From Heaven ? For 
if this be so, every one of the angels too will be above all, as 
coming from thence. But if each one escapes being reck- 
oned among all, of whom at last will all be composed ? or 
how will the word all remain intact, preserving accurately its 
meaning, while such a multitude of angels overpass and 
break down the boundary of all ? For all it is no longer, if 
they remain outside, who were in all. But the Word That 
Bhone forth ineffably from God the Father, having His Pro- 
per Birth from above, and being of the Essence of the Father 
as of a fountain, will not by His coming wrong the word 
all, seeing He escapes being reckoned among all as if a 
part : but rather will be above all, as Other than they, both 
by Nature and God-befitting Power and all other Properties 
of Him Who begat Him. 

But perchance they will say abashed at the absurd 
result of the investigation, „From above means not 
„ from heaven, but from His inherent superiority above 
„ all.,, Come then, testing more accurately the force of 
what is said, let us see at what an end their attempt will 
terminate. First then, it is wholly foolish and without un- 
derstanding, to say that the Son Himself hath come from 
His Own Dignity, and that as from a certain place or out 
of one, He One and the Same advances from His Own 
Excellency to be above all. In addition to this, I would 
also most gladly enquire of them, in respect of the ex- 
cellence above all, whether they will grant it to the Son 
Essentially and irrevocably, or added from without in 
the nature of accident. If then they say that He hath 
the Excellence by acquisition, and is honoured with dignities 
from without, one must needs acknowledge that the Only- 
Begotten could exist deprived of glory, and be stripped of 
the acquired (as they call it) grace r and be deprived of 
being above all, and appear bare of the excellence which 
they now admire, since an accident may be lost, seeing that 
it belongeth not to the essence of its subject. There will 
therefore be change and varying in the Son : and the 
Psalmist will lie hymning Him with vain words, The heavens 

God the Son God apart from All. 


shall perish, but Thou shalt endure : yea all of them shall . Ch *F* ^ 
wax old like a garment, as a vesture shalt Thou change them 
and they shall be changed : but Thou art the Same, and Thy 
years shall have no end. For how is He the Same, if with 
us He changeth, and that with changes for the worse? 
Vainly too (it seems) doth He glory of Himself, saying, Mal< -^ 
Behold, behold, I am, I change not, and there is no God be- *>- . 
side Me. And how will not the passions of the offspring 5. 
reach up to the Father Himself too, since He is His 
Impress and Exact Likeness ? God the Father then will be 
changeable, and has the Supremacy over all accruing 
to Him : I omit the rest. For what belongs to the Image 
will of necessity appertain unto the Archetype. But they 
will not say that He hath the supremacy from without 
(shuddering at such difficulties alike and absurdities of 
their arguments), but Essential rather and irrevocable. 
Then again (o most excellent) how will ye not agree 
with us even against your will, that the Son being 
by Nature God, is above all, and therefore cometh of the 
Alone Essence of God the Father ? For if there be nought of 
things originate which is not parted off by the force of the 
All, but the Son is above all, to wit, as Other than all, and 
having the Essential Supremacy over all, and not the same 
in nature with all, how will He not be at length conceived 
of as Very God? For He Who is Essentially separate 
from the multitude of created beings, and by Nature 
escapes the being classed among things originate, what 
else can He be, save God ? For we see no mean, as far as 
regards existing essence 3 . For the creation is ruled over, 3 {, a ' ias 
and God is conceived of as over it. If then the Son be by ^ t s a " ru " 
Nature God, and have been ineffably begotten of God the 
Father, from above signifies the Nature of the Father. 
Therefore the Only Begotten is above aiZ,inasmuchasHe too 
is seen to be of that Nature. 

He that is of the earth is earthly and speaheth of the earth. 
■ The earthborn (says he) will not effect equally in power 
of persuasion with Him Who is God over all. For he that 



Man teaches, God draws. 

\l ; 




t' 1 :- 

Book 2. 
c. iii. 31. 

* yopy6re- 

Supra ver. 

is of the earth will speak as man, and will rank merely as an 
adviser, committing to his disciples the whole reins of desire 
to believe : but He That cometh from above, as God, having 
used discourse with a certain Divine and ineffable grace, 
sends it into the ears of those who come to Him. But in 
proportion as He is by Nature Superior, so much the more 
effectually 4 will He surely in- work. And with much 
profit does the blessed Baptist say such things to his dis- 
ciples. For since they were beholding him surpassed by 
the glory of the Saviour, and were now not a little offended 
thereat, wherefore they came to him and said, Rabbi, He 
That was with thee beyond Jordan, to Whom thou barest wit- 
<ness, behold the Same bajptizeth^ and all men come to Him ; 
needs did the Spirit-clad, cutting off the sickness of offence, 
and implanting in his disciples a, healthful perception on 
most necessary points, explain the Saviour's supremacy 
over all, and teach no less the cause why all men were 
already going to Him, and leaving the baptism by water 
alone, went to the more Divine and perfect one, to wit, 
that by the Holy Ghost. 

j i 

% < f 



■|: ! ! 

He that cometh from heaven is above all. 
This testifieth (saith he) that very great and incompar- 
able the distinction between those of the earth and the 
Word of God That cometh down from above and from Hea- 
ven. If I am not fit to teach, and my word alone suffice 
you not, the Son Himself will confirm it, testifying that 
in an incomprehensible degree differs the earth-born from 
the Beginning Which is above all. For disputing some- 
Infra viii. where with the unholy Jews, the Saviour said, Ye are from 
beneath ; I am from above. For He says that the nature 
of things originate is from beneath, as subject and of ne- 
cessity in bondservice to God Who calleth them into be- 
ing : from above again He calleth the Divine and Ineffable 
and Lordly Nature, as having all things originate under Its 
feet, and subjecting them to the yoke of His Authority. 
For not idly did the blessed Baptist add these things to, 


Christ uses the evidence we best accredit. 


those above. For that he may not be supposed by his ^tii'st. 
disciples to be inventing empty arguments, and from fear 
of seeming with reason inferior to Christ, to call Him 
greater and from above, himself from beneath and of the 
earth ; needs does he from what the Saviour Himself said, 
seal the force of the things said, and shew the explanation 
to be not as they thought, an empty excuse, but rather a 
demonstration of the truth. 

But since the other part of the verse runs thus, And 
what He hath seen and heard, that He testifieth, come we 
will discuss a few things on this too. We are so constituted 
and habituated, as to receive the full proof of everything, 
by means of two especial senses particularly, I mean sight 
and hearing. For having been both ear -witnesses and 
eye-witnesses of anything, we come to speak positively 
thereof. Persuading them therefore to hasten to belief in 
Christ (for He speaks, says he, that He knows accu- 
rately), he takes again, as it were, from the likeness to 
us, that we may understand it more Divinely, and says, 
What He hath seen and heard, that He testifieth. 

And no man receiveth His testimony. 
Not as though no one receiveth the testimony, that Christ 
is God by Nature and, sprung from above and the Fa- 
ther, is above all, does the blessed Baptist say this (for 
many received, and have believed it, and before all Peter, 
saying, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the Living GodJ : S. Matt. 
but as having himself conceived of the great dignity of the 
Speaker more rightly than they all, does he all but shaking 
his head, and smiting with right hand on his thigh, marvel 
at the folly of them that disbelieve Him. 



J.' 1 


That Christ is God and of God by Nature. 

33 He that hath received His testimony hath set to his seal 
that God is true* 

In no other way was it possible to shew the impiety of 

them that believe not, except the glorious achievement of 

the believers were made known. For by the contrast of 

good things is the evil easily discerned, and the knowledge 

of what is better convicts the worse. If any then (saith he) 

have assented to the words of Him That cometh from above, 

' • he hath sealed and confirmed by his understanding, that 

! ! truth is ever akin and most dear to the Divine Nature. 

■ ! Whence the converse is manifest to them that see. For 

; he who thrusts away the faith will surely witness against 

: j himself, that God is not true. But we must again take 

' j notice, that he removes the Son from consubstantiality 

», '" with the creation, and shews by what has been said that He 

is by Nature God. For if he that believeth the things 

spoken by Him, and receiveth the testimony which He 

I gave of Himself, sealed and well confirmed that God is 

< ''. . , true; how shall not Christ be conceived of as by Nature 

j .. God, Who is testified of as true by the credit of the things 

just said? or let our opponent again say how the Divine 

I - Nature is honoured, as being true, by our Saviour's testi- 

' ) mony being received. For if He be not wholly by Nature 

God, he that believeth will not be reverencing the Divine 

Nature, as true, but rather one (according to them) the 

fairest of creatures. But since, when Christ is believed, 

' h * 4>v<t»>i the declaration * of being true extendeth to God, it is I 

. i • suppose altogether clear, that He being God, not falsely 

so called, Himself taketh honour to Himself from those 

who believe. 

God the Son God Who giveth. 


But the enemy of the truth will not (it seems) agree to £ H £? ■ 3 jjv 

these words of ours, but will start up strong, not admitting 

the Son to be by Nature God : and will say again, Thou ca- 

villest, sir, and contrivest turns of many-varied reasonings, 

ever rejecting somehow the simple and right sense. 

For since the Word of God hath come down from Heaven, 

calling out openly, I speak not of Myself, but the Father^™.™- 

Which sent Me, He gave Me a commandment, what I should 

say and what I should speak : and again, All things that I Infra xv * 

have heard of My Father, I will make known unto you : or 

also, as the holy Baptist averred in the following words, 

For He Whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God : Infra 

. . ver. 34. 

therefore of Him is he saying, He that receiveth His testimony 

hath set to his seal, that God is True. For verily is God the 
Father true, but thou attemptest to bring round to the Son 
what is due to Another. 

What then shall we say to these things ? shall we class the 
Only-Begotten among the prophets, fulfilling the ministry be- 
fitting Prophets, and doing nought besides ? For by whom 
is it not unhesitatingly received, that Prophets used to bring 
us voices from God ? Then what excellence is there in the 
Son, if He accomplish this alone ? how is He above all, if He 
is still ranked along with Prophets, and is clad in slave-be- 
fitting measure ? How, as though surpassing them in. glory 
doth He say in the Gospels, If He called them gods unto whom Infra x. 
the Word of God came, and the Scripture cannot be broken, say ' 
ye of Him Whom the Father hath sanctified and sent into the 
world, Thou blasphemest : because I said, lam the Son of God ? 
For in these words He clearly severeth Himself off from the 
company of Prophets, and saith that they were called gods, 
because the Word of God came to them, but Himself He con - 
fesseth Son. For to the holy Prophets was imparted grace by . . - . 
measure through the Spirit ; but in our Saviour Christ it hath Co1 :. *• 19 » 
pleased all the full ness of the God-head to dwell bodily, as Paul 
■saith ; wherefore also of His fullness have all we received, as ? ( ? pra u 
John affirmed. How then will the Giver be On a par with the 
recipients, or how will the Fullness of the God-head be reckon- 
ed in the portion of the minister ? 

192 Christ True who says, I and the Father are One. 

ii I. 


lt i 


H- t 

Book 2. 
c. iii. 34. 

Infra xiv. 

Infra x. 


lb. xiv. 9, 


Let them then hence consider narrowly, into how great 
blasphemy their argument will hazard them. And how one 
ought to understand the words, I speak not of Myself, but 
the Father Which sent Me, He gave Me a commandment what I 
should say and what I should speak, will be explained more 
at large in its proper time and place. But I think that at 
present the objections of our opponents ought to be made a 
foundation of piety, and from what they put forth, we ought to 
contend for the doctrines of the Church. They then affirm 
that the Son has received commandments from the Father, 
and says nothing of Himself: but whatsoever He heard, 
as Himself says, these things He is zealous to say to us too. 
Well, let him hold to this ; for we will agree, since this no- 
thing wrongeth the Son> as far at least as concerns the ques- 
tion of whence He is ; yea rather it bringeth in a most beau- 
tiful ceconomy in respect of the present subject. Therefore 
when they hear Him say, I and the Father are One ; He that 
hath seen Me hath seen the Father ; I am in the Father, and the 
Father in Me : let them receive His testimony, let them set to 
thsir seal, that God the Father is true, persuading the Son to 
speak what He knoweth accurately ; let them not disbelieve 
the words of the Saviour, interpreting to us the things of 
His Father. 

34 For He Whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God. 

The Father then knoweth that His own Son is in Him the 
Same by Nature (for this I suppose the words, are One, 
signify, and nothing else), and acknowledgeth Him as Son 
not creature ; Son I mean of His own Essence, and not 
honoured with the bare name of Sonship. For He knows 
* rys Mas that He is the Exact Image of His own Proper Self 2 , so that 
He is perfectly seen in Him, and depicts in Himself Him 
That by Nature Ineffably beamed forth from Him, and hath 
in Himself the Son, is again in the Son, by reason of Same- 
ness of Essence. 

These things, o heretic, by considering, thou shalt release 
thyself from bitter disease, and us from trouble in argument 

Sent, God the Son's Eternal Generation. 


Chap. 3. 
c. iii. 34. 
3 Sk rov 

pov, the 
that lies on 
the sur- 
Acts vii. 

Exod. iv. 
Jer. i. 7. 

and controversy. For He Whom God hath sent speaketh the 
words of God. If these words be considered simply 3 , what 
will there be of marvel in the Son ? For was not every one 
of the holy Prophets also both sent from God, and did he 
not declare His words ? And indeed it is somewhere said 
to the hierophant Moses, And now come, I will send thee into 
Egypt, and thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus saith the Lord : 
to the most holy Jeremiah, Say not, I am a child : for thou 
shalt go to all that I shall send thee, and whatsoever I com- 
mand thee thou shalt speak. What more then is there in the 
Son by Nature Who speaketh the words of God, because 
He is sent by Him ? He will be declared to us again (it 
seems) as a Prophet, and nothing else, in respect of ministry. 
Therefore you will here understand hath sent, either in re- 
spect of the Incarnation and the Coming into this world 
with Flesh : or again you will take it in a more God-befit- 
ting and higher sense. For the Father hid not the Son 
in Himself, but He beamed forth of His Nature, as bright- 
ness from light, after the unspeakable and inexplicable 
mode of Divine Generation: which too the Only-Be- 
gotten was making known to us, in saying, I came forth 
from the Father, and am come. For the Son hath come forth 
from the Father into His Proper Being, even though He be 
in Him by Nature. And what I came forth there means, 
this again the being sent here signifies. The Word then (he 
says) That hath appeared and flashed forth from the Father, 
in that He is God of God, will use words befitting God : but 
the words befitting God are true words, and such as reject 
all stain of falsehood. He then that receiveth the testimony 
of the Saviour hath sealed that God is true ; for He is indeed 
by Nature God. 

For He giveth not the Spirit by measure. 
Promise now specially keen attention, my good friend, 
that with me you may wonder at the sober wisdom 4 of the 4 "#'" 
Saints. He said therefore that the Son was both sent of 
God, and speaketh the words of God. But he is observed 
as far as belongs to the simple 5 force of the words to clothe pov.above. 
vol. i. o 


xvi. 28. 


None but God can give the Spirit. 

Book 2. 

c, iii. 34. 

Acts viii, 


6 iruevfia- 



Num. xi. 


Him with the prophetic measure, as we have just said. He: 
removes Him then in these words from equality with them, 
and through this one token gives us to understand, how 
great, yea, rather now how incomparable the difference. 
For it is impossible, saith he, that they who have received 
the Spirit by measure, could give It to another. For never 
hath saint to saint been the bestower of the Holy Ghost : 
but the Son giveth to all, as of His own fulness. He then 
giveth not by measure, nor hath He, as they, some little por- 
tion of the Spirit, and this by participation : but since He 
was shewn to be the Giver too of It, it is manifest I suppose 
that He hath It wholly Essentially in Himself. He then 
that hath so great superiority over them, will not speak the . 
things of God as one of them, but being God of God, will 
pour forth words befitting God. 

But it will no how interfere with what has been said that 
certain deem that by Apostolic hands the Spirit was given to 
some : for we will believe them to be invokers of the Spirit 6 , 
rather than truly givers of It : since the blessed Moses too 
was not enjoined himself to take of the Spirit that was on 
him but God kept this too in His Power alone, saying that 
he must put forth the seventy, and promising to take of the 
Spirit that was on him, and put it upon them. For He 
knew that it befits God Alone to perform things God-be- 

m i i 



That not by participation are the Properties of God the Father in 
the Son, but Essentially and by Nature. 

35 The Father loveth the Son and hath given all things into His 


For since he had said, that it behoved not the Son Who had 
beamed forth God of God, to be able to use words other than 
He That begat Him, to wit, true words ; for He Whom Supra ver. 
God hath sent, saith he, sjoeaheth the words of God, needs 
does he subjoin what is before us, and saith, The Father 
loveth the Son. We shall not grieve (saith he) God the 
Father by clothing in equal honour Him That is begotten of 
Him, we shall not offend Him by crowning with God-befitting 
Glory Him Who is Essentially the Heir of the Father's goods. 
For He loveth the Son. He will therefore be pleased at His 
being glorified by us, and be grieved by the contrary. And 
let no one suppose, saith he, that He hath His Own Son 
Heir of this one Divine Excellence only. For He hath given 
all things into His Hand ; i. e., everything, which is essen- 
tially good in the Father, this is altogether in the power of 
the Son. For he calleth power Hand in these words, as when 
God saith by one of the Prophets, My right Hand hath Isa.xlviii. 
spanned the heavens, instead of, My Power. But the Son hath 
in Himself the whole Property of the Father,not by participa- 
tion, though the Father be said to have given it (for so He 
would have an acquired, not a Natural Godhead) but the 
Father gives all that is His to His Son, just as a man too 
may be conceived to give to the child born of him all the 
properties of manhood, or as the fire too may be said to give to 

the heat proceeding from it in the way of energy, the property 



I M 

196 Human language weak to express things Divine. 

Bo .?. K> 2. of its own nature. In such things, both is the giving no loss 
to the givers (for not by division or severance is the going 
forth of what is conceived to be given) and the appearance of 
receiving is blameless on the part of the recipients. For 
only because of the ' whence/ are such things said, and the 
offspring are conceived of as being a certain natural quali- 
ty, so to say, of their begetters, shewing clearly what 
the generator is by nature, and flashing forth the natural 
energy of their own source. And these things again are 
adduced by way of examples, but God is above them all. 
We will not for this accuse human language which is weak, 
for the glory of God hideth speech, as it is written. And if 
we see through a glass and darkly, and conceive in part, 
how shall we not be yet more powerless in the words 
through the tongue ? You will then piously conceive, 
either that in this way all things are given by the Father to 
the Son : or you will take it again of the oeconomy with 
Flesh, no longer introducing the giving and receiving in 
respect of Natural Properties, but as putting the Son in 
authority over all things originate, that you may conceive of 
it in some such way as this, 

xxv. 2. 

xiii. 12,9. 

\M ; i 

li i 

ver. 33. 

i - ■ 

[: 1 
I : f 


1 ■■ Hh 

S. Matth 
xi. 27. 

The Father loveth the Son and hath given all things into His 

Let not the slow to hearken (he says) be bold in speech, at 
seeing the Lord of all a Man, nor let him suppose that the 
Truth is false, rejecting the due belief in God by reason of the 
Flesh. Let him receive His testimony, let him readily set to 
his seal that God is true, lest he grieve the Father Which 
is in Heaven. For He loveth His Son : and the proof of His 
Love for Him, is that authority over all is given to Him. 
Which also the Saviour Himself says, All things are delivered 
unto Me of My Father, and again, All power is given unto 
Me in heaven and in earth. Nor do I suppose that because 
of the Son's seeming to receive it, will He reasonably be 
predicated by any as lesser : and why ? for He receives when 
He became Man, when He humbled Himself for our sakes ; 

God the Son He Who emptied Himself. 


when the Lord was called a slave, when the Son, Who is Ch £F # *• 
free, became among servants. For how did He humble 
Himself? or how is He said to have descended from His 
Equality with God the Father ? Dost thou not in these 
things see Him Who Divinely giveth, Him Who Humanly 
and as a servant is said to receive what as God He had ? 
For not strictly a gift from the Father is that which ap- 
pointed the Son to the beginning of Lordship over all things; 
but rather a return and regain with the Flesh also of the 
authority that He had before the Flesh. For not when He 
became Man, did He then begin to rule the creation. 

Since to what lowliness would one say that He had de- 
scended, if, when He became Man, He then began to have 
lordship ? how will He appear in the Form of a servant, if 
then at length and scarcely declared Lord of all ? Away 
with the absurdity of the reasonings herein. But when He 
became Man, then even so begins He to rule, not losing by 
reason of His Flesh the Divine Dignity, but mounting again 
with the Flesh also, to what He was from the beginning. 
But that the things spoken of as Christ's, were but the re- 
gain of what He had before, Himself will prove, saying, 
Father, glorify Thou Me with the glory which I had with Thee 
before the world was. Seest thou that He asketh not for a 
beginning of glory, but a renewal of the pristine glory, say- 
ing this too as Man ? But that because of the Human Na- 
ture is it said that all things are given to the Son, he that 
is fond of learning will from all quarters heap up proofs 
with wisdom, and will be able to understand, but specially 
from that most dread vision of Daniel, wherein he says that 
he saw the Ancient of Days set on His Throne, and declares 
that thousand thousands ministered unto Him and ten 
thousand times ten thousand stood before Him. And hereto 
he added, And behold one like the Son of Man came withlb.lS, 14, 
the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of Days, and 
they brought Him near before Him, and there was given Him 
dominion and glory and a kingdom, that all people, nations, 
and languages should serve Him. Thou seest how here 
is the whole Mystery of the Incarnation accurately delineated 

xvii. 5. 

Dan. vii. 
9, 10. 

198 God the Son receives, the Firstfruits of our clay. 


Book 2. to us ; thou seest how the Son is said to receive the king- 
dom of the Father ; shewnto the Prophet as no bare Word a , 

Phil. ii.8. but as the Son of Man (for He humbled Himself, as it is 
written, being found for our sakes in fashion as a Man), 
that He first brought back to His Kingdom, might be shewn 
forth a Beginning and Way to us of Glory into the King- 
dom. And as He being by Nature Life did for our sakes 
descend unto death after the Flesh for all, that He might 
free us both from death and corruption, by His likeness to 
us having immingled us as it were with Himself and rendered 
us partakers of eternal life : so doth He confashion Himself to 
our low repute, being Lord of Glory as God, that He might 

Col.i. 18. restore the nature of man to the royal honour also. For in 
all things He hath the preeminence, as Paul saith, being both 
the Way and the Door and the Firstfruits of the good things 
of human nature, from death to life, from corruption to incor- 
ruption, from weakness to might, from bondage to sonship, 
from dishonour and ignominy to honour and kingly glory. 
Therefore when the Son appears to receive as Man what 
He had as God, let us no wise be offended but let us con- 
sider rather the mode of the ceconomy on our account 
and for us. For so we shall preserve our mind unwounded 
and unhurt. 

36 He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life. 
Not simply, nor without examination doth the most wise 
Baptist testify that to them that believe in Christ is life set 
» yt pas forth, as their Reward 1 , but he brings forth to us the proof of it 
from the very quality so to speak of things . For the Only Be- 
gotten is by Nature Life : for in Him we live and move and 
are. But He is introduced 2 into us of a surety through faith, 
and dwelleth in us through the Holy Ghost : and the blessed 
John the Evangelist will testify saying in his epistles 
Hereby know we that He dwelleth in us, because He hath given 
us of 'His Spirit. Christ will therefore quicken them that 
believe in Him, as being Himself Life by Nature and dwell- 

a yvfivbs A6yos, used constantly by was before the Incarnation, before He 
S. Cyril to express God the Word as He deigned to clothe Himself with our flesh. 

Acts xvii 

IS. John 
iv. 13. 

Christ our Life. 


ing in them. But that the Son indwelleth in us by faith, CH .$ F 'j' 

t> • • • • c. in, 86. 

Paul will furnish proof, saying, For this cause I bow my hnees Eph. iii. 

unto the Father, of Whom the whole family in heaven and 

earth is named, that He would grant you according to the 

riches of His glory, to be strengthened with might by His 

Spirit; that Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith . 

Since then through faith Life by Nature entereth into us, 

how is he not true that saifch, He that believeth on the Son 

hath everlasting Life ? that is to say, the Son Himself, nought 

else than Him being conceived of as Life. 

and he that believeth not the Son shall not see life. 

Both then (will haply some one say) the Baptist preach 
to us another opinion, and corrupt the doctrine of the re- 
surrection, saying that he that believeth shall be quickened, 
wholly asserting that he that doth not shall not see life ? 
We shall not all-, it seems, rise ; his word introducing to us 
this distinction. Whither then will that pass away, that is 
said absolutely and as it were to all, The dead shall be raised ? l Cor. xv. 
What is Paul too about, saying, For we must all appear be- 2 Cor. v. 
fore the judgement seat of Christ, that every one may receive 
the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, 
whether it be good or bad ? I suppose then that he that is 
eager after learning ought to be praised, nevertheless most 
accurate scrutiny must be made in Holy Scripture. For see 
clearly, I pray you, the distinction between the things said. 
For of the believer he says that he shall have everlasting life s 
of the unbeliever, the word hath a different significance. For 
he does not say that he shall not have life : for he shall be 
raised by the common law of the resurrection ; but he says 
that he shall not see life, that is, he shall not so much as 
arrive at the bare sight of the life of the saints, he shall not 
touch their blessedness, he shall remain untasting of their life 
passed in bliss. For that is indeed life. But to exist in 
punishment is bitterer than all death, holding the soul in 
the body only for the sensation of sufferings. Some such 
difference in life Paul also brings forward. Hear what 
he says to those who are dead to evil for Christ's sake, For 3, 4. 


All rise, not all to life. 

!' r ' 



t . 



I i I ■ 


B ?.?^|* ye are dead, and your life is hid with Christ in God ; wJien 
Christ, your b life, shall appear, then shall ye also appear with 
Him in glory. Seest thou how he calls appearing in glory 
with Christ the life of the saints? But what when the 

Ps.xxxiv. Psalmist too sings to us, saying, What man is he that de- 
sireth life, and loveth many days, that he may see good ? Keep 
thy tongue from evil. Shall we not say that herein is signi- 
fied the life of the saints ? but it is, I think, evident to all. 
For he does not, forsooth, bid some to refrain from evil, 
that they may obtain the resurrection of the flesh hereafter 
(for they will rise again even if they do not cease from evil), 
but he rouses them rather to that life, wherein they may 
wholly see good days, passing an endless life in bliss and 

but the wrath of God abideth on Mm. 
More openly by means of this which follows did the 
blessed Baptist shew us the aim of what has been said. 
Let him who loves to search consider carefully the force 
of the thought. He that believeth not (he saith) on the Son 
shall not see life, but the wrath of Cod abideth on him. But 
if it were possible to understand that the unbeliever should 
be indeed bereft of the life in the body, he would surely 
have immediately added, " but death abideth on him." But 
since he calls it the wrath of God, it is plain that he is con- 
trasting the punishment of the ungodly with the enjoyments 
of the saints, and that he calls that life, which is the true 
life in glory with Christ, and the torments of the ungodly, 
the wrath of God. That punishment is ofttimes called 
wrath by the Divine Scriptures, I will adduce two witnesses, 
Paul and John : for the one said to the converted among 

Eph.ii.3. the Gentiles, And were by nature the children of wrath, 
even as others ; and the other to the Scribes and Pharisees, 

S. Matth. generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from 

*"• 7 * the wrath to come ? 

b S« Cyril seems to have read "your" with the uncial MSS. CDF. 

The Son ever knows, does all in season. 


Chap. 4. 
Chap. iv. When therefore the Lord knew how the Pharisees had 
heard that Jesus made and baptized more disciples than John 
2 3 (though Jesus Himself baptized not but His disciples) , He left 
Judcea and departed again into Galilee. 
Whence our history proceeds to this point, or from what 
commencement the order of the narrative progressing, 
introduces the Lord as knowing that the Pharisees had 
learnt what they enquired, it will not be amiss (it ap- 
pears) to say. For in that the holy Evangelist saith When 
therefore the Lord knew, it clearly brings forth a certain 
declaration of a subject previously under consideration. 
For He knew all things, without any one telling Him, 
of Himself, as God, and not at their first coming into 
existence, but even before they be, as the prophet testified. Hist. Sus. 
But He awaiteth the right season for each, and yields rather 
to the order of things, than to His foreknowledge : for this 
too was worthy of God-befitting ceconomy. 

There being then a question between some of John's 25. pra 1U " 
disciples and a Jew about purifying, there was much dis- 
puting on both sides. For the one taking the part of their 
own master, were contending that his Baptism was far su- 
perior to the legal sprinklings and typical purifications of the 
others. And indeed probably they were adducing as a 
proof of this, that many came to him, and very gladly left 
the more ancient and older customs. These again on the 
other hand, when the argument was being borne down 
headlong by the opposite party, and the force of truth 
rushing down like waters, was overwhelming the feeble 
mind of its opponents, go against their own opinion, and 
against their own will say that the baptism bestowed through 
Christ is far more excellent. And now they begin to have 
the upper hand, using like arguments for their proof, and 
rising up against their conquerors with the same argu- 
ments. For they were affirming that many more are 
seen going to Christ, and that all men hasten to Him 
rather than to John. Whence I suppose the disciples of John 
kindled with grief go to their master and say, Rabbi, He lb. 26. 

202 Christ illumines the Samaritans, when He, the 

i i 




.'» ; ; : 

Book 2. l%ai was with thee beyond Jordan, to Whom thou barest 
" ' ' witness, behold, the Same baptizeth, and all men come to Him. 
The propositions or arguments of the Jews put forth out 
of strife, they put forward interrogatively. Hence there- 
fore the Evangelist says that the Lord knew that the Pha- 
risees had heard that Jesus made more disciples than John, 
then that He shunning their lawless jealousy, and keeping 
His Passion for its own time, retreats from the land of the 
Jews, and withdraws again into Galilee. 

4 5 And He must needs go through Samaria. Then cometh He to 
a city of Samaria which is called Sychar, near to the parcel of 
ground that Jacob gave to his son Joseph. 

3 vfityem great readiness of mind and deep prudence 3 ! He 
prevents by his answers the things that would have been 
asked of him. For some one would straightway have said, 
either speaking to another, or secretly reasoning, Why did 
our Lord Jesus Christ, in not fit season, give illumina- 
tion to the Samaritans ? For once there came to Him 
the Syrophenician woman, with tears entreating mercy 
for her wretched daughter; and what said the Compas- 

S. Matth. sionate to her ? It is not meet, saith He, to take the children's 

xv * * bread, and to cast it to dogs. For He did not think it right, 
I suppose, to pour forth upon the Gentiles before the time 
the grace assigned to them of Israel. And this Himself 

lb. 24. made clearer by saying, I am not sent but unto the lost 
sheep of the house of Israel. How then (will one say) did 
He Who was sent to Israel alone begin to instruct the 
race of the Samaritans, albeit Israel had not yet wholly 
spurned the grace ? To such things does he introduce the 
reply persuasive with power, to wit, that He must needs go 
through Samaria. For not for this reason alone did He 
arrange His sojourn with the Samaritans, that He might 
preach the word among them, and wholly transfer the whole 
blessing from Israel : but since He must needs pass through, 
therefore doth He teach, fulfilling the work of wisdom. 
For as fire will never cease from its inherent natural 
. operation of burning ; so I deem it wholly impossible, that 

Very Light, passes through them. 


the Wisdom of all should not work what befits wisdom. And Chap. 4, 
as, while saying that it is not meet to take the children's bread ' ' *' 
and to cast it unto dogs, yet to the woman who wept and en- 
treated for pity with many words, He cast the grace, not 
admonished by another of the season for giving it, but 
Himself with the Father being Appointer of it, as Son 
and God and Lord : so did He pity the Samaritans too, and 
unveiling the Ineffable Might of His God-befitting Au- 
thority, He made the illumination of a whole country the 
bye -work of a journey. 

It were besides strange, that Israel, who was already 
mad in folly, and imagining slaughter against the Lord, 
should be perfectly loved. But since they do not yet 
thoroughly persecute Him, but as yet only in measure, 
therefore our Lord Jesus the Christ also doth not yet wholly 
strip them of His grace, but doth nevertheless draw off 
the blessing by little and little to others. But His de- 
parting wholly from the country of the Jews, and hasting to 
go into that of aliens, by reason of the cruelty of His per- 
secutors, was a threat, depicted on the nature of the thing as 
in a type, that they should endure the total loss of grace, 
and should dismiss unto others their own good, that is, the 
Christ, unless they abstained from their violence against 

6 Now Jacob's well was there. Jesus, therefore, being wearied 
with His journey, sat thus on the well. 
Having crossed the borders of Judasa, and being now 
among aliens, the Saviour rests upon Jacob's well : shew- 
ing us again as in a type and darkly, that even though the 
preaching of the Gospel should depart from Jerusalem, and 
the Divine Word at length hasten forth to the Gentiles, there 
shall not be lost therewith to Israel the love to their fathers, 
but Christ shall cleave to them again, and shall again be re- 
freshed and rest, as in His Saints, preserving to them the 
pristine unfading grace. For He loveth to dwell in the 
memories of His saints, that He may make Himself an en- 
sample to us in this also, and may become the Beginning 

If ' 

204 Christ, the Strength of all, wearied with the journey. 

; ; Book 2. and Door of the honour given to the fathers. But being 

wearied with His journey, as it is written, He resteth, that in 
this too He may accuse the impiety of those that drove Him 
away. For whereas they ought to have gained His friendship 
by kindly honours, cherishing Him with reverence and fear, 
as a Benefactor, they maltreat the Lord with toil and 
labours, that He may be true, saying of them in the book of 

Ps. xxxv. Psalms, And they rewarded Me evil for good. 

Herein then is seen the daring of the Jews. But what 
will the Arians again, neighbours of these in folly, answer 
us to this, yea rather to whom it would rightly be said, 

cf. Ezek. Sodom was justified by thee ? For the one crucify Christ in 
the Flesh, but the others rage against the Ineffable Nature 
Itself of the Word. Lo, He was wearied with His journey : 
Who was He Who suffered this ? will ye bring before us 
the Lord of Hosts lacking in might, and will ye lay upon 
the Only Begotten of the Father the toil of the journey, 
that He may be conceived of as even Passible, Who cannot 
suffer ? Or will ye, acting rightly, refuse so to think, and 
attribute the charge of these to the nature of the Body only, 
yea rather will ye say that the toil befits the Human Nature, 
rather than Him Who is, and is conceived of, as bare 

ILK!? Word by Himself 4 ? As then He Who possesseth in His Own 

iavrbv t^ Nature Power over all things, and is Himself the Strength 
of all, is said to be wearied (for do not I pray do not divide 
the One Christ into a Duality of Sons, even though He make 
His own the sufferings of His Human Nature) albeit He 
abideth Impassible, since He became Man, Who had it not in 
Him to be weary; so if He at all speak also of things which 
we think rather befit man, and not Grod, let us not hunt after 

Oypu/icv words 5 , nor, when we most need skill unto piety, be then 
caught in exceeding folly, putting the plan of the cecono- 
my of the Flesh far away from us, ascending hotly to the 
'■ : ,. Very Godhead of the Word, and laying hold with much folly 

of the things above us. For if He were not altogether called 
Man, if He were not made in the form of a servant, it were 
right to be troubled, when one said anything servile of Him, 
and to demand rather all things according to what befits 

The Word made Flesh endures what is below God. 205 



God. But if in firm faith and unswervingly we are con- Ch . ap « 4 - 

° J c . iv. 6-9. 

fident, that according to the voice of John, The Word was Supra i. 
made Flesh, and tabernacled among us, when thou seest 
Him speaking as Flesh, that is, as Man, receive discourse 
befitting man, for confirmation of the preaching. For in 
no other way could we know certainly, that He being God 
and Word, became Man, had not the Impassible been re- 
corded to have suffered something, and the High One to 
have uttered something lowly. 

it was about the sixth hour. 

He shews that opportunely did Jesus rest upon the well. 
For the sun pouring down its strongest rays from the mid- 
vault on those upon the earth, and consuming bodies with its 
unmitigated strokes, it would not have been without hurt to 
have gone further, but was more convenient to rest a little, 
especially when He would easily have thrust away the charge 
of luxuriousness 6 , if the fitness of the season had agreed 6 *>w0«« 

He does not say that it was the sixth hour precisely, but 
about the sixth hour, that we too may learn not to be in- 
different even about the least things, but rather to try and 
practise truth in common things 7 . X o5 <"" 

7 There cometh a woman of Samaria to draw water : Jesus saith 

8 unto her, Give Me to drink. (JPor His disciples were gone away 

9 unto the city to buy meat). Then saith the woman of Samaria 

unto Him, 

The Saviour was not ignorant of the woman's coming. 
For right well did He know being Yery God, that she would 
forthwith be there to draw the cold stream from the fountain. 
But when she was now come, He began to get His prey 
within the toils, and straightway holding forth the word of 
teaching, made His discourse from what was before Him. 

The Law appointed for the Jews that they must not be 
defiled in any way, and therefore ordered them to withdraw 
from every unclean thing, and not to mix themselves up Lev.y.2, 
with strangers, or uncircumcised. But they, carrying forward 
the force of the commandment to something more, and fol- 

': ' 206 Exclusiveness of the Jews. 

| \ B ° 01 L 2 n l° wm & most empty observances, rather than the exactness of 

it \" ' the Law, nor venturing so much as to touch the flesh of 

any alien, used to think that they would incur all unclean - 
ness, if they were found having to do with the Samaritans in 
anything. To so great an extent did their disagreement at 
length advance, that they recoiled from tasting water or food 
brought to them by the hand of aliens. In order then that 
the woman may exclaim, and that His unwonted conduct 
may invite her to ask Who He is, and whence, and how He 
despises the Jewish customs ; and so at length the conversa- 
tion may come to His aim, He makes as though thirsty* 
saying, Give Me to drink. But she said, 

How is it that Thou, being a Jew, askest drink of me, which am 
a woman of Samaria ? for the Jews have no dealings with the 

10 Samaritans. Jesus answered and said unto her, 
Enquiry is the beginning of learning, and to those who are 

ignorant upon any subject, doubt concerning it is the root 
of understanding. This commencement the discourse aims 
at : wherefore the Saviour wisely hints, that He accounts of 
no value the customs of the Jews. 

If thou knewest the gift of God, and Who It is That saith to thee, 
Give Me to drink; thou wouldest have asked of Him, and He 

1 1 would have given thee living water. The woman saith unto Him, 
Not knowing the Essence of the Only Begotten, sur- 
passing earth and heaven, yea rather being wholly ignorant of 
the Incarnate Word, the woman was calling Him a Jew. 
And profitably is He silent to this, that the foundation of 
His discourse with her may be kept. Yet does He up- 
lift her to a higher conception of Himself, saying that she 
knows not Who It is Who asked drink, or how great grace 
Divine gifts have, insomuch that if she had had know- 

\ ledge of it, she would not have endured to be behindhand, 

for she would have prevented the Lord in asking. He rouses 

s " her then by these things to a very earnest wish to learn. 

.-. t ; Observe how now too fashioning His discourse skillfully and 

' free from boast, He says that He is God, even though the 

woman be slow to understand. For inducing her to marvel 

God the Son God Who can give the gift of God. 207 
at the gift of God, He introduces Himself as the Giver of Chap. 4. 

. c. iv. 11. 

it. For if (says He,) thou knewest the gift of God and Who 

It is That saith to thee, thou wouldest have asked of Him. 
But whom would it befit to give the things of God ? would 
it not Him Who is by Nature God ? 

But He calls the quickening gift of the Spirit living water, 
whereby alone human nature, albeit well nigh parched 
to its very roots 8 , rendered now dry and barren of all s to7s4i>6- 
virtue by the villainies of the devil, runneth back to its vois, 
pristine beauty of nature, and drinking in the life-giving ™ ain ~ ootSm 
grace, is adorned with varied forms of good things, and 
shooting forth into a virtuous habit puts forth most thriving 
shoots of love towards God. Some such thing as this God 
says to us by the Prophet Isaiah also, The beast of the field 2 o a 2i. m ' 
shall honour Me, the dragons and the owls, because I give waters 
in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert, to give drink to My 
people, My chosen, whom I have formed for Myself to declare 
Mine excellencies. And another of the Saints says that the Jer. xxxi. 
soul of the righteous shall be as a fruitful tree, and shall LXX. 
spring up as grass among the waters, and shall appear as the Isa. xliv. 
willow by running water. 

We might heap up, besides those already quoted, many 
other testimonies also from the Divine Scripture, whence it 
would be very easy to shew, that under the name of water, 
the Divine Spirit is often named. But it is no time to lin- 
ger here. Wherefore we will swim to other places, pressing 
on upon the great and wide sea of Divine meditations. 

Sir, Thou hast nothing to draw with, and the well is deep : from 
whence then hast Thou that living water ? 

The woman imagines nothing more than what she is ac- 
customed to; and by no means understands the force of 
what is said, but supposes that like some of those who are 
accustomed to work wonders by means of charms and devil- 
ish deceit, without a line or other contrivance He will draw 
up the water to her from the depths of the well. But she 
calls that living water, according to her own meaning, which 
has fresh flowed from the breasts of the fountain. 




208 The Samaritan woman awakes unto faith in Christ. 

Book 2. 
iv. 12-14. 

12 Art Thou greater than our father Jacob, which gave us the 
well, and drank thereof himself, and his children, and his cattle ? 
13 Jesus answered and said unto her, 

The woman arrests herself, and that as quickly as pos- 
sible, being conscious that she had taken up ideas of Him 
neither holily nor surely true. For it was not possible 
r *N"" that she should not be altogether profited to understanding^ 
who is wholly enjoying the Divine words. Since then it was 
possible that He Who speaks should not be a magician, but 
rather a Prophet, and one of those surpassing in holiness, and 
had therefore promised to give her the living water, without 
the usual means of buckets, or having found water far better 
to use from another source, she straightway changes her dis- 
course for the soberer, and as it were compares saint with 
saint, saying, Art Thou greater than our father Jacob who 
gave us this well ? Receive the intelligence of her thought, 
from her no longer wondering at His promising water with 
out a rope, but speaking only of its quality to the taste. 

The Samaritans then were aliens (for they were colo- 
nists of the Babylonians), but they call Jacob their father for 
two reasons. For as inhabiting a country bordering on, and 
the neighbour of the Jews' land, they were taking a little im- 
pression themselves of their worship, and were accustomed 
to boast of the Jews' ancestors. Besides, it was really true 
that the greater number of the inhabitants of Samaria were 
sprung from the root of Jacob. For Jeroboam, the son of 
Nebat, having gathered together ten tribes of Israel, and the 
half-tribe of Ephraim, departed from Jerusalem in the time 
of the kingdom of Rehoboam the son of Solomon, and took 
Samaria, and built houses therein and cities. 



Whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst again, but who- 
soever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never 
thirst ; but the water that I shall give him shall be in him a 
well of water springing up into everlasting life. The woman 
saith unto Him, 
The woman of Samaria proposing, as a hard question 

Christ above man. Apostles wells. Mind of men stronger. 209 

and difficult to cope with. Art Thou greater than our father Chap. 4. 
Jacob,; the Saviour most skilfully avoids all boasting, not " ' 
saying clearly that He is greater, yet from the nature of the 
actions does He persuade her to approve Him who excels. 
Therefore He shews that incomparable is the difference be- 
tween the spiritual waters, and the sensible and grosser 
ones, saying, Whosoever shall drink of this ivater shall thirst 
again, but he that is filled (saith He) with My water, shall 
not only be shewn to be superior to thirst henceforth, but 
he shall have in him a well of water able to nourish him to 
eternal life. Therefore He that giveth the greater, is greater 
(saith He) than he that hath the less, and the worsted will 
not carry off the same glory as the conqueror. 

We must know again, that the Saviour here calls the 
grace of the Holy Ghost water, whereof if any be partaker, 
he shall have the gift of the Divine teaching evermore 
flowing up Avithin him, so as no more to be in need of ad- 
monition from others, yea rather, readily to suffice to ex- 
hort those who thirst after the Divine and heavenly Word, 
such as were some yet living in this present life and upon 
earth, the holy Prophets and Apostles, and the heirs of 
their ministrations, of whom it was written, And ye shall Isa.xii.3. 
draw ivater with joy out of the wells of salvation. 

Give me this water, that I thirst not neither come hither to 
16 draw. Jesus saith unto her, 

Again does she both speak and imagine only ordinary 
things, and of the things that were said understands no 
whit ; but she supposes that in being released from petty 
toils, will consist all the aim of our Saviour, and to thirst- 
ing no more does she bound the measure of the grace of 
God, not so much as in bare idea receiving things above 
the world. 

Go call thy husband, and come hither. 

Well and not untruly might one say, that the minds of 
woman are womanish, and that an effeminate soul is in 
them, never having the power of understanding readily. 
But the nature of man somehow is apter for learning, and 
far more ready for reasoning, having a mind awake to 

vol. i. p * 



■ tl.' 



if! \ 

j.j !- 
I i I r 

210 Christ above man : the woman's gradual -progress. 

Book 2. wisdom, and (so to say) warm, and of matured manhood. 
' For this reason (I suppose) did He bid the woman call 
her husband, secretly convicting her as having a heart 
most slow to learn, not practised in the words of wisdom ; 
yet He is at the same time contriving something else most 

17 The woman saith to Him I have no husband. Jesus saith 

18 unto her, Thou hast well said I have no husband: for thou 
hast had Jive husbands ; and he whom thou now hast is not 

19 thy husband: in that saidst thou truly. The woman saith 

unto Him, 

To whom is it not now evident that the Saviour was not 
ignorant that she was bereft of any rightful husband and 
that He made the enquiry about her husband who was not, 
a plea for making known hidden things ? For He was, He 
was thus with difficulty able to help her no longer marvel- 
ling at Him as one of us, but as now above man, by reason 
of His wondrous knowledge of her circumstances. And 
profitably does He approve her saying she has no husband, 
although she had had so many; for not the coming together 
out of pleasure, but the approval of the law and bond of 
pure love make marriage blameless. 

Sir, I perceive that Thou art a Prophet. 
With difficulty does she brighten up to apprehension, and 
that again not yet perfect. For she still calls the Lord of 
Prophets a Prophet. But she has by degrees shewn her- 
self better than before, in no way ashamed at reproof, 
seizing to her own profit the force of the sign and so 
going forth from her effeminate understanding, attaining 
to some extent to a vigorous mind, and stretching forth 
the eye of her heart to an unwonted view of things. 
Wherein we must chiefly admire alike the forbearance 
and power of our Saviour, who easily remodels our un- 
i ?f iv tutored understanding to an admirable condition 1 . 

20 Our fathers worshipped in this mountain, and ye say that 

21 in Jerusalem is the plaee where men ought to worship. Jesus 

saith unto her, 
Conceiving that the Lord is in truth a Prophet and a 

Jews and Samaritans. The Father suggests the Son. 211 

Jew, she boasts exceedingly of the customs of her country. Chap. 4. 
and asserts that the Samaritans are far superior in wisdom 
to the Jews. For the Jews admitting too gross notions 
of the Divine and Incorporeal Nature, contended that in 
Jerusalem alone, or its neighbour Sion, ought the God 
over all to be worshipped, as though the whole Ineffable 
and Incomprehensible Nature had once for all there taken 
abode, and was enclosed in temples made with hands. - 
Wherefore they were convicted of being utterly without 
understanding, by the voice of the Prophets, God saying, 
Heaven is My Throne and earth is My Footstool, what Acts vii - 

49 ex 

house will ye build Me, saith the Lord, or what is the place Isa. Ixvi. 
of My rest? The Samaritans again little remote from the 
folly of the Jews, bordering both in country alike and 
uninstructedness, supposing that in the mount called Ge- 
rizim they ought both to pray and worship, rightly es- 
cape not being laughed at. But the plea to them also of 
their senselessness was, that the blessing was given in 
Mount Gerizim, as we find written in Deuteronomy. This Deut. 
question the woman proposes to the Saviour, as some great xxvu ' ' 
and difficult problem, saying, Our fathers worshipped in 
this mountain, &c. 

Woman, believe Me, the hour is coming, when neither in Je- 
rusalem nor in this mountain, shall ye worship the Father. 

He condemns alike the folly of all, saying that the mode 
of worship of both shall be transformed to the more truth- 
ful. For no longer (saith He) shall a place be sought, 
wherein they shall deem that God properly dwells, but 
as filling and able to contain all things, shall they wor- Zeph. ii. 
ship the Lord every one from his place, as one of the 11# 
holy Prophets says. He says that His own sojourn in 
the world with a Body is the time and season for a change 
of such customs. 

Observe how with most gentle leading of discourse, does 
He guide the mind of the woman to right conceptions re- 
specting the Son, by calling God the Father. For how shall 
the Father at all be conceived of, if the Son be not ? 



1 1; 


Phil. ii. 

That the Son is not in the number of worshippers, in that He is 
Word and God, but rather is worshipped with the Father. 

22 Ye worship ye know not what : we know what we worship, 
for salvation is of the Jews. 

He speaks again as a Jew and a man, since the eco- 
nomy of the matter in hand demands now too this mode of 
speaking (for Christ would not have missed meet oppor- 
tunity) : yet does He attribute something more in re- 
spect of understanding to the worship of the Jews. For 
the Samaritans worship God simply and without search, 
but the Jews haying received through the Law and Pro- 
phets the knowledge of Him Who is, as far as they wei'e 
able. Therefore He says that the Samaritans know not, 
but that the Jews have good knowledge, of whom He af- 
firms, that salvation shall be revealed, that is Himself. 
For Christ was of the seed of David according to the flesh, 
David of the tribe of Judah. Amongst the worship- 
pers again as Man does He class Himself, Who together 
with God the Father is worshipped both by us and the 
holy angels. For since He had put on the garb of a ser- 
vant, He fulfilleth the ministry befitting a servant, having 
not lost the being God and Lord and to be worshipped. 
For He abideth the Same, even though He hath become 
Man, retaining throughout the plan of the dispensation 
after the Flesh. 

And even though thou see an abasement great and su- 
pernatural, approach wondering, not accusing, not fault- 
finding, but rather imitating. For such Paul desireth to 
see us, saying, Let this mind be in each of you, which was 
also in Christ Jesus, Who, being in the Form of God, thought 

Wokd emptied Himself, shewn in acts. 


it not robbery to be equal with God ; but emptied Himself, Chap. 5; 
taking upon Him the form of a servant, made in the like- 
ness of men, and being found in fashion as a Man, He hum- 
bled Himself Seest thou how the Son became to us a 
Pattern of lowliness, being in Equality and Form of the 
Father as it is written : yet descended for our sakes to a 
voluntary obedience and lowliness ? How then could the 
garb of obedience, how could that of lowliness appear, 
otherwise than through deeds and words beneath His God- 
befitting Dignity, and having a great inferiority to those 
wherein He was while yet bare Word with the Father, 
and not involved in the form of a servant ? How shall we 
say that He has at all descended, if we allow Him nothing 
unworthy of Him ? How was He made in the likeness of 
men, according to the voice of Paul, if He imitated not 
what befits man ? But a thing most befitting men is 
worship, regarded in the light of a debt, and offered by 
us to God. Therefore He worshippeth as Man, when He 
became Man; He is worshipped ever with the Father, 
since He was and is and will be, God by Nature and 

But our opponent will not endure this, but will with- 
stand us, saying: „ Think it not strange when we say 
„ that the Son worships : for we do not suppose that 
„the Son ought to worship the Father, in the same way 
„as we or the angels, for example: but the worship of 
„ the Son is something special and far better than ours." 

What then shall we reply to these things? Thou thinkest, 
fellow, to mislead us, by putting a most noble bondage about 
the Only-Begotten, and gilding over the dignity of a ser- 
vant by certain words of deceit. Cease from glorifying 
the Son with dishonour, that thou mayest continue to honour 
the Father. For he that honour eth not the Son, neither Infra v. 
doth he honour the Father, as it is written. For what 
(tell me) will it profit the Only-Begotten in respect of 
freedom, that His worship of the Father should be made 
more excellent than ours? For so long as He is found 
among worshippers, He will be altogether a bondman, and 

£14 As God He is worshipped, as Man He ivorshijipeth ; 

Book 2. 
c. iv. 22. 

iy. 10 e 
Deut. vi. 

even though He be conceived of as a superior worshipper, 
yet will He by no means differ from creatures in respect of 
being originate, but only in the remaining excellencies, as 
to men is superior Michael or any other of the holy and 
reasonable powers, to whom superiority to those upon 
earth seems essentially to belong, either in respect of holi- 
ness or any superabundance of glory, it having been so 
decreed by the Chief Artificer of all things, God : but 
the being classed with things originate, as having been 
created, is common to them with the rest. The "Word 
then Who is in the Father and of the Father by Nature 
will never escape being originate, even though He be said 
to worship in a jmore excellent way. Then how will that 
which is made be yet Son, or how will the bondman and 
worshipper be by Nature Lord ? For I suppose that the 
royal and lordly dignity is pre-eminent in being worship- 
ped : but the office of servant and slave is defined in his 
paying worship. We confess then by being subject that 
we hold ourselves bound to worship the Nature which is 
superior and above all. Wherefore it was proclaimed to 
the whole creation by the all-wise Moses, Thou shalt wor- 
ship the Lord thy God and Him only shalt thou serve. So 
that to whatsoever servitude belongs by nature, and what- 
ever boweth under the yoke of the Godhead, this full 
surely must needs worship, and submit to the garb of 
adoration. For in saying Lord, he defines the bond, in 
saying God, the creature. For together are they con- 
ceived of, and contrasted, the bond with Him who is by 
Nature Lord,. and that which is brought into being, with 
the Inoriginate Godhead. 

But seeing the Son is eternally in the Father and is 
Lord as God, I am at a loss to shew whence He can 
appear to owe worship. But let them proceed with their 
babbling : „ The Only Begotten (says he) will worship the 
„ Father, neither as bond nor created, but as a Son the 
„ Father." We must therefore take adoration into the 
definition of Sonship, and say that it altogether behoves 
the Son to worship the Father, for that in this consists 

else would the Father too be lowered. 


His being, even as does ours in being reasonable mortal Chap. 5. 
creatures, recipient of mind and knowledge, rather than in 
committing ourselves to motions external and impulsive % 
and to the mere swayings of will. For if there have been 
implanted by Nature into the Only Begotten, the duty 
wholly and of necessity to worship, and they so hold and 
say, how will they not be caught in naked blasphemy 
against the Father Himself? For it is altogether neces- 
sary to conceive of Him too as such, since the Son is His 
Image and Impress, and whatever things are in exact 
likeness, these full surely will differ in nothing. But if 
they say that the Son pays worship to the Father in will 
alone, they are guessers, rather than knowers of the truth. 
For what would hinder others too from saying, fabricating 
a hazardous piety, that it was the will of the Father to 
worship the Son, though not a worshipper by Nature ? 

„ But (says he) fitness itself will remove the Person of 
„ the Father, will subject the Son to this, His worship 
„ of the Father not unwilled." 

What sayest thou, o sir ? Dost thou again bring forth 
to us oracles as from shrines l , or Greek tripods, or comest i dUrwv 
thou like that Shemaiah the Nehelamite, belching forth out 
of thine own heart, and not out of the mouth of the Lord ? 
and dost thou not blush, opposing to us fitness, as though 
invincible in these matters ? For dost thou not think it 
befits Him Who is by. Nature God, to have the Word be- 
gotten of Him God, and that He Whom the whole creation 
worships, should be called and be by Nature the Father of 
a Son Who is worshipped, rather than a worshipper ? But 
I think I say nothing displeasing to the truly wise. But 
how shall we define that it also befits that the Father be 
worshipped by His Own offspring, when such a conception 
as to Both endures so great damage? For in the first 
place that which worships not will be neither in equality 
of dignity, nor in exact Image of nature with that which 
worships. For it worships as inferior, and that not mea- 

Jer. xxix. 


lb. xxiii. 


a ty to?s i)~a>Qiv Kol Kara vovv Kivf)[xacn, 
but I should think Kara fiovv was the true reading. 





Book 2. 

civ. 22. 

Infra xiv, 

Gen. i. 

xxx. 13. 

Prov. iii. 

216 Either the Son God, or the Father below His creation. 

surable by quantity, in respect of any natural quality 
(for He That is God or Lord will not be lesser), but as 
differing in the definition of mode of being. Then how 
, will He be shewn to be true in saying, He that hath seen 
Me hath seen the Father ? how doth He say that He ought 
to be honoured in no less degree than the Father, if He 
be not His Equal in glory by reason of His worshipping ? 
Then besides, the Father will Himself too appear to be 
in no slight unseemliness. For it is His glory to beget 
such as Himself is by Nature : on the other hand it is 
no slight disgrace, to have a son of another kind and 
alien, and to be in such case as even the very nature of 
things originate shrinks from. For they that have re- 
ceived power to bear, bear not worse than themselves, 
by the ordinance and will of the Artificer of all things. 
For, saith He, let the earth bring forth grass, the fruit tree 
yielding fruit after his kind and after his likeness. The 
Godhead then will be in worse case than things originate, 
since they are thus, It not so, but that which was ad- 
judged alike to befit and to have been well arranged for 
the successions of things which are, this It Alone will 
be found without. 

Who then, most excellent sirs, will endure you saying, 
that it befits the Son to worship His Father ? Bnt when 
it has been added to those words of yours, that neither is 
this unwilled by the Only-Begotten, and this gratuitous 
argument of yours ye fortify merely by fitness ; come, let 
us consider this too from the Divine Scriptures, whence I 
think one ought zealously to look for proof on every dis- 
puted point. The law therefore enjoined the half of a 
didrachm to be paid by every one of the Jews to Him Who 
is God over all, not as devising a way of getting wealth, 
nor contributions of money to no purpose, but imparting 
us instruction by clearest types : first, that no one is lord 
of his own head, but that we all have one Lord, enrolled 
unto servitude by the deposit of tribute ; next, depict- 
ing the mental and spiritual fruits, as in a grosser repre- 
sentation and act. For (says he) Honour the Lord with thy 

The Son told S. Peter that He was Free. 217 

righteous labours, and render Him the first fruits of thy fruits Chapes. 
of righteousness, which came to pass through the Gospel 
teaching, the worship after the law being at last closed. 
For no longer do we think we ought to worship with 
external offerings the Lord of all, pressing to pay the 
didrachm of corruptible matter : but being true worship- Infra ver. 
■pers, we worship God the Father in Spirit and in. truth. 
This meaning we must suppose to lie hid in the letter of 
the law. 

When then the Lord was in Jerusalem, the gatherers of 
the didrachm were asking of Peter, saying, Both not your s.Matth. 
Master pay the didrachm ? But when he was come into i™25. ' 
the house, as it is written, Jesus prevented him, saying, 
of whom do the kings of the earth take custom or tribute ? 
of their oivn, children or of strangers ? When he said,, Of lb. 26, 27. 
strangers, Jesus said, Then are the children free ; yet lest 
we should offend them, go thou to the sea, and cast an hoolc, 
and take up the fish that first cometh up ; and when thou 
hast opened his mouth, thou shalt find a stater : that take 
and give unto them for Me and thee. Seest thou that the 
Son endured not to be under tribute, and as one of those 
under' the yoke of bondage, to undergo a servile thing ? 
For knowing the free dignity of His Own Nature He 
affirms that He owes nothing servile to God the Father: 
for He says, The children are free. How then hath He 
the worship befitting a slave, and that of His own will? 
He who shrank at even the bare type of the thing, how 
could He accept the verity? For shall we not reckon 
worship as a tribute and spiritual fruit-bearing, and say 
that it is a kind of service 3 ? For why did the law join =Aa T pefa* 
service to worship, saying, Thou shalt worship the Lord lb. W. 
thy God and Him only shalt thou serve ? For worship is Deut. vi. 
so to say the gate and way to service in deed 3 , being s^j^ 
the beginning of servitude 4 to God. Wherefore the Psal- l n™ las 
mist says to some, come, let us worship and fall down, pj^[£ 
and weep before the Lord our Maker. Seest thou how the LXX. 
duty of falling down follows upon, and is joined to, wor- 
shipping ? than which what will be more befitting a ser- 


The Son worships as Man. 

i ~ ! 


.Book 2. vant, at least in the estimation of those who rightly weigh 
iv. 23, 24. the qualitieg of things, I cannot say. 

But if our opponents persist, bearing themselves haugh- 
tily in yet unbroken impudence, and cease not from their 
uninstructed reasonings on these subjects, let them going 
through the whole Holy Scripture, shew us the Son wor- 
shipping God the Father, while He was yet bare Word, be- 
fore the times of the Incarnation and the garb of servitude. 
For now as Man, He worships unblamed : but then, not 
yet so. But they will not be able to shew this from the 
Divine and sacred Scriptures, but heaping up conjectures 
and surmisings of corrupt imaginations, will with reason 
S. Matth. hej^ Ye do err, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the glory of 
XXiL 29 " the Only Begotten. For that He does not worship in that 
He is Word and God, but having become as we, He under- 
took to endure this too as befits man, by reason of the dis- 
pensation of the Flesh—; the proof shall not be sought by 
us from without, but we shall know it from His own Words. 
For what is it that He is saying to the woman of Samaria ? 
ye ivorship ye know not what, we know what we worship. Is 
it not hence too clear to every body that in using the plural 
number and numbering Himself with those who worship of 
necessity and as bond, that it is as made in human nature 
which is bond that He is saying this? For what (tell me) 
would hinder His drawing the worship apart into His own 
Person, if He wished to be conceived of by us as a worship- 
per ? for He should rather have said, I know what I worship, 
in order that, unclassed with the rest, He might appropriate 
the force of the utterance to Himself alone. But, now most 
excellently and with all security He says we, as already 
ranked among the bond by reason of His Manhood, as num- 
bered among the worshippers, as a Jew by country. 

But the hour is coming and now is when the true worshippers 
shall worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father 
seeketh such to worship Him. God is a Spirit and they that 
worship Him must worship in spirit and truth. The woman 
saith to Him, 
He is intimating the time now present of His Own Pre- 




God is Spirit. Messias' coming known. Woman zealous. 219 

sence and says that the type shall be transferred to truth Chap. 5. 
and the shadow of the Law to spiritual worship : He tells ' ' 
that through the Gospel teaching the true worshipper, that 
is, the spiritual man, shall be conducted to a polity well- 
pleasing unto the Father, hasting unto ownness 5 with God. '-> Ikh6- 
For God is conceived of as a Spirit, in reference to the em- T7)Ta 
bodied nature. Rightly therefore does He accept the 
spiritual worshipper, who does not in form and type carry 
in Jewish wise the form of godliness, but in Gospel manner 
resplendent in the achievements of virtue and in rightness 
of the Divine doctrines fulfilleth the really true worship. 

We know that Messias is coming, Which is called Christ : when 
He is come, He will tell us all things. 

Upon Christ teaching that the hour and season will come, 
rather is already present, wherein the true worshippers shall 
offer to God the Father the worship in spirit; forthwith 
the woman is winged to thoughts above her wont unto the 
hope spoken of by the Jews. She confesses that she knows 
that the Messiah will come in His own time, and to whom 
He will come, she does not exactly say, receiving (as is like) 
the common reports of Him without any investigation, as 
being a laughter -loving and carnal-minded woman ; yet is 
she not wholly ignorant that He will be manifested to Israel 
as a bringer in of better teaching, finding most certainly 
this information too in the reports about Him. 

26 Jesus saith unto her, I that speak unto thee am He. 

Not to untutored or wholly ignorant souls doth Christ 
reveal Himself, bat shines upon and appears the rather 
to those who are more ready to desire to learn, and 
travailing with the beginning of the faith in simple words, 
press forward to the knowledge of what is more perfect. 
Such an one as this was the woman of Samaria also 
shewn to us, giving her mind more grossly than she 
ought to the truly Divine ideas, but not entirely removed 
from the desire of understanding somewhat. For first, 
on Christ asking for drink, she does not readily give it : 
but beholding Him breaking (as far as one can speak 


Christ teaches how to teach; kindles 


Book 2. 

c. iv. 27. 

ver. 9. 

ver. 20. 

ver. 25. 

humanly) the national customs of the Jews, she begins to 
seek first the reason of this, all but, by her mentioning 
it, inviting- the Lord to an explanation : How is it (says 
she) that Thou being a Jew ashest drink of me which am 
a woman of Samaria ? But when during the progress of 
questioning, she at length begun to confess that He was 
a Prophet, having received His reproof a medicine unto 
salvation, she added another inquiry saying with zeal for 
learning : Our fathers worshipped in this mountain, and 
ye say that in Jerusalem is the place where men ought to 
worship. But He was teaching this again, that the time 
shall come, yea, is already present, when the true worship - 
pers, rejecting worship on the mountains of earth, shall 
offer the higher and spiritual worship to God the Father. 
She attributing the best of all as the due of the Christ alone, 
and keeping the more perfect knowledge for those times, 
says, We know that Messias cometh Which is called Christ ; 
when He is come, He will tell lis all things. Seest thou 
how ready to believe the woman was already getting, and 
as though ascending a staircase, springs up from little 
questions to a higher condition ? It was right then to lay 
open to her with now clearer voice what she longed for, 
telling her that that which was preserved in good hope 
is at length set before her in sight, I that speak unto thee 
am He. 

Let them therefore who have the care of teaching in the 
Churches commit to the new-born disciples, the word of 
teaching to be digested, and so at length let them shew 
them Jesus, bringing them up from slight instruction to the 
more perfect knowledge of the faith. But let them who, 
taking hold of the alien and so proselyte, and bringing 
him within the inner veil, suffer him to offer the Lamb 
with hands yet unwashen, and crown with the dignity of 
the Priesthood him who is not yet instructed, prepare for 
a mighty account in the day of judgment. It is sufficient 
for me only to say this. 

27 And upon this came His disciples 

The presence of the disciples is the conclusion of His 

Samaria. The reverence of the Disciples. 221 

conversation with the woman. For the Saviour is at length Chap. 5. 

iv 27 28 

silent, and having placed in the Samaritans the glowing " ' 
spark of the faith, commits it to their inward parts to 
be kindled to a mighty flame. Thus you may understand 
what was said by Him, I am come to send fire on the s ;. L " ke 
earth, and what will I, if it he already Jcindled ? 

and marvelled that He talked with the woman : 
The disciples again are astonished at the gentleness of 
the Saviour, and wonder at His meek way. For not after ® ^ 
the manner of some who are fierce with unslacked reli- <=i)\a.frd. 
gion G , did He think right to shun conversation with the uuilZ P v~ 
woman, but unfolds His Loving-kindness 7 to all, and here- 7 r *>" 
by shews, that He being wholly One Artificer, doth not epovlav 
to men alone impart the life through faith, but snareth 
the female race also thereto. 

Let him that teacheth in the Church gain this too as 
a pattern, and not refuse to help women. For one must 
in every thing follow not one's own will, but the service 
of preaching. 

yet no man said, What seekest Thou ? or, Why talkest Thou 
with her ? 

It was the work of wise 8 disciples, and knowing how s e v t . 
to preserve their Master's honour, not to seem by their °" r w" a "' 
superfluous questions to be going off into strange sur- 
mises, because He was talking with a woman, but rather 
in reverence and fear to restrain their tongue within their 
teeth, and to await their Lord speaking of His own ac- 
cord, and giving them a voluntary explanation. We must 
therefore herein marvel at Christ for His gentleness, at the 
disciples for their wisdom and understanding and know- 
ledge of what is becoming. 

28 The woman therefore left her waterpot and went her way into 

the. city, 

The woman now shews herself superior to and above the 
cares of the body, who two or three days ago was the wife 
of many, and she who ofttimes was easily taken captive by 
vain pleasures, now overreaches the flesh of its necessary 

Book 2. 
c. iv. 29. 

9 rbp 


S. Matth. 

1 OKv6<pl~ 


lb. xxv. 

ver. 16. 

222 The Samaritan woman's zeal and skill and example. 

want, disregarding alike thirst and drink, and is re-wrought 
unto another habit through faith. Forthwith doth she, ex- 
ercising love the fairest of all virtues, and neighbourly- 
affection 9 , diligently proclaiming to others also the good 
which appeared to her, hasten quickly into the city. For 
probably the Saviour was telling her, and secretly whis- 
pering in her mind, Freely ye received, freely give. Learn 
we hereby, not to imitate that sloth -loving l servant, and 
who therefore hid his talent in the earth, but rather let us be 
diligent to trade with it. Which thing too that much- 
talked-of woman well doing, communicates to the rest the 
good which fell to her, no longer taking the water which 
she came to draw, from its fountain-depths, nor carrying 
home her waterpot of the earth, but rather with Divine and 
heavenly grace and the all-wise teaching of the Saviour 
filling the garners of her understanding. 

We must hence learn, as in a type and outline, that by 
thoroughly despising little and corporal things, we shall 
receive of God things manifold more and better. For 
what is earthly water, compared with Heavenly wisdom ? 

29 and saith to the men Come see a Man which told me all 
things that ever I did; is not This the Christ? 

O wondrous change ! O truly great and God-befitting 
Might, translucent with unspeakable marvel ! Skilful 
workwoman unto doctrine, and initiater is she, who un- 
derstood none of the things that were said at first, and 
therefore rightly heard, Go, call thy husband and come 
hither. For see how skilfully she conversed with the Sa- 
maritans. She does not say at once that she has found 
the Christ, nor does she introduce Jesus at first into her 
account. For rightly would she have been rejected, as 
far surpassing the measure of words befitting her, find- 
ing her hearers not ignorant of her habits. She first then 
prepares the way for this wonder, and having first aston- 
ished them with the miracle, makes the way smoother, so 
to say, to the faith. Come and see, she wisely says ; all 
but crying aloud with more earnest voice, Sight alone 

The Samaritans shame the Jews. 223 

will suffice to belief, and will assure those present with its Chap. 5. 
more note-worthy marvels. For He Who knoweth the 
'hidden things, and hath this great and God-befitting dig- 
nity, how shall He not speed with prosperous course to the 
fulfilment of those things which He willeth ? 

30 They went out of the city, and came unto Him. 
The obedience of the Samaritans is a conviction of the 
hardness of heart of the Jews, and their inhumanity is 
clearly shewn in the gentleness of these. And let the seeker 
of learning see again the difference of habit in both, that 
he may justly wonder at Jesus, departing from the Syna- 
gogue of the Jews, and giving Himself rather to the aliens. 
For that Christ should come to the Jews, and for what 
causes He should be revealed, the law of Moses declared 
to us, the all-august choir of the Prophets did proclaim, 
and did point Him out at length all but present at the 
doors, saying, Behold your God, Behold the Lord ; and Isa.xl. 
last of all John, the great among them that are horn of too- s. Matth. 
men, did manifest Him already appeared, and dwelling X1, 
among us, saying, Behold the Lamb of God which tafceth Supra i. 
away the sin of the world ; and (yet more wonderfully than 
all) the Saviour was revealing Himself through many deeds 
of power and God-befitting authority. What then do these 
men unbridled unto strange counsels 2 at last meditate yet ? 2 ol irpbs 
They devise murder unjustly, they plot impiously, they &. x d\iZi. 
envy stubbornly, they drive forth of their land and city, r^kAs* 1 
the Life, the Light, the Salvation of all, the Way to the 
kingdom, the Eemission of sins, the Bestower of sonship. 
Wherefore rightly said the Saviour, Jerusalem, Jerusa- S. Matth. 
iem, thou that killest the Prophets and stonest them which 38. 
are sent unto thee, hoiv often would I have gathered thy child- 
ren together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her 
wings, and ye would not ! Behold your house is left unto 
you. But the Samaritans shew themselves superior to the 
folly of the Jews, and by obedience victorious over their 
innate unlearning, having given ear to one miracle only, 
they flock quickly to Jesus, not persuaded thereto by 
the voices of the holy Prophets, or by the proclamations 


The Saviour neglects food to hunt souls. 

Book 2. of Moses, nor yet the actual pointings 3 of John, but 
3 Sanrv- ' one only woman and she a sinner telling them of Him. 
xoScitfan iff {fa reason then, let us too admiring the sentence of the 
Ps. cxix. Saviour against them, say, Righteous art Thou, o Lord, 
' ' and upright Thy Judgment. 

31 In the mean time His disciples prayed Him, saying Mas- 

32 ter, eat. But He saith unto them 

Most excellently doth the Divine Evangelist manage the 
compilation of this book, and omits nothing which he 
believes will at all be of use to the readers. Hear there- 
fore how he introduces Jesus again as the Ensample of 
a most note -worthy act. For I do not think that any thing 
has been put in vain in the writings of the saints, but what 
any man deems small, he sometimes finds pregnant with 
no contemptible profit. The conversion of the Samaritans 
being then begun, and they on the point of looking for Him 
(for He knew as God that they would come) : wholly and 
entirely is He intent upon the salvation of them which are 
called, and makes no account of bodily food, although 
wearied with His journey, as it is written : that hereby again 
He might profit the teachers in the Churches, and persuade 
them to disregard all fatigue, and use more diligent zeal for 
those who are being saved, than for the care of their bodies. 
For Cursed, saith the Prophet, be he that doeth the ivorh 
of the Lord negligently. In order then that we may learn 
that the Lord was accustomed to go without food at 
such times, he introduces the disciples, begging and all 
but on their knees, that He would take a little of their 
provisions, as inevitable and necessary food. For they 
had gone away into the city to buy meat which they had 
now got and come with. 

ver. 6. 

xlviii. 10, 

ver. 8. 

* COS TpV- 


I have meat to eat that ye know not of. 
Skilfully does the Saviour fashion His answer from what 
was before Him. He all but says darkly, that if they 
knew that the conversion of the Samaritans was at the 
doors, they would have persuaded Him rather to cling to 
that as a delicacy 4 than to nourish the flesh. From this 


Deep moment of teaching. Word how sent. 225 

again we may learn how great love for man the Divine 
Nature hath : Tor It considereth the return of the lost unto 
salvation as both meat and treat 5 . 

33 Therefore said the disciples one to another, Hath any man 

34 brought Him ought to eat ? Jesus saith unto them, 
The disciples not yet understanding the discourse which 

was obscure, were reasoning about what had often hap- 
pened among themselves, and descend to common place 
ideas, fancying that food had been brought Him by some 
one, and that it was perhaps more costly or sweeter than 
what had been got together by them. 

My meat is to do the Will of Him That sent Me and to com- 
plete His Work. 

Having wholly torn away the veil from His speech, He 
shewed them in full translucence the truth, and forthwith 
introduces Himself as a type unto future teachers of the 
world, of steadfast and most exceeding excellent zeal, 
to wit in respect of the duty of teaching, and on this ac- 
count fitly keeping thought for the needful care of the 
body secondary. For in saying that it was to Himself 
most pleasant meat, to do the Will of Sim that sent Him 
and to finish His Work, He limns the office of the Apostolic 
ministry and clearly shews, what manner of men they 
ought to be in habit 6 . For it was necessary (as it seems) 
that they should be strung to taking thought for teach- 
ing only, and it behoved them to be so far removed from 
the pleasure of the body 7 , as at times not even to desire 
the service necessary for the mere accomplishing its pre- 
servation from death. 

And let this be said for the present, as tending to the 
type and pattern of Apostolic polity. But if we must 
in addition to what has been said, apply ourselves to speak 
more doctrinally, He says that He was sent, clearly by God 
the Father, either in respect of the Incarnation, wherein He 
beamed on the world with Flesh, by the good Pleasure and 
Approbation of the Father ; or as the Word proceeding b 

b irpoKvirTwv. This word is used by irpoe\96vra, p. 147. The word that ex- 
S. Cyril (above p. 123 and elsewhere) presses the Procession of the Holy Ghost 
of the Son's Eternal Generation: cf. is eKTropeueTcu, 

VOL. I. Q 

Chap. 5. 
iv. 33, 34. 

5 rpo<p7]V 
Kal TpV - 

° T7]V 

7 rrjs els 



Book 2. 
c. iv. 34. 

i. 1. 

Ps. lxxiii 
24 LXX. 

Ps. XXX. 

7 LXX. 

8 evetyav 


lxviii. 28 

226 Son, Word Counsel Will Power of Fathee. 

in some way from the begetting Mind, and sent and ful- 
filling His decree, not as though taken as* a minister of 
others' wills, but Himself being alike both the Living Word 
and the most evident Will of the Father, readily saving 
those that were lost. Therefore in saying that it is the 
work of Him That hath sent Him, Himself is shewn as its 
Fulfiller : for all things are by the Father through the 
Son in the Spiritr" For that the Son is the Word and 
Counsel and Will and Power of the Father is, I suppose, 
evident to all : but it is no trouble to prove it from the 
Divine Scripture also. Therefore let any one see that Ho 
is the Word in this, In the beginning was the Word and 
the Word was with God and the Word was God : let him 
see Counsel, in that the Psalmist says, as to God the Fa- 
ther, In Thy Counsel Thou guidedst me and with glory didst 
Thou receive me : let him see Will again in his saying, 
Lord in Thy Will give strength to my beauty. For He 
strengtheneth the beauty of His saints, that is, their 
vigour 8 unto every virtue, He, the Living and Hypostatic 
Will of the Father, that is the Son. That He is Power 
also, thou shalt again understand hence, Command, God 
' (he says) Thy strength ; strengthen, God, that which Thou 
wroughtest for us. Thou seest clearly herein, that by the 
good Pleasure of God the Father, His Power, that is, the 
Son, was Incarnate, that He might strengthen this body, 
which He perfected" for us. For if He had not taber- 
nacled among us, neither would the nature of the flesh at 
all have put off the infirmity of corruption. The Son then 
being Himself the good Will of the Father, perfects d Sis 
Worlc, being shewn forth salvation to them that believe 

on Him. . 

But some one will say to this : „ If the Son is Himself 
„ the Will of the Father, what will was He sent to fulfH ? 
"for the fulfilled must needs be other than the fulfiller." 
What therefore do we say to this ? The giving of names in- 

c Karvpricraro ; in Ps. lxviii. 28 to5to eW « bring to full com^eti°n His 

t, Karywri™ $ M ?v, "this which Thou work," in the text of the Gospel now be- 

perfectedst, completedst, for us/' ^ ing commented upon. 

d TeA.€io?, from reAeiatrco avrov rb 


Human language powerless to express things o/God. 227 

deed demands difference in the things signified, but often Chap. 5. 
. . , c. iv. 35. 

there is no difference in respect of God, and word regard- 
ing the supreme Nature rejects accuracy herein. For Its 
Properties are spoken of, not altogether as they are in 
truth, but as tongue can express, and ear of man hear. 
For he that seeth darkly, darkly also he speaketh. For 
what wilt thou do when He Who is by Nature Simple 
introduceth Himself to us as compound, in that He saith 
of them of Israel, And their children they made pass 
through the fire, which I commanded not, neither came it %?*• vu - 
into My heart ? for must not the heart needs be other 
than he in whom it is ? and how then shall God be yeb 
conceived of as Simple ? The things therefore about God, 
are spoken of after the manner of men : they are so con- 
ceived of, as befits God, and the measure of our tongue 
will not wrong the Nature That is above all. And therefore 
even though the Son be found speaking of the Will of the 
Father, as of something other than He, you will make 
no difference, attributing fitly to the weakness of our words 
their not being able to say any thing greater, nor to sig- 
nify their meaning in any other way. 

And let these things bo said in proof of the Son being 
conceived of as also the Will of the Father ; but in the 
passage before us, no reason will compel us to conceive 
that the Will of the Father means the Son, but rather we 
may well receive it as His good Will to the lost. 

35 Say not ye, There are yet four months and the harvest 

cometh ? 

He again taketh occasions of His Discourse from the 
time and event, and from the grosser things of sense 
He fashioneth His declaration of spiritual ideas. For it 
was yet winter at that time, and the tender sprouting and 
fresh stalk of the seed was scarce bristling forth from the 
soil : but after the expiration of four months, it was awaiting 
its fall 9 into the hand of the reaper. Do not therefore 9 -*Wi. 
ye men say (saith He) that there are yet four months, and Trgoarfo- 
ihe harvest cometh ? 

Q 2 


228 Wheat, Prophets' sowing, Apostles' reaping. 

i ; 

k * 

1 TttlV (U 



v. 28 fin. 
p. 517. 

Book 2. Behold I say unto you, Lift up your eyes and look on the 

lv * * fields, for they are white already to harvest. 

That is, raising up the eye of your understanding a 
little from the affairs of the earth, consider ye the spiri- 
tual sowing, that it hath progressed already and whitened 
unto the floor, and at length calls for the reaper's sickle 
unto itself. But from the similarity to things in actual 
life 1 , you will see what is meant. For you will con- 
ceive that the spiritual sowing and multitude of spiritual 
ears, are they who, tilled beforehand by the voice of the 
Prophets, are brought to the faith that should be shewn 
through Christ. But it is white, as being already ripe and 
ready to the faith, and confirmed unto piety. But the sickle 
of the reaper is the glittering and most sharp word of the 
Apostle, cutting away the hearers from the worship accord- 
ing to the law, transferring them to the floor, that is, to 
the Church of God : there they bruised and pressed by 
good toils shall be set forth pure wheat worthy of the 
garner of Him Who ga there th it. 

36 And he that reapeth receiveth wages, and gathereth fruit 
unto life eternal, that both he that soweth and he that reap- 

37 eth may rejoice together. For herein is the saying true, 

One soweth and another reapeth. 

It is the time (saith He) of the Word calling to the 
Faith, and shewing to the hearers the arrival at its con- 
summation of the legal and Prophetic preachings. For the 
law by typical services, as in shadows did foreshew Him 
That should come, that is, Christ : the Prophets after it, 
Heb. x. 37 interpreting the words of the Spirit, Yet a little while, were 
xxvi. 20. fore-signifying that He was even now at hand and coming. 
But since He hath stepped within the doors, the word 
of the Apostles will not remove to far distant hope that 
which was expected, but will reveal it already present : and 
will reap from legal worship those who are yet in bond- 
age to the law and who rest in the letter only, and will 
2?£ ( „ transfer them as sheaves into the Evangelic habit 2 and 
polity; and will likewise cut off from polytheistic straying 

The Saviour loves both, gives one honour to both. 229 

the worshipper of idols, and will transfer him to the know- Chap. 5. 

c iv 38 
ledge of Him That is in truth God, and, to speak all in 

brief and succinctly; will transform them who mind things Col. Hi. 2. 
on the earth unto the life of the Angels through faith to 

This (saith He) the word of the reapers will effect, yet 
shall it not be without an hire : for it shall surely gather 
for them fruit which nourisheth unto life eternal : nor shall 
they who receive rejoice in themselves alone but as hav- 
ing entered into the labours of the Prophets, and having 
reaped the seed fore-tilled by them, shall fill up one com- 
pany with them e . But I suppose that the most wise Paul, 
having throughly learnt the types of things to come, hence 
says of the holy fathers and Prophets that, These all, per- Heb. xi. 
footed through faith, received not the 'promise, God having 
provided some better thing for us, that they without us should 
not be made perfect. For the Saviour thought good, that 
tho reaper should rejoice together with him who before had 

39, 40. 

38 I sent you to reap that whereon ye have not laboured: other 
men have laboured, and ye arc entered into their labours. 

He at length unveils to them the whole mystery, and 
having removed the dark cloak of words, renders most 
clear the understanding of His meaning. For the Saviour 
being a Lover of the Prophets, and a Lover of the Apos- 
tles, makes neither the labour of those to be apart from 
the hand of the Apostles, nor does He allot entirely to 
the holy Apostles the glorying in respect of those who 
should be saved through faith in Him : but having min- 
gled as it were the toil of each with their mutual co-work, 
He says (and with great reason) that one shall be the 
honour 3 to both. He affirms that the Apostles had on- 3 p^on- 


tered into the labours of the holy Prophets, not suffering 

them to spring upon 4 the good fame of those who pre- 4 ^d\M. 

ceded them, but persuading them rather to honour them, 

e fiiav <rvv avrois eirn-eAe'<roi/<rj ry]v TrpwroTOKOiv, in Heb. xii. 23- 
iravriyvpiv, cf. iravr}y{'pei Kai iKK\r](riq 


Jews through their conduct lose Christ, 

Book 2. as having gone before them in labour and time. That this 
will be to us too a most beautiful lesson, who will re- 
fuse to admit? 

39 And from that city many of the Samaritans believed on Him 
for the saying of the woman which testified, He told me all 

that ever I did. 

Israel is again hereby too condemned, and by the obe- 
dience f of the Samaritans, is convicted of being alike 
reckless of knowing and harsh. For the Evangelist mar- 
vels much at the many who believed on Christ, saying, For 
the saying of the woman ; although they who were in- 
structed through the law to the knowledge hereof, neither 
received the words of Moses, nor acknowledged that they 
ought to believe the heraldings of the Prophets. He in 
these words prepares the way before, or rather wisely 
makes a defence before, for that Israel should with reason 
be thrust away from the grace and hope that is to Christ- 
ward and that instead should come in the more obedient 
fulness of the Gentiles, or aliens. 

40 So when the Samaritans were come unto Him, they besought 
Him that He would tarry with them : and He abode tliere 

41 two days. And many more believed because of His Own 


He explains in simplicity of words what took place : but 
prepares again another proof, that Israel ought justly to 
be cast off from their hope, and the aliens to be trans - 
5 M€TO _ planted 5 into it. For the Jews with their bitter and in- 
jioo-xeve- tolerable surmises, spitefully entreat Jesus manifoldly work- 
ing miracles and radiant in God-befitting g]ory, and blush 
not to rage to so great an extent as to make Him an exile, 
and zealously to drive out of their city Him Who is the 
giver to them of all joy : while the Samaritans persuaded 
by the words of one woman, consider that they ought to 
come to Him with all speed. And when they were come, 

f einre lOelas- This word seems to in- a(pi\ofj.a6i)s, " reckless of knowing," the 
elude also, readiness to believe, as the germ and parent of wilful blindness, is 
germ and parent of obedience : to which contrasted. 

Samaritans gain Him : the seed left to fructify. 231 

they began zealously to entreat Him to come into their 
city, and to pour forth to them 6 of the word of salvation ; 
and readily does Christ assent to both, knowing that the 
grace will not be unfruitful. For many believed because of 
His own Word. 

Let him that is God-loving and pious 7 hence know, 
that from them that grieve Him Christ departeth, but He 
dwelleth in them that gladden 8 Him through obedience 
and good faith. 

42 And said unto the woman,. No longer do we believe, because of 
thy saying : for ourselves have heard Him and know that 
This is indeed the Saviour of the ivorld. 

From the greater things does the faith of the Samaritans 
spring, and not any longer from what they learn from 
others, but from those whereof they are the wondering 
ear-witnesses. For they say that they knoiv that He is 
indeed the Saviour of the world, making the confession of 
their hope in Him the pledge of their faith. 

Chap. 5. 
iv. 42-44. 


7 6 <pi\6- 
6e6sre Ka\ 

8 evippai- 

43 Now after the two days He departed thence unto Galilee. 

44 For Jesus Himself testified that a prophet hath no honour in 

his oivn country. 

He departs from Samaria, having now sown the Word of 
salvation, and like a husbandman hidden the faith in them 
that dwell there, not that it might be bound captive in the 
silence of them that received it, quiet and deep buried, but 
rather that it might grow in the souls of all, creeping on 
and advancing ever to the greater, and running to more 
evident might. But since He passes by Nazareth lying in 
the midst, wherein it is said that He was also brought up, 
so that He seemed to be from thence and its citizen, and 
goes down rather to Galilee ; of necessity he offers an ex- 
planation of His passing it by, and says that Jesus Himself 
had testified that a prophet hath no honour in his own coun- 
try. For it is our nature to think nothing of what we are 
accustomed to, even though it be great and of price. And 
the Saviour thought not good to seek honour from them, 


Grace to the good, -woe to dcspisers . 

I i 

Book 2. like a vain-glorious man and a braggart, but knew well 
that to those who have no thought that one ought to 
honour one's teacher, neither would the word of the faith 
be any longer sweet and acceptable. With reason then 
does He pass by, not thinking it right to expend useless 
labours upon them who are nothing profited, and thus to 
lay down grace before them that despise it. For it was 
not reasonable that they who sinned so deeply should do 
so unpunished; since it is altogether confessed and un- 
doubted, that they will undergo the severest punishments, 
who knowingly despise Him and spurn a gift so worthy of 

45 When therefore He was come into Galilee, the Galileans re- 
ceived Him, having seen all the things that He did at Jeru- 
salem at the feast ; for they also went unto the feast. 

Not without consideration do the Galileans receive Jesus, 

but in just astonishment at the wondrous works which they 

themselves had already seen Him do, both by their piety 

towards Him condemning the folly of the Jews, and found 

9 etyvu- far superior in good feeling 9 to those who were instructed 


in the law. 

46 He came therefore again into Cana of Galilee where He made 

the water wine. 

Christ lovcth to dwell among those that are well dis- 
byvdi- posed 1 , and to those who more readily advance unto the 
perception and knowledge of benefits done them, He pour- 
eth forth 3 supplies of greater goods. He cometh then to 
work miracles in Cana, thinking it fit to confer an ad- 
ditional benefit on those therein, in that He had through 
His signs already wrought there, the idea previously im- 
planted in their minds, that He could do all things. 

And there was a certain nobleman, whose son was sick at 

47 Capernaum. When he heard that Jesus teas come out of 
Judcea into Galilee, he besought Him that He would come 
doivn and heal his son : for he was at the point of death. 

48 Jesus therefore said unto him, 

The nobleman cometh as to One able to heal, but he un- 


I I 

He That repels death is God. 


dcrstandcth not yet that He is by Nature God : lie calleth Chap. 5. 
Him Lord, but giveth not at all the true dignity of Lord- j j. 
ship. For he would have straightway fallen down and be- ver. 49. 
sought Him, not that he should by all means come to his 
house, and go down with him to the sick lad ; but should 
rather with authority and God-befitting command drive 
away the sickness that fell on him. For what need for 
Him to be present to the sick, whom He could easily heal, 
even absent ? how was it not utterly without understanding 
to suppose that He is superior to death, and in no wise to 
hold Him God Who is filled with God-befitting Power ? 

49 Except ye see signs mid wonders, ye ivill not believe, 
nobleman saith unto Him, 


A mind yet hard dwclleth in them who arc deceived, but 
mightier will be the more wonder-working power of Ifim 
That calleth them unto faith. Wherefore the Saviour says 
that they need wonders, that they may easily be re-in- 
structed 3 unto what is profitable, and acknowledge Him 3 n*-ra- 
Who is by Nature God. a eai 

Lord, come down ere my child die. 

Feeble indeed unto understanding is the nobleman, for 
ho is a child in his petition for grace, and almost dotes 4 4 yp^^a 
without perceiving it. For by believing that Christ had \^ v 
power not only when present, but that He would surely 
avail even absent, he would have had a most worthy con- 
ception of Him. But now both thinking and acting most 
foolishly, he asks power befitting God, and does not think 
He accomplishes all things as God, nor yet that He will 
be superior to death, although beseeching Him to gain the 
advantage over him that had all but overcome s ; for the 
child was at the point of death. 

ver. 47. 

50 Jesus saith unto him, Go thy ivay^; thy son liveth. 
Thus believing he ought to have come, but Christ doth 

b The Greek text of these words with a very slight correction the chief 
ought to have been edited (following Ms.) to> TrAeio-ry Kpar^uavTa jurpei. 


Christ healeth the nobleman and his son. 

° rais 
rnxS>i/ d- 

Book 2. not reject our lack of apprehension 5 ; but benefiteth even 
the stumbling, as God. That then which the man should 
have been admired for doing, this does he teach him even 
when he doth it not, revealed alike as the Teacher of things 
most lovely, and the Giver of good things in prayer. For 
in Go thy way is Faith : in thy son liveth is the fulfilment of 
his longings, granted with plenteous and God-befitting 

The man believed the word that Jesus said to him, and went 
51 his way. And as he was now going- down, his servants met 
him and told him, saying, Thy son liveth. 

The one command of the Saviour healeth two souls. For 
in the nobleman it worketh unwonted faith, the child it 
rescueth from bodily death. Which is healed first it is hard 
to say. Both, I suppose, simultaneously, the disease taking 
its departure at the command of the Saviour. And his ser- 
vants meeting him tell him of the healing of the child, 
shewing at the same time the swiftness of the Divine com- 
mands (Christ ordering this very wisely), and by the fulfil- 
ment of his hope, speedily confirming their master weak in 

ft 1 . 

52 He therefore enquired of them the hour when he began to 
amend ; and they said unto him, Yesterday at the seventh hour 

53 the fever left him. So the father knew that it was at the same 
hour in the which Jesus said unto him, Thy son liveth: and 

54 himself believed and his whole house. This is again the se- 
cond miracle that Jesus did, when He was come out of Judcea 

into Galilee. 

He enquires of them the hour of the turn for the better of 
the sick child, to prove whether it coincides with the time 
of the grace. When he had learnt that thus it was, and no 
otherwise, he is saved with his whole house, attributing the 
power of the miracle to^the Saviour Christ, and bringing to 
Him a firmer faith as a fruit of thank-offering for these 

Aliens teachable, Jews perverse. 


Chap. v. After this was the feast of the Jeivs, and Jesus went Chap. 5. 

2 up to Jerusalem. Now there is at Jerusalem the pool which c ' v - 1_4 ' 
is called in the Hebrew tongue Bethesda, having five porches. 

3 In these lay a great multitude of impotent folk, of blind, halt, 

4 withered, waiting for the moving of the water. For an angel 
of the Lord used to go down at a certain season into the pool, 
and trouble the under: whosoever therefore first after the 
troubling of the water stepped in was made whole of whatso- 
ever disease he had. 

Not for nothing does the blessed Evangelist straightway 
connect with what has been said the Saviour's return thence 
to Jerusalem : but his aim probably was to shew how supe- 
rior in obedience were the aliens to the Jews, how great a 
difference of habit and manners 6 is seen between them. 6 ^ €< ? s 
For thus and in no other way could we learn, that by the rpA*«r 
just judgment of God Who ruleth all and knoweth not to 
accept the person of man, Israel with reason falleth from 
the hope, and the fulness of the Gentiles is brought in in 
his place. It is not hard by looking at the contrast of the 
chapters h to test what has been said. He shewed therefore 
that He had by one miracle saved the city of the Samari- 
tans, by one likewise the nobleman, and by it had profited 
full surely (I ween) and exceeding much those who - were 
therein. Having by these things testified the extreme 
readiness of the aliens to obedience, he brings the Miracle- 
worker back to Jerusalem, and shews Him accomplishing 
a God-befitting act. For He wondrously frees the paralytic 
from a most inveterate disease even as He had the noble- 
man's son just dying. But the one believed with his whole 
house, and confessed that Jesus is God, while the others 
who ought to have been astonished, straightway desire 
to kill, and persecute, as though blasphemously trans- 
gressing, their Benefactor, themselves against themselves 
pronouncing more shameful condemnation in that they 
are found to fall short of the understanding of the 

h rrj twv Ke<pu\aia>v avriirapadecrei of the Gospel now in use among us) and 

i. c, , the histories of the Samaritans and the history of the Jews contained in this 

ot the nobleman (contained in what is present chapter. 
the 1th chapter according to the division 

236 He leaveth them, but rcturneth ; and will return 

Book 2. 
c. v. 5, 6, 

Ps. xxi. 
12 LXX 

Rom. xi. 

25, 26. 

aliens, and their piety towards Christ. And this it was 
which was spoken of them in the Psalms, as to our Lord 
Jesus, Thou shalt wialce them the back. For they having 
been set in the first rank because of the election of the 
fathers, will come last and after the calling of the Gen- 
tiles. For when the fulness of the Oentiles is come in, then 
shall all Israel be saved. 

This line of thought the well-arranged order of the com- 
pilation of chapters brings forth to us. But we will make 
accurate inquiry part by part of the meaning of single 

5 And a certain man was there which had an infirmity thirty 

C and eight years. When Jesus saw him lie, and knew that 

he had been now a long time, 

The Jews having celebrated their feast of unleavened 
bread, in which it is their custom to kill the sheep, to 
wit, at the time of the Passover, Christ departeth from 
Jerusalem, and mingleth with the Samaritans and aliens, 
and teacheth among them, being grieved at the stubborn- 
ness of the Jews. And having barely returned at the 
holy Pentecost (for this was the next solemnity 7 in Je- 
rusalem and at no great interval), He heals at the wa- 
ters of the pool the paralytic, who had passed long time 
in sickness (for it was even his thirty-eighth year) : but 
who had not yet attained unto the perfect number of the 
Law, I speak of four times ten or forty. 

Here then will end the course of the history; but wo 
must transform again the typical letter unto its spiritual 
intei'pretation. That Jesus grieved departs from Jerusa- 
lem after the killing of the sheep, goes to the Samaritans 
and Galileans, and preaches among them the word of 
salvation, what else will this mean, save His actual with- 
drawal from the Jews, after His sacrifice and Death at Je- 
rusalem upon the Precious Cross, when He at length be- 
gan to freely give Himself to them of the Gentiles and 
aliens, bidding it to be shewn to His Disciples after His 
S. Mattb. Resurrection, that He goeth before them all into Galilee ? 
But His return again at the fulfilment of the weeks of 

Supra ii. 

lb. iv. 3. 

yvpis, cf. 
p. 229. 

to Jews at end of world. Why The Good questions. 237 

holy Pentecost to Jerusalem, signifies as it were in types 
and darkly, that there will be of His Loving Kindness a 
return of our Saviour to the Jews in the last ages of the 
present world, wherein they who have been saved through 
faith in Him, shall celebrate the all-holy feasts of the 
saving Passion. But that the paralytic is healed before 
the full time of the law, signifies again by a corresponding 
type, that Israel having blasphemously raged against Christ, 
will be infirm and paralytic and will spend a long time in 
doing nothing ; yet will not depart to complete punish- 
ment, but will have some visitation 8 from the Saviour, and 
will himself too be healed at the pool by obedience and 
faith. But that the number forty is perfect according to 
the Divine Law, will be by no means hard to learn by 
them who have once read the Divine Scriptures. 

7 Jesus saith unto him, Wilt thou be made whole ? The im- 

potent man answered Him, 

An evident proof of the extreme goodness- of Christ, 
that He doth not wait for entreaties from the sick, but 
forecometh their request by His Loving Kindness. For 
He runneth, as you see, to him as he lieth, and compas- 
sionateth him that was sick without comfort. But the 
enquiry whether he would like to be relieved from his in- 
firmity was not that of one asking out of ignorance a thing 
manifest and evident to all, but of one stirring up to 
more earnest desire, and inciting to most diligent en- 
treaty. The question whether he willed to obtain what 
he longed for is big with a kind of force and expression, 
that He has the power to give, and is even now ready 
thereto, and only waits for the request of him who receiv- 
eth the grace. 

Sir, I have no man, when the water is troubled, to put me 
into the pool : but while I am coming, another steppeth down 

8 before me. Jesus saith unto him, Rise. 

About the day of the holy Pentecost, Angels coming 
down from heaven used to trouble the water of the pool, 
then they would make the plash 9 therefrom the herald 
of their presence. And the water would be sanctified by 

Chap. 5. 

c. v. G-8. 

8 iiriffKO- 


Ilk ' 



.' u 


cf. Gal. 
iii. 19. 

238 Why one cured by pool. Christ cures with authority. 

Book 2. the holy spirits, and whoever was beforehand of the mul- 
c v. 8, 9. . . 

titude of sick people in getting down, he would come up 

again disburdened of the suffering that troubled him,, yet 
to one alone, him who first seized it, was the might of 
healing meted out. But this too was a sign of the be- 
nefit of the law by the hands of Angels, which exten- 
ded to the one race of the Jews alone, and healed none 
other save they. For from Dan so called even unto Beer- 
sheba, the commandments given by Moses were spoken, 
ministered by Angels in Mount Sinai in the days after- 
wards marked out as the holy Pentecost. For this reason, 
the water too of the pool used not to be troubled at any 
other time, signifying therethrough the descent of the 
holy Angels thereon. The paralytic then not having any 
one to thrust him into the water, with the disease that 
holds him, was bewailing the want of healers, saying, I 
have -no man, to wit to let him down into the water. For 
he fully expected that Jesus would tell and advise him 

9 Take up thy bed and walk. And immediately the man ivas 
made whole, and took up his bed and walked: and on the 
same day was the sabbath. 

God-befitting the injunction, and possessing clearest evi- 
dence of power and authority above man. For He prays 
not for the loosing of his sickness for the patient, lest 
He too should seem to be as one of the holy Prophets, 
but as the Lord of Powers He commandeth with authority 
that it be so, telling him to go home rejoicing, to take 
his bed on his shoulders, to be a memento to the beholders 
of the might of Him That had healed him. Forthwith 
the sick man does as is bidden him, and by obedience 
and faith he gaineth to himself the thrice longed for 
grace. But since in the foregoing we introduced hira 
as the image and type of the multitude of the Jews, 
who should be healed in the last times : come let us 
ilvivLi)- think of 1 something again harmonizing with the thoughts 
hereto pertaining, analagous to those before examined. 

Why bed carried on Sabbath: to blame Benefactor, bitter. 239 

On the Sabbath day doth Christ heal the man, when Chap. 5. 

... c. v. 10. 

healed He immediately enjoins him to break through the 

custom of the law, inducing him to walk on the Sabbath Jer. xvii. 

. 22. 
and this laden with his bed, although God clearly cries 

aloud by one of the holy Prophets, Neither carry forth a 
burthen out of your house on the Sabbath day. And no one 
I suppose who is sober-minded would say that the man 
was rendered a despiser or unruly to the Divine commands, 
but that as in a type Christ was making known to the 
Jews, that they should be healed by obedience and faith 
in the last times of the world (for this I think the Sab- 
bath signifies, being the last day of the week) : but that 
having once received the healing through faith, and hav- 
ing been re-modelled unto newness of life, it was neces- 
sary that the oldness of the letter of the law should be- 
come of no effect, and that the typical 2 worship as it 2 aim X- 
Avere in shadows and the vain observance of Jewish cus- 
tom should be rejected. Hence (I think) the blessed Paul 
too taking occasion of speech writes to them who after the 
faith were returning again to the Law, I say unto you, Gal. v. 2. 
that if ye be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing ; 
and again, Ye are severed from Christ, whosoever of you lb- 4. 
are justified by the law, ye are fallen from grace. 

10 The Jews therefore said unto him that was cured, It is the 
sabbath day, it is not lawful for thee to carry thy bed. 

Most seasonably (I think) doth He cry over them, Hear Jer.v. 21. 
now this foolish people and heartless, which have eyes 
and see not. For what can be more uninstructed 3 than Satcaifev- 
such people, or what greater in senselessness ? For they T Tepov 
do not even admit into their mind that they ought to 
wonder at the Power of the Healer : but being bitter 
reprovers, and skilled in this alone, they lay the charge 
of breaking the law about him who had just and with 
difficulty recovered from a long disease, and foolishly bid 
him lie down again, as though the honour due to the 
Sabbath were paid by having to be ill. 

240 Mighty the Healer. Christ an example of flight. 

Book 2. 
v. 11-14. 

if: •»;, 

* yopyo- 
Tfpav ■ • • 

T1/l> O.TTO- 


.... T ^ v 


1 1 He answered them, He That made me whole, He said unto 

12 me, Take up thy bed and walk. They asked him therefore 

The sentence is replete with wisest meaning and repul- 
sive of the stubbornness of the Jews. For in that they 
say that it is not lawful on the sabbath day to take up 
his bed and go home, devising an accusation of breaking 
the law against him that was healed, needs does he bring 
against them a more resolved defence 4 , saying that he 
had been ordered to walk by Him, Who was manifested to 
him as the Giver of health, all but saying something of this 
sort, Most worthy of honour (sirs) do I say that Ho is, 
even though He bid me violate the honour of the sab- 
bath, Who hath so great power and grace, as to drive 
away my disease. For if excellence in these things belong- 
eth not to every chance man, but will befit rather God- 
befitting Power and Might, how (saith he) shall the 
worker of these things do wrong ? or how shall not He 
Who is possessed of God-befitting Power surely counsel 
what is well- pleasing to God ? The speech then has with- 
in itself some pungent meaning 5 . 

What Man is He Which mid unto thee, Take up thy bed and 
walk ? But he that was healed wist not Who it was : for 
Jesus had conveyed Himself away, a multitude being in the 
place. Afterward Jesus findeth him in the temple and said 
unto him, 

Insatiable unto bloodshed is the mind of the Jews. For 
they search out who it was who had commanded this, with 
design to involve Him together with the miraculously 
healed (for he alone, it seems, was like to be vexing them 
in respect of the Sabbath, who had but now escaped im- 
passable toils and snares, and had been drawn away from 
the very gates of death) but he could not tell his Physi- 
cian, although they make diligent enquiries, Christ having 
well and economically concealed Himself, that He might 
escape the present heat of their anger. And not as though 
He could suffer anything of necessity, unless He willed to 
suffer, doth He practise flight : but making Himself an En- 
sample to us in this also. 



Christ observes Jit time. The healed good. 


Behold, thou art made whole : sin no more, lest a worse thing Chap. 5 

come to thee. 

Being hid at first economically, He appears again econo- 
mically, observing the time fit for each. For it was not 
possible that ought should be done by Him Who knew no 
sin, which should not really have its fit reason. The reason 
then of His speaking to him He made a message for his 
souPs health, saying that it behoved him to transgress no 
more, lest he be tormented by -worse evils than those past. 
Herein He teaches that not only does God treasure up 
man's transgressions unto the judgment to come, but mani- 
foldly scourgeth those yet living in their bodies, even before 
the great and notable day of Kim That shall judge all. But 
that we are oftentimes smitten when we stumble and grieve 
God, the most wise Paul will testify, crying, For this cause 
many are weak and sicldy among you, and many sleep : for 
if we would judge ourselves, we should not be judged : but 
when we are judged, we are chastened of the Lord, thai we 
be not condemned tvith the world. 

15 The man departed, and told the Jews that it was Jesus Which 

had made him whole. 

He makes Jesus known to the Jews, not that they by 
daring to do anything against Him should be found to be 
blasphemers, but in order that, if they too should be willing 
to be healed by Him, they might know the wondrous Phy- 
sician. For observe how this was his aim. For he does 
not come like one of the faultfinders, and say that it was 
Jestis Who had bidden him walk on the Sabbath day, but 
lYliich had made him whole. But this was the part of one 
doing nought save only making known his Physician. 

16 And therefore did the Jews persecute Jesus and sought to 
slay Him, because He was doing these things on the sabbath 

1 7 day. But Jesus answered them, 

The narrative does not herein contain the simple relation 
of the madness of the Jews : for the Evangelist does not 
shew only that they persecute Him, but why they blush 

VOL. I. R 

v. 14-10. 

cf. Rom. 
ii. 5. 

Acts ii. 

1 Cor. xi, 

242 False sabbath-keeping . Non-observance of 

Book 2. 
c. v. 16. 



S. Luke 
xiii. 15. 

Infra vii. 

S. Matth 
xxii. 29. 

Josh. vi. 

7 ai>v- 

not to do this, saying most emphatically, Because He was 
doing these things on the sabbath day. For they persecute 
Him foolishly and blasphemously, as though the law forbad 
to do good on the sabbath day, as though it were not law- 
ful to pity and compassionate the sick, as though it behoved 
to put off the law of love, the praise of brotherly kindness, 
the grace of gentleness : and what of good things may one 
not shew that the Jews did in manifold ways spurn, not 
knowing the aim of the Lawgiver respecting the Sabbath, 
and making the observance of it most empty e ? For as 
Christ Himself somewhere said, each one of them taketh his 
ox, or his sheep, and leadeth them away to watering, and 
that a man on the sabbath day receiveth circumcision, that 
the law of Moses be not broken : and then they are angry, 
because He made a man every whit whole on the sabbath day, 
by reason of the exceeding stubbornness alike and undis- 
ciplinedness of their habits, not even to brutes preferring 
him that is made in the Divine Image, but thinking that 
one ought to pity a sheep on the sabbath day, and un- 
blamed to free it 'from famine and thirst, yet that they 
are open to the charge of transgressing the law to the 
last degree, who are gentle and good to their neighbour 
on the sabbath? 

But that we may see that they were beyond measure 
senseless, and therefore with justice deserve to hear, Ye do 
err, not knowing the Scriptures ; come let us taking some- 
what from the Divine Scriptures too shew clearly, that 
Jesus was long ago foredepicted as in a type taking no 
account of the sabbath. The all-wise Moses then, having at 
a great age (as it is written) departed from things of men 
and been removed to the mansions above, by the judg- 
ment and decree of God That ruleth all, Joshua the son 
of Nun obtained and inherited the command over Israel. 
When he therefore, having set in array heavy armed sol- 
diers ten thousand strong round about Jericho, was de- 
vising to take at length and overthrow it, he arranged 
with 7 the Levites to take the ark round about for six 
whole days, but on the seventh day, that is, the Sabbath, 

I. I 



sabbath under Joshua. Christ co-worker ivith the Father. 243 

lie commanded the innumerable multitude of the host to Chap. 5. 
shout along with the trumpets, and thus the wall was 
thrown down, and they rushing in, took the city, not ob- 
serving the unseasonable rest of the Sabbath, nor refusing 
their victory thereon, by reason of the law restraining 
them, nor yet did they then withstand the generalship 
of Joshua, but wholly free from reproach did they keep 
the command of the man. And herein is the type : but 
when the Truth came, that is Christ, Who destroyed and 
overcame the corruption set up against man's nature by 
the devil, and is seen doing this on the Sabbath, as in 
preface and commencement of action, in the case of the 
paralytic, they foolishly take it ill, and condemn the obe- 
dience of their fathers, not suffering nature to conquer on 
the sabbath day the despite done it by sickness, to such 
extent as to be zealous in persecuting Jesus Who was 
working good on the sabbath day. 

My Father worketh hitherto, and I work. 

Christ is speaking, as it were, on the sabbath day (for 
this the word Hitherto must necessarily signify, that the 
force of the idea may receive its own fitting meaning) but 
the Jews, who were untutored, and knew not Who the 
Only-Begotten is by Nature, but attributed to God the 
Father alone the appointing of the Law through Moses, 
and asserted that we ought to obey Him Alone ; these He 
attempts to clearly convince, that He works all things to- 
gether with the Father, and that, having the Nature of Him 
Who begat Him in Himself, by reason of His not being 
Other than He, as far as pertains to Sameness of Essence, 
He will never think ought else than as seemeth good to 
Him Who begat Him. But as being of the Same Es- 
sence He will also will the same things, yea rather being 
Himself the Living Will and Power of the Father, He 
worketh all things in all with the Father. 

In order then that He might repel the vain murmuring 
of the Jews and might shame them who were persecut- 
ing Him on those grounds whereon they thought good 

B 2 


God works on sabbath. The Son 

Book 2. 
c v. 18. 



Jer. viii. 

cf. Prov. 
v. 22. 

to be angry, as though the honour due to the sabbath 
were despised, He says. My Father ivorketh hitherto and I 
work. For He all but wisheth to signify some such thing 
as this, If thou believest, man, that God, having crea- 
ted and compacted all things by His Command and Will 
ordereth the creation on the sabbath day also, so that 
the sun riseth, rain-giving fountains are let loose, and 
fruits spring from the earth, not refusing their increase 
by reason of the sabbath, the fire works its own work, 
ministering to the necessities of man unforbidden : confess 
and know of a surety that the Father worketh God-befit- 
ting operations on the sabbath also. Why then (saith 
He) dost thou uninstructedly accuse Him through Whom 
He works all thing* ? for God the Father will work in no 
other way, save through His Power and Wisdom, the Son. 
Therefore says He, And I work. He shames then with ar- 
guments ad absurdum the unbridled mind of His persecu- 
tors, shewing that they do not so much oppose Himself, 
as speak against the Father, to Whom Alone they were 
zealous to ascribe the honour of the Law, not yet know- 
ing the Son Who is of Him and through Him by Nature. 
For this reason does He call God specially 8 His own Fa- 
ther, leading them most skilfully to this most excellent 
and precious lesson. 

18 For this therefore did the Jews seek the more to kill Him, be- 
cause He was not only breaking the sabbath, but saying also 
that God was His Father, making Himself Equal with God. 

The mind of the Jews is wound up unto cruelty, and 
whereby they ought to have been healed, they are the more 
sick, that they may justly hear, How say ye, We are wise ? 
For when they ought to have been softened in disposi- 
tion, transformed by suitable reasoning unto piety, they 
even devise slaughter against Him Who proves by His 
Deeds, that He hath in no whit transgressed the Divine 
Law by healing a man on the sabbath. They weave in 
with their wrath on account of the sabbath, the truth as a 
charge of blasphemy, snaring themselves in the meshes of 


God, because God His Father. 


their own transgressions unto wrath indissoluble. For they Chap. 5. 
seemed to be pious in their distress that He being a Man, 
should say that God -was His Father. For they knew not 
yet that He A\ r ho was for our sakes made in the form of a 
servant, is God the Word, the Life gushing forth from God 
the Father, that is, the Only-Begotten, to Whom Alone 
God is rightly and truly inscribed and is Father, but to us 
by no means so : for we are adopted, mounting up to excel- 
lency above nature through the will of Him That honoured 
us, and gaining the title of gods and sons because of Christ 
That dwelleth in us through the Holy Ghost. Looking 
therefore to the Flesh alone, and not acknowledging God 
Who dwelleth in the Flesh, they endure not His springing 
up to measure beyond the nature of Man, through His 
saying that God was His Father (for in saying, My Father, Supra 
lie would Avith reason introduce this idea) but they deem 
that He Whose Father God properly is, must be by Nature 
Equal with Him, in this alone conceiving rightly : for so 
it is, and no otherwise. Since then the word introduces 
with it this meaning, they perverting the upright word- 
of truth are more angry. 


That the Son is not inferior to the Father either in power or 
in operation for any work but is Equal in Might and Consubstantial 
with Him, as of Him and that by Nature. 

19 Jesus therefore answered and said unto them, Verily verily I 
say unto you, the Son can do nothing of Himself, but what 
He seeth the Father do : for what things soever He doeth, 
these doeth also the Son likewise. 


■J i 

1 aayri- 


■ ! 

2 evirdpv- 

\ i; 



3 5ia(p6pci>s 




What we have spoken of above, this again He interprets 
in another way, from all quarters snaring 1 the hearers unto 
finding of the truth. For the word which was not re- 
ceived at first, by reason of the weakness of them that 
could not understand, He re-forms in another way, and 
going through the same thoughts introduceth it manifoldly. 
For this too is the work of the virtue that befits a teacher, 
namely not to make his word rapid and speeding beyond 
the knowledge of the pupils, but carefully wrought 3 and 
diversely fashioned 3 and that by frequent change of expres- 
sion strips off the difficulties in the things under considera- 
tion. Mingling then human with Divine, and forming one 
discourse of both, He as it were gently sinks the honour 
befitting the Only-Begotten, and raises the nature of man ; 
as being at once Lord and reckoned among servants, He 
says, The Son can do nothing of Himself, but ivhat He 
seeth the Father do : for what things soever He doeth, these 
doeth also the Son liliewise. For in that He is able to do 
without distinction the works of God the Father and to 
work alike with Him That begat Him, He testifieth the 
identity of His Essence. For things which have the same 
nature with one another, will work alike : but those whose 
mode of being is diverse, their mode of working too will 

The Son cannot do counter to His Nat 



be in all respects not the same. Therefore as Very God of 
Very God the Father, He says that He can do these things 
equally with Him ; but that He may appear not only Equal 
in Power to the Father, but likeminded in all things, and 
having in all things the Will One with Him, He saith 
that He can do nothing of Himself, but what He seeth the 
Father do. 

Just as though He should say distinctly to those who 
aro trying to persecute Him for healing a man on the 
Sabbath day, Ye deem the honour of the Sabbath broken, 
but I would not have done this, had I not seen My Father 
do the like; for He worketh for the good order of the 
world on the Sabbath too, even though through Me. It 
is then impossible (saith He) that I, the Son of Him by 
Nature, should not wholly in all things work and will the 
works of the Father, not as though I received from with- 
out by being taught the exemplar of action, or were called 
by a deliberate motion to will the same with the Father, 
but by the laws of Uncreated Nature I mount up to Equal 
Counsel and Action with God the Father. For the being 
able to do nothing of Himself, is excellently well defined 
hdrein. And thus I deem that piously minded we ought 
to bring into captivity everg thought to the obedience of 
Christ, as it is written. 

But perchance the opposer of the truth will disbelieve, 
and will make what is said the food so to say of his own 
ill counsel saying : " If the Son were Equal to the Father, 
„ attributing to Him no Preeminence as of necessity, by 
„ reason of the inferiority of His Own Nature, what in- 
„ duced Him so unconccaledly 4 to say, that He could do 
„ nothing of Himself but ivhat He seeth the Father do? For 
„ clearly (saith he) does He herein confess that He can do 
„ nothing at all of Himself, as knowing Him that is the 
„ Better and superior to Himself. But do thou again refute 
„ our argument." 

What then is to be said to these things by us ? Bold 
unto blasphemy is the enemy of Christ and drunken with 
folly he perceives it not. For one must, most excellent sir, 

Chap. 6. 
c. v. 19. 

2 Cor. 
x. 5. 

4 aKara- 

s. s 



The Son Equal Who does equal works 

Book. 2. test accurately the force of what has been said, and not 
c. v. 19. J . . ' 

dash offhand to reasonings springing from unlearning. 

For to what kind of equality with the Father dost thou 
deem it right to bring down the Son, by reason of His 
saying that He can do nothing of Himself, but ivhat He 
seeth the Father do ? Is it as not having Equality in Power 
that He says these things, although from the very passage 
under consideration one may see that the Son is Equal in 
Power with the Father, rather than inferior in God-befitting 
Might ? For plainly He does not say, The Son can do 
nothing of Himself, except He receive Power of the Father 
(for this would be the part of one really weak) but, hut 
what He seeth the Father do. But that by the sense of 
seeing, we are not usually called to be powerful, but to 
look at something, I suppose no one will dispute. The 
Son then in saying that He looketh on the works of His 
Father doth not shew Himself impotent, but rather a zeal- 
ous Imitator, or Beholder : and how, shall be more accu- 
rately spoken of in what follows. But that through His 
exact and likest working, I mean in all things, He is 
shewn to have Equality in Power, Himself will clearly 
teach below, adding as of His Father, for what things soever 
He doeth, these (saith He) doeth also the Son likewise. How 
then is He inferior, Who is Eminent in equal workings 
with God the Father ? for will the offspring of fire work 
ought different from fire, any change being seen in its 
work ? how could it be so ? How then will the Son 
work in like manner with the Father, if by reason of 
having inferiority He come short of equal Might with 

And these things were taken from the words at present 
under comment. But let us consider, going through 
other considerations also, whether the Nature of the Son 
admits any law of inferiority to that of the Father. Let 
the consideration of Power also be before us. Do they 
15 o.xt)6iv6v confess that the Son is God of God by Nature and verily 5 
and of the actual Essence of the Father; or do they say in- 
deed that He is God, but blasphemously add, that He is 

Km ! ' 

I!' ! 

■if inferior, the Godhead admits -weakness. 249 

outside of the Essence of the Father ? If then they say that Chap. 6. 
lie is not of the Essence of the Father, He will neither be 
God by Nature, nor Very Son. For that which is not of 
God by nature, neither ought it at all to be conceived of as 
by nature God, nor yet Son if it be not begotten of the 
Essence of the Father, but they are bringing in privily 6 to ™£j t<ra " 
us some bastard and new god. If they do not say this, 
blushing at the absurdity that is in their own doctrines, 
but will grant that the Only-Begotten is truly of the Fa- 
ther, and is God by Nature and Verily : how will He be 
inferior to the Father, or how powerless to ought, and 
this not accuse the Essence of Him Who begat Him ? For 
if it be possible that He Who is by Nature God should at 
all be impotent, what is to hinder the Father from being 
in the same case, if the Divine and Ineffable Nature once 
has the power of being so, and is already so manifested 
in the Son, according to their account ? Hence then nei- 
ther will the Divinity be Impassible, nor will It remain in 
sameness 7 and Bliss wholly Unchangeable. But who (tell 7 TnuT0 '- 
me) will endure them that hold such opinions ? Who 
when the Scripture crieth aloud that the Son is the Lord p «- xxiv. 
of Hosts, will not shudder to say, that He must needs be 
strengthened, and is imperfect in that which of right is His 
alone with the Father and Holy Ghost ? 

But our opponent will say again, „We say, that the Fa- 
,, ther surpasses the Son in this. For the One is the 
„ First Beginner of works 8 , as having Perfection both in 8 ™*/ 
,, Power and in the knowledge of all things: but the Son ^p "a Tap . 
,, becomes first a spectator then a worker by receiving KTlK0S 
,, into Himself the imitation of the Father's working, in 
„ order that through the similarity of works, He too might 
„ be thought to be God. For this He teacheth us, saying 
„ that He can do nothing of Himself but what lie seeth the 
„ Father do." 

What art thou saying, thou all-daring ? doth the Son 
receive into Himself the types of the Father's Working, 
that thereby lie may be thought to be God ? By learning 
then will He be God, not by Nature. As in us is (it may 

250 God Whom angels ivorship. Demonstration 

Book 2. 
c. v. 19. 


S. Matth, 
iv. 10 e 
\i. 13. 

Mai. Hi. 

Ps. cii. 


* tlKCLW- 


TOS iltl- 


be) knowledge and art, so is in Him the Dignity, and He 
is rather an Artificer of the works of Deity than Very God : 
yet is He (I suppose) altogether other than the art that is 
in Him, though it be God-befitting. Him then that has 
passed forth of the boundaries of the Godhead, and has his 
glory in the art alone, how do angels in Heaven worship 
Him, we too worship without blame, albeit the Holy Scrip- 
ture admonisheth us that we ought not to serve any apart 
from Him Who is truly God ? for it says, Thou shalt ivor- 
ship the Lord thy God and Him only shalt thou serve. Yet 
the holy multitude of Angels in particular erred not from 
what is befitting, but they worship the Son and serve Him 
with us, acknowledging Him to be God by Nature, and not 
by learning, as those babbling say : for they perceive not 
(it seems) into how great absurdities they will thence fall. 
For in the first place the Son will admit change and varia- 
tion as from the less to the greater, albeit Himself saith 
through the Prophet, Behold, behold I am, and change not. 
The Psalmist too will surely lie in the spirit, crying out to 
the Son, But Thou art the Same. For He awaiteth, as 
those say, the Father's working at something, as a Guide 
and Teacher, that He may see and imitate. ' Then how will 
not such an one appear to mount up from ignorance of 
certain things unto knowledge thereof, and to turn from 
worse to better, if we reckon that knowledge of any thing 
good is better than not knowing it ? 

Next, what additional absurdity is herein beheld ? Let 
them tell us who introduce God as an Instructer rather 
than a Father, Doth the Son await the sight of His Fa- 
ther's works in ignorance of them, or having most perfect 
knowledge of them ? If then they say that He awaits 
though He knows them, they clearly shew that He is doing 
something very superfluous, and the Father practising a 
most idle thing 9 : for the One, as though ignorant looks 
at what He knows perfectly, the Other attempts to teach 
One Who knows : and to whom is it not evident, that such 
things incur the charge of the extremest absurdity ? But 
perchance they will not say this ; but will go over to the 

ad absurdum. The Spirit His : lie God or compound. 251 

opposite alternative. For they will affirm that He await- Chap. 6. 
eth of necessity the Father working in order to learn by 
seeing. How then doth He know all things before they Hist, 
were ? or how will He be true saying of Himself, Am / 'a jer.'xxiii. 
God at hand, saith the Lord, and not a God afar off? Shall ^ xxx y # 
ought be hidden from Me ? But how is it not absurd and 27 LXX « 
unlearned to believe that the Spirit searcheth and know- iCor.H. 
eth the deep things of God, and to suppose that the Giver 
of the Spirit is in ignorance of the works of the Father 
and of His own Spirit, so as to come short in knowledge ? 
For will not the Son at length lose His being Wisdom, 
if He be wholly ignorant and receive by learning ? for 
He will be a recipient of wisdom, rather than Wisdom It- 
self by Nature. For wisdom is that which maketh wise, 
not that which is formed to become wise, just as light too 
is that which enlightfeneth, not that which is formed to re- 
ceive light. Therefore is He again other than the wisdom 
which is in Him, and in the first place He is not Simple, 
but compounded of two : next besides this, He will also 
lose the being God, I mean God by Nature and Essentially. 
For the Divine Nature endureth not the being taught 
by any at all, nor the duplication of composition, seeing 
It hath as Its Proper Good the being both Simple and All- 
Perfection. And if the Son be not God by Nature, how 
doth He both work and do things befitting God Alone? will 
they say that it suffices for Him unto God-befitting Power, 
only to see the Father working, and by the mere sight 
does He attain to being by Nature God, and to being able 
to do such things as He That sheweth Him doth? There 
is therefore nothing to hinder, but that many others too 
should be manifested to us as gods, if the Father be will- 
ing to shew them too the mode of His works, and the 
excellence of the Father's Essence will consist in learning 
something over and above 1 . For He that was taught (as ^epirrbii 
those say) is found to have mounted up to the dignity of 
the God-head by Nature, saying, I" and My Father are Infra x. 
One, He that hath seen Me hath seen the Father. ' 

Let them weigh then how great a crowd of blasphemies 


God by Nature, yet Man too. Different 

Book 2. 
c. v. 19. 



2 rb rov 
ov, the 

3 Spi/nuTt- 

is heaped up by them, from their choosing so to think, 
and let them think truly of the Son as it is written. For 
neither by contemplation of what is performed by the Fa- 
ther, nor yet by having Him as antecedent to Himself in 
actions, is the Son a Doer or Wonder-worker, and by reason 
hereof God: but because a certain law of Nature carries Him 
to the Exact Likeness of Him who begat Him, even though 
it shine forth and is manifested through the unceasing 
likeness of Their Works. But setting before us again, 
if you please, the verse 3 , and testing it with more dili- 
gent 3 scrutiny, let us consider accurately, what is the 
force of the words and let us now see how we must think 
with piety. Therefore, 

Verily verily I say unto you, The Son can do nothing of 
Himself but what He seeth the Father do : for what things soever 
He doeth, these doeth also the Son likewise. 

'! 'H k 

Thou seest how through the exact likeness too in the 
works, He sheweth Himself like in all things to the Father, 
that thereby He may be shewn to be Heir of His Essence 
also. For in that He must of necessity and incontroverti- 
bly be conceived of as being God by Nature, Who hath Equal 

4 «" e P7 e '- working 4 with God the Father, the Saviour says thus. 
But let no one be offended, when He says economical^ 
that He can do nothing of Himself but what He seeth the 
Father do. For in that He was now arrayed in the form of 
the servant and made Man by being united to flesh, He 

b 8id\e£it> did not make His discourse 5 free, nor altogether let loose 
unto God-befitting boldness, but used rather at times by 
an economy such discourse as befits alike God and Man. 
For He was really both in the same. 

And this is one true word, but I think one ought again 
to explain what is before us in another way too, and 
to apply more keenly to the accurate meaning of the pas- 
sage. The Son (it says) can do nothing of Himself but what 
He seeth the Father do. The word cannot, or impossi- 
bility, is predicated of certain things, or is applied to cer- 
tain of things that are. For this being predicated we 


meanings of cannot. All which the Father, the Son too. 253 

say is not indicative at all of necessity, nor of weakness; Chap. g. 
but often denotes the stability of natures and the im- c - v - ly - 
moveable condition of essences, in respect of what each 
thing mentioned either is or has been, and of what it 
can effect by nature and without change. But let our 
argument, if you please go through demonstration also. 
When for instance a man says that he cannot carry a 
piece of wood, immeasurable c perhaps and heavy, he 6 awr, X v. 
predicates his innate weakness : but when another says, conje" 
I being by nature a reasonable man, and born of a fa- £^j s 
ther by nature reasonable, cannot do anything my own 
and of myself, which I do not see belonging to the na- 
ture of my parent; the words "I cannot" express the 
stability of essence, and its inability to change into any 
thing but what it is. For (says he) I cannot of myself 
be not a reasonable creature, strengthened by increases ac- 
cruing to me by nature : for I do not see the power of 
doing this in the nature of my father. In this way then 
you may hear Christ saying, The Son can do nothing of 
Himself but what He seeth the Father do. For do not 
(saith He) blame the works of the Son : for He behold- 
ing, as in His Proper Thoughts or Natural Motions 7 , the \ &s i v 
Essence of Him That begat Him ; what things He seeth iJZL s 
That Nature befittingly work, these He doeth and none *™$ v - 
other, not being able to suffer ought contrary to His Na- ""fa*™ 
ture, by reason of His being of It. Thus, the Nature 
of the Father hath the Will to compassionate : the Son 
seeing this inherent therein, is Compassionate as being 
of Him by Nature, not being ^able to be Other than what 
It is. For He hath of the Father, as Essence, so the good 
things too of the Essence, simply that is and uncompound 
as God, therefore He wisely subjoins to the former words 
For what things soever He doeth, these doeth also the Son like- 
wise : in these words collecting, so to say, the whole mean- 
ing of His being able to do nothing of Himself hut what He 
seeth the Father do. But by considering the cause why 
the Son says these things, you will apply your mind more 
accurately to the things spoken by us. 

'254 Of Both the works the same, Father not antecedent. 


c. v. 20. 

ver. 17. 


M irpoKa- 
tu>v epyiov 

1 Sifa/uiv 


2 £ic<j>av- 

3 iSiKijy 

When then He on the sabbath day was compassionating' 
the paralytic, the Jews began trying to persecute Him : but 
Christ shames them, shewing that Cod the Father hath 
mercy on the sabbath day. For He did not think He ought 
to hinder what things were tending to our salvation. And 
indeed He said at the beginning, My Father worketh hither- 
to, and I ivorh. But when they of their great ill-counsel 
shewed that they were vexed at these things, He subjoins 
again The Son can do nothing of Himself but what He seeth 
the Father do : for what things soever He doeth, these doeth 
also the Son likewise. For since (saith He) the' Father re- 
fuseth not to have mercy on the sabbath day, I, seeing 
that He is altogether full of compassion, am therefore My- 
self too wholly compassionate, not able to cut out anew 8 
in Myself the Essence of My Father, through not appear- 
ing and being such as He is by Nature. For I wholly 
work what is His, as being of Him. 

But the saying that the Father is antecedent in the 
works 9 , is not free from the deepest unlearning. For how 
should He ever of Himself and alone begin, Who has the 
Son as the operative Power for all things l , Eternally 
with Him, the Exponent 2 of His Will as to ought and 
of His motion to operation in respect of ought. But if 
they uninstructedly assert that He awaits the Separate 3 
Operation of the Father for each several work, in order to 
imitate equally, let them shew us that the Father wrought 
anything separately 4 and of Himself, or what paralytic He 
having first healed, hath given the deed as a pattern to 
His Son. 


5 a<pv\d- 


20 For the Father loveth the Son 

Those who were heedlessly 5 blaspheming against Him 
by reason of the sabbath, Christ convicts of being foolishly 
exasperated to empty anger, making most clear proof of 
the matter by saying that He is loved by His Father. For 
if the Father wholly loveth the Son, it is plain that He loves 
Him not as grieving Him, but rather as gladdening Him 
in what He does and works. Vainly then do they perse- 

The Father's Love in Perfect sameness of the Son. 255 

6 iSla 

cute Him Who refuseth not to shew mercy on the sabbath, Chap. 6. 

. c. v. 20. 

and hereby again are they found opposing the decrees of 

God the Father. For they think they ought to hate Him 
Whom He loves, but it is altogether (I suppose) manifest, 
that He would never have loved Him if He had gone con- 
trary to the Will of His Father, and been accustomed to do 
of Himself 6 and Alone whatsoever Himself willed. But 
since He justly loves, He approves, it is plain, and agrees 
to the breaking of the sabbath, and shews that it has no- 
thing in respect of which God the Lord of the LaAV might 
reasonably be angry. 

and shcweth II hn all things that Himself doeth ; 

Needs does He subjoin this too to the preceding; and 
wherefore, I will say. Fathers who are among us, some- 
times overcome by natural affection, bear with their sons 
grieving them, and seeing them attempt things against . 
their judgment, they often suffer it. For vehement is the 
yearning love 7 implanted in them in respect of their chil- 7 tt&Qos 
dren persuading 1 them to overcome all littleness of soul 8 8 , m<*p<>- 
towards them. But not thus (saith He) does God the 
Father love the Son, for He cannot do anything which 
He too does not work by Nature, bnt as having One Es- 
sence with Him, He is called by certain Physical laws, 
so to say, to identical Will and Power. The Son then 
(saith He) worketh nothing contrary to what is pleasing 
or fitting to the Father, nor does He vaunt Himself in 
the love of the Father 9 , as though a lover of novelty in 9 Tys rod 
His works and unbridled, but whatsoever things He sees aydirqs 
Him doing, as in conception, all these He performeth re- ™™forai 
strained by Identity of Essence from falling aside in ought 
that is befitting God. For He hath no part with change in 
ought, or variableness : for He remaineth the Same un- £f • cii - 
ceasingly, as the Psalmist says. The Father again shcweth 
the Son what He Himself doeth, not as though setting be- 
fore Him things depicted on a tablet, or teaching Him as 
though ignorant (for He knoweth all things as God) : but 
depicting Himself wholly in the Nature of His Offspring, 

256 Their knowledge One of Other : Each works on sabbath. 

Book 2. 

g . v. 20. 

S. Luke 
x. 22. 

Infra xiv, 

and shewing in Him His Own Natural Properties in order 
that from what Properties Himself is and is manifested. 
He may know of what kind and Who He is by nature That 
begat Him. Therefore Christ says, that no man knoweih 
Who the Son is but the Father, and Who the Father is, bid 
the Son. For the accurate knowledge of each is in Both, 
not by learning, but by Nature. And God the Father 
seeth the Son in Himself, the Son again seeth the Father 
in Himself. Therefore He saith, I am in the Father and 
the Father in Me. But "to see" and "to be seen" must 
here be conceived of after a Divine sort. 

ver. 18. 

ver. 5. 

And greater works than these will He shew Him, that ye may 

Above the blessed Evangelist says, The Jews were seeking 
to kill Jesus, because He was not only breaking the sabbath, 
but saying also that God was His Father, making Himself 
Equal with God. He therefore put down the accusation 
respecting the sabbath, by shewing that the Father Him- 
self worked on the sabbath day, and expending many 
words thereupon : and endeavours to teach them that He 
is in Equality with the Father, even when made Man for 
our sakes (for this was what the argument yet lacked), 
and therefore does He say And greater ivorks than these 
will He shew Him that ye may marvel. And what again 
does He will to shew us hereby? 

The paralytic (it says) has been healed, which had an in- 
firmity thirty and eight years. And marvellous indeed the 
Power of Him That healed him, God-befitting exceedingly 
the Authority. This so great Wonderworker, no one (I 
suppose) in his senses would blame for saying that He is 
God, and since He is Son, Equal in all things to Him That 
begat Him. But since ye (He says) imagining things 
most wicked and foolish, are offended because of this 
mortal Body, ye must needs learn that My Authority and 
Power stop not here : for ye shall be, even though ye 
will it not, spectators of greater wonders, to wit of the 
resurrection of the dead, and yet more shall ye be as- 

The Son God Who does the works of Godhead. 257 

tonished, seeing Power and Glory befitting God, in Me Chap. 6 
Whom now ye charge with blasphemy and are not ashamed °' v ' 21, 
to persecute, for merely saying, I am the Son of God. Infra x. 


But how God the Father shews His Works to the Son, Supra p. 
we have already said at much length. 253—255. 

21 For as the Father raiseth the dead and quickeneth them, 
so the Son too quickeneth whom He will. 

See again in these words clear proof of His Equality. 
For He That worketh equally in respect of the reviving of 
the dead, how can He have inferiority in ought ? or how 
shall He be of another nature and alien to the Father 
Who is radiant with the Same Properties ? For the Power 
of quickening, which is in the Father alike and the Son, 
is a Property of the Divine Essence. But the Father 
doth not again separately and of Himself quicken some, 
the Son some separately and apart : for the Son having in 
Himself by Nature the Father, the Father doth all things 
and worketh. all things through the Son. But since the 
Father hath the Power of quickening in His Own Nature, 
as also Himself too, He attributes the Power of quicken- 
ing the dead as though accruing to each separately. 

VOL. I. 


»i:f- »!« 




That nought of God-befitting Dignities or Excellences is in the 
Son, by participation, or from without. 

22 For neither doth the Father judge any man, but hath com- 
mitted all judgment unto the Son. 

He introduceth another God-befitting and marvellous 
thing, in many ways persuading them that He is God 
by Nature and Verily. For to what other would it be- 
fit to judge the world, save Him Alone Who is God 
over all. Whom too the Divine Scriptures call to this, say- 
.. ing in one place, Arise, God, judge the earth, in another 
Ps. lxxv. again, For Ood is the Judge, He putteth down one and setteth 
1' up another. But He says that judgment has been given. 

Him by the Father, not as being without authority hereto, 
but economically as Man, teaching that all things are 
more suitably referred to the Divine Nature, whereto Him- 
self too being not external, in that He is Word and ' God, 
1 otKodw hath inherently 1 authority over all; but in that He is made 
ICor. iv. Man, to whom it is said, What hast thou that thou didst 
not receive, He fittingly acknowledges that He received it. 

To these things again one of our opponents will say, 
„Lo, the Son evidently declares that He hath received 
j> judgement of the Father ; but He receives (it is plain) aa 
„not having. How then will not He That gives with 
„ Authority be greater and of Superior Nature to Him 
„Who must needs receive?" 

What then do we say to these things ? Our prearranged 
argument has been, I think, not unskilfully managed, in- 
troducing a consideration specially befitting the time, to 
wit of the Incarnation, and most accordant with the eco- 
nomy of the Flesh, when He was called a servant, when 




Receiver and giver may be equal. Judging an operation not of 'essence. 259 

He humbled Himself, made in our likeness. But since 
it seemeth good to thee haughtily to despise the simpler 
doctrines, and to make more critical examination of them, 
come then, opposing thy objections, let us first say, Not 
altogether, nor of necessity, sir, doth he that is said to 
give anything, impart it to the recipient as though he 
had it not, nor yet is the giver always greater than the re- 
ceiver. For what wilt thou do, when thou seest the holy 
Psalmist saying in the Spirit, Give glory to God ? Shall 
we consider that God is in need of glory, or that we who 
are commanded to offer Him this, are on this account greater 
than the Creator ? But not even thou wilt dare to say 
this, who shunnest not the fear of blasphemies. For full of 
glory is the Godhead, even though It receive it not from 
us. For He who receives as honour, what He hath of Own 3 , 
will never bo thought inferior to those who offer Him glory 
as a gift. One may often see that he who has received any- 
thing is not inferior to the giver, and that the Father is not 
therefore of Superior Nature to His offspring, because He 
hath committed to Him all judgment. 

Next we must consider this too. To judge or to give 
judgment, are rather operations and acts conceived as 
properties of essences than themselves truly essences. For 
we in giving judgment do something, being in ourselves 3 
what we are. But if we grant that judging or giving 
judgment is of the nature of an essence, how must we not 
needs grant, even against our wills, that some cannot exist 
at all, except as judges, and that their being wholly ceases 
together with the termination of the judgment ? But so 
to think, is most absurd. Judgment then is an operation, 
and nothing else. What then hath the Father committed 
to the Son ? No accession from His Own Nature, in com- 
mitting all judgment to Him, but rather an operation in 
respect of them that are judged. How then will He here- 
in be greater, or of Superior Nature, by having added 
anything which was not in the Son Who saith, All things 
that the Father hath are Mine? 

How then He must be conceived of as giving, hear now. 

s 2 

Chap. 7 
c. v. 22. 

Ps. Ixviii. 
34 LXX. 

2 o'iKoQep 

3 I5ia£6v- 

xvi. 15. 


Book 2. 
c. v. 22. 

260 Creation and judging thro' the Son. Fire's operation. 

As God the Father, having the Power to create, createth 
all things through the Son, as through His own Power and 
Might : so having the Power too to judge, He will work 
this too through the Son, as His Own Righteousness. As 
though it were said that fire too yielded up burning to the 
operation that is of itself by nature, the fact taking this 
direction : so piously interpreting, Hath committed, shall we 
escape the snare of the devil. But if they persist in shame- 
lessly asserting that glory is added to Him of the Father, 
through His being manifested Judge of the earth, let them 
teach us, how He is any longer to be considered Lord of 
glory, Who in the last times was crowned with the honours 
hereunto pertaining. 


i I 


That the Son being God and of God by Nature, and the Exact 
Image of Him Who begat Him, hath equal honour and glory with 

23 That all should honour the Son even as they honour the Father: 
he that honoureth not the Son honoureth not the Father Which 
sent Him. 

A cause and reason of the things already enumerated, 

is now evident, viz., that the Son ought to be honoured in 

Equality and likeness with the Father. For recapitulating 

a little, and carried back to a recollection of the preced-" 

ing, you will view accurately the force of the passage. He 

said then that God was His Father, making Himself Equal Supra 

ver. 18. 
with God; then again He began shewing that He was of 

Equal strength and skill, saying, For what things soever He Supra 
doeth, these doeth also the Son likewise. That He' is both ver " 19, 
Life and Life-giving by Nature, as is He too Who begat 
Him, He shewed plainly, adding, For as the Father raiseth Supra 
up the dead and quickeneth them, so the Son too quick- 
eneth whom He will. But that He will be also Judge of 
all, the Father in all things co -approving and consenting, 
He declared, saying, For neither doth the Father judge any s upra 
man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son. What ver " 22, 
then is the cause of these things ? what induced the Only- 
Begotten to say all this ? That all men (He saith) should 
honour the Son even as they honour the Father. For if 
He hath all things whatever the Father hath, as far as 
appertains to God-befitting Dignity, how is it not fitting 
that He to Whom nothing is lacking to Identity of essence 
should be crowned with equal honours with Him ? What 
then do they say to this too who pervert all equity, as saith Mic.iii.a 
the Prophet Isaiah ? 


As indicates various degrees of 

S. Luke 
vi. 36. 

xvii. 23 

Book 2. „ If (he says) by reason of its being said, That all men 
„ should honour the Son even as they honour the Father, 
„ ye suppose that one ought to magnify the Son with 
„ equal honours with the Father, ye know not that ye are 
„ stepping far away from the truth. For the word As does 
„ not altogether introduce equality of acts, in respect of 
„ those things it is affixed to, but often marks out a kind of 
„ likeness, just as (he says) the Saviour counsels, saying, 
„ Be ye therefore merciful as your Father also which is in 
„ Heaven is merciful. Shall we then be as merciful as the 
„ Father, on account of the as? And again Christ says 
„ to His Father of His disciples : Thou hast loved them, 
„ AS Thou hast loved Me. But we will not grant that the 
„ disciples are loved just as the Son, on account of the 
„ as. Why then dost thou multiply words, and distort 
„what is said into blasphemy, though it introduces no 
„ obligation on the hearers to honour the Son in equal 
„ measure with the Father V 

What then is our answer to these things ? With bitter 
■words do the fighters against God bay at us, but without 
Phil. iii. are dogs, as Paul saith, without are evil workers, without 
2 ' the right faith are the concision. For we are sons of the 

truth and children of the light. Therefore we will glorify 
the Only-Begotten together with God the Father, not with 
any difference, but in equality of honour and glory, as 
God of God, and Light of Light, and Life of Life. And 
overmuch enquiry into what is to be received as faith, is 
not without hazard : nevertheless we must test the force 
of the As, lest our opponents be overwise in their own 
conceits. When therefore As is applied to 'things unlike 
in their nature, it does not wholly introduce absolute 
equality, but rather likeness and resemblance, as ye your- 
selves acknowledged above; but when it is applied to things 
in all respects like to one another, it shews equality in all 
things and similitude and whatever else is found to have 
the same force with these. Just as if I say, Bright is the 
sun in Heaven, bright too is silver which is of the earth, 
yet is the nature of the things mentioned diverse. Let 

likeness. Christ foresaw and met the cavillings of heretics. 263 

any of the rich of the earth, be supposed to say to his Chap. 8. 
household servants, Let the silver shine as the sun. In 
this case we very justly say that earthly matter attains not 
to equal brightness with the sun, but to a certain likeness 
and resemblance, although the word As be used of it. But 
let Peter and John (suppose) of the holy disciples be 
brought forward, who both in respect of nature and of 
piety towards God, fail not of an accurate likeness one 
to another, let the As be applied, some one saying of 
them, as here, Let John be honoured by all, even as 
Peter, will the As here be powerless, so that equal honour 
ought not to be paid to both ? But I do not suppose that 
any one will say such a thing : for he will see that there 
is nothing to prevent it. 

According to this analogy of idea, when the As is ap- 
plied to the Father and the Son, why should we shrink 
from crowning Both with equal honours ? For He having 
considered before, as God, things to come, and having 
carefully viewed the envious opposition of thine unlearning 
hath brought in the As, not bare and bereft of the aid befit- 
ting it, but having strengthened it beforehand with con- 
venient proofs, and shewn afore that He is God by 
Nature (for He made God His Father) : having again fore- Supra 
shewn that He is both God the Creator and of a truth Life, ver ' ' 
and having before introduced Himself, altogether glorying 
(so to say) in the Attributes 1 of God the Father, — He after- 1 isidfiacn 
wards seasonably subjoins That all men should honour the 
Son even as they honour the Father too. Then what objec- 
tion still appears, what is there to binder, that He, in 
Whom are Essentially the Properties 2 and excellencies of 2ys, a 
the Father, should attain to an equal degree of honour ? 
for we shall be found honouring the very Nature of God 
the Father, full well beaming forth in the Son. Wherefore 
He proceeds, He that honoureth not the Son honoureth not 
the Father which sent Him. For the charge of dishon- 
ouring the Son, and the force of blasphemy against Him, 
will mount up unto none other more truly than the Fa- 
ther Himself, Who put forth the Son as it were from the 

264 The Son God lest The Teinity be unequal ; 

Book 2. 
c. v. 23. 

Gen. ix. 

3 itrxvpa.- 


* ffvvra- 

Fount of His Own Nature, even though He be seen 
throughout the whole Holy Scriptures as everlastingly 
with Him. 

„ Yea (saith the opponent) let the charge from dishonour- 
„ ing the Son go to whatsoever you please, or rather let it 
„ reach even unto God the Father Himself. For He will be 
„ angry, and that with reason, yet not wholly so, as though 
„ His Very Nature were insulted in the Son, according to 
„ our just now carefully finished argument, but since He 
„ is His Image and Impress, formed most excellently after 
„His Divine and Ineffable Essence, He is with reason 
„ angry, and will wholly transfer the wrong to Himself. 
„For it were indeed most absurd, that he who insulted 
„the Divine Impresses, should not surely pay the penalty 
3 , of his sin against the Archetype. Just as he who has in- 
„ suited the images of earthly kings, is punished as having 
„ indeed transgressed against the ruler himself. And in 
„ like manner shall we find it decreed by God in respect of 
„ ourselves also : for Whoso (saith He) sheddeth man's blood, 
„for his blood shall he be poured forth: because in the Image of 
„ God He made man. Seest thou then hereby very clearly 
„ (saith he) that if the Image be wronged, and not alto- 
„ gether the Divine Nature, God the Father deems it right 
„to be angry? In this way then let that which is said 
„ by Christ be conceived of and adapted 8 , He that honoureth 
„not the Son, neither doth he honour the Father" 

Shall then the Only Begotten be classed with us as exter- 
nal to the Essence of the Father ? how then will He yet be 
God by Nature, if He altogether slip out of the bounds of 
the Godhead, situate in some nature of his own and of 
other sort than that wherein the Father is? and we do 
wrong, it seems, in bringing into one count of Godhead a , 
the order 4 of the Holy Trinity. We ought, we ought at 
length to worship the Father as God, to impart some glory 
of Their Own to the Son and the Spirit, severing them as 
it were into different natures, and defining severally to Each 
the mode of His Existence. Yet do the Divine Scriptures 

» els eva 6e6ri)TOS hvafiifi&QovTtt Koyov 

God beget worse than the creature. Senses of Image. 265 

declare unto us One God, classing- with the Father the Son Chap. 8. 

. c v 23 

and the Spirit, so that through Their Essential and exact 

sameness the Holy Trinity is brought unto one count of God- 
head. The Only-Begotten is not then alien from the Na- 
ture of Him who begat Him, but neither will He be a whit 
conceived of as Son in truth, if He beamed not forth from 
the Essence of the Father (for this and no other is the 
definition and mode of true son ship in all) but if there 
be no Son, God's being Father will be wholly taken away 
too. How then will Paul be true in saying of Him, 
Of Whom every family in Heaven and earth is named ? Eph. iii. 
For if He have not begotten of Himself in God-befitting 
manner the Son, how shall the beginning of Fatherhood 
be in Him, going through in imitation to those who are in 
Heaven and earth ? But God is in truth Father : the Only- 
Begotten therefore is by Nature Son, and is of a surety 
within the bounds of the Divinity. For God will be be- 
gotten of God even as man (for example) of man, and the 
Nature of God the Father, Which transcends all things, 
will not err 5 by bearing fruit not befitting It. 5 S"^- 

But since some blasphemously and foolishly say, that 
it is not the Nature of God the Father That is insulted in 
the Son, when He does not receive due honour from any, 
but that He is angry reasonably and rightly, at His Own 
Image being dishonoured in Him; we must ask them in 
what sense they would have the Son be and be called the 
Image of the Father. Yea rather let us forestalling their 
account, determine beforehand the Nature of the Image, 
according to legitimate reasoning : for so will the result 
of our enquiries be clear and more distinct. Therefore Different 
one and the first mode of image is that of sameness of ^. e ^|™| s 
nature in properties exactly alike 6 , as Abel of Adam, or Isaac 6 airapa\- 

„ ., , , -I--1 •• . vi X6.KTOIS 

of Abraham : the second again is that consisting m likeness 
of impress, and accurate impression of form, as the King's 
delineation in wood, or made in any other way, most excel- 
lently and skilfully, as respects him. Another image again 
is taken in respect of habits and manners, and conversa- 
tion 7 and inclination to either good or bad, as for instance 7 ™\i- 

1 ' 


The Son Very God, or His likeness to 

Book 2. 
c. v. 23. 

8 irpof- 

""X 7 ?/ 40 ""' 

1 i'Ma 

* v<pt- 

it may be said that the well-doer is like Paul, him that 
is not so like Cain (for the being equally good or bad, 
works likeness with either, and with reason confers it) 
Another form of image is, that of dignity and honour and 
glory and excellence, as when one for instance succeeds 
another in a command, and does all things with the 
authority which belongs to and becomes him. An image in 
another sense, is in respect of any either quality or 
quantity of a thing, and its outline and proportion : for 
we must speak briefly. 

Let then the most critical investigators of the Divine 
Image b teach us, whether they think one ought to attri- 
bute to the Only-Begotten the Essential and Natural Like- 
ness, and thus say that the Only-Begotten Word proceed- 
ing 8 from the Father is an Image of Him in the same 
sense as Abel is of Adam, who retained in himself the 
whole nature of his parent, and bore the count of human 
nature all-complete ? or will they be vexed at this, com- 
pelled to confess the Son truly God of God by Nature, 
and turning aside according to their custom to fight 
against the truth, advance to the second kind of image, 
which is conceived to exist in mere form, impress and 
outline 9 ? But I suppose they will shrink from saying 
this. For no one, even if he be a very prater, will sup- 
pose that the Godhead can be estimated in respect of 
size, or circumscribed by outline, or meted by impress c , 
or that the Unembodied will wholly undergo what be- 
longs to bodies. Do they say then that He is conform- 
ed to Him in respect of manners and habits and will, 
and are they not ashamed to dress Him in this image ? 
for how is He yet ^ to be conceived of as God by Na- 
ture, Who has Likeness to Him in will only, but has 
another Being separately 1 of Himself ? For they will sure- 
ly acknowledge that He subsists 2 . Then what is there 
in Him more than in the creature ? For shall we not 
believe that the angels themselves hasten to perform the 

b ol rrjs Oeias cIkSvos a/cpi/SeVraTOJ c 1) koI ffx^lf xaTt irepiypaTrrbi' Kal ^a- 
£VjT7jTal paKrrjpi jxeTpov)J.fvov 

^e Father that of the creatures, and inmere embellishment. 267 

Divine Will, who are "by nature other than God? But 
what, when this is conceived of as belonging to us too ? 
for does not the Only-Begotten teach us foolishly to jump 
at things above our nature, and to aim at impossibilities, 
saying, Be ye merciful, as your Father also .which is in 
Heaven is merciful? For this were undoubtedly to say 
that we ought to gain the likeness of the Father by 
identity of will. And Paul too was an imitator of Christ, 
of the (as they babbling say) Image of the Father in 
will only. But they will shift their ground (I suppose) 
from these miserable conceptions, and as though thinking 
something greater and better, will surely say this, „ The 
„ Only-Begotten is the Image of God the Father, in respect 
„ of identity of will, in respect of God-befitting Dignity 
„ and Glory and Power, in respect of Operation in creation 
„ and working miracles, in respect of reigning and ruling 
„ over all, in respect of judging and being worshipped by 
„ angels and men and in short by all creation. By all 
„ these He shewing us the Father in Himself, says that He 
„is not of His Person, but is the Impress of His Person. 3 ' 
Therefore as we said just now, the Son is none of these 
by nature, but is altogether separate from all of them 
according at least to your most foolish reasoning, and is 
neither Very God, nor Son, nor King, nor Lord, nor 
Creator, nor Mighty, nor in respect of His own Will is He 
by Nature Good : but in boasts solely and only of what is 
God-befitting is He seen. And as is the application of tints 
to paintings on tablets, beautifying them by the variety to 
the eye, but having nothing true : so as to the Son too, 
the beauty of the Excellencies of God the Father decks 
Him around with bare names only, but is as it were ap- 
plied from without like certain tints : yea rather the Divine 
Nature is outlined 3 in Him, and appears in bare type. 

Next, how will ye not be shewn to be fighting outright 
with all the holy Scriptures, that ye may with justice hear, 
Ye stiffneclced and uncircumcised in heart and ears, ye are 
always resisting the Holy Ghost: as your fathers did, so do 
ye too, for when do they not call the Son Very God, or 

Chap. 8. 
c. v. 23. 

S. Luke 
vi. 3G. 

Ilcb. i. 3. 

3 (TKia- 

Acts vii. 


The Son Very God; or things made 

I Hi 

Book 2. 
c. v. 23. 

Ps. xlv. 

Infra xx. 


Rom. i. 


5 a^iSiri- 

6 aSpavz- 

when do they bear Him forth from the Essence of His 
Father ? which of them has dared to say that He is by 
Nature neither Creator nor King nor Almighty nor to be 
worshipped ? For the Divine Psalmist says as to the Only- 
Begotten Himself, Thy Throne, God, is for ever and ever : 
Thomas again the most wise disciple in like wise calls Him 
God alike and Lord. He is called Almighty and Creator 
by every voice of saint, and as having not according to you 
the Dignity from without, but as being by Nature what 
He is said to be, and therefore is He worshipped both by 
the holy Angels and by us, albeit the Divine Scripture says 
that we ought to worship none other, save the Lord God 

If then they hold that the God-befitting Dignity in Him 
is acquired and given, and think that they ought to wor- 
ship such an one, let them know that they are worshipping 
the creature rather than the Creator, and making out 4 to 
themselves a new and fresh God, rather than acknowledg- 
ing Him Who is really so by Nature. But if while they say 
that the Son is external to the Essence of God the Father, 
they yet acknowledge Him to be Son and Yery God and 
King and Lord and Creator, and to have Essentially in 
Himself the Properties and Excellencies of the Father, let 
them see whither there is risk that the end of those who 
thus think will be. For nothing at all will be found of 
sure faith 5 in the Divine Nature, since the nature of things 
originate also is now capable of being whatever It is con- 
ceived to be. For it has been proved according to the 
most feeble 6 reasoning of our opponents, that the Only- 
Begotten not being of the Divine Nature, hath yet truly in 
Himself Its Excellencies. Who will not shudder at the 
mere hearing the blasphemy of the doctrines? For all 
things are now overturned, when the Nature That is above 
all things descendeth so as to be classed with things origi- 
nate, and the creation itself contrary to reason springs up 
to the measure above it, and not designed for it. 

Therefore let us swimming away from the absurdity of 
such doctrines, as from a ship sinking in the sea, hasten to 

jput in God's place. His treatment of the Jews. 269 

the Truth, as to a secure and unruffled haven, -and let us Chap. 8. 
ackowledge the Son to be the Image of God the Father, c ' v * 24 ' 
not plaistered over 7 so to say with perishable honours, nor ? T6 P »«- 
adorned merely with God-befitting titles, but Essentially IT^' 
Exact 8 according to the likeness of His Father, and un- 8 a^p.- 
alterably being by Nature That which He That begat Him ^^ yov 
is conceived to be, to wit Very God of God in truth, Al- 
mighty, Creator, Glorified, Good, to be worshipped/ and 
whatever may be added to the things enumerated ae befit- 
ting God. For then shewing Him to be Like in all things 
to God the Father, we shall also shew Him true, in saying 
that if any will not honour the Son, neither doth he honour the 
Father Which hath sent Him : for as to this our enquiry and 
the test of the things just now investigated had its origin. 

24 Verily verily I say unto you, he that heareth My Word 
and believeth on Him That sent Me, hath everlasting Life, 
and cometh not into condemnation, but is passed from death 
unto life. 

Having now proved sufficiently by the foregoing, that the 
miserable Jews sin not against the Son only, by daring to 
find fault with the things which He says or does among 
them in His teaching, but do also ignorantly transgress 
against the Father Himself, and having as far as pertains 
to the force of what has been said, wrapped about their 
over-confidence 9 with fear, and persuaded them to live 9 9 P d<ros 
more religiously l in hope of things to come, He at length ' 
snares them to obedience. And not unskilfully again did ° 
He frame His speech to this end. For since He knew that 
the Jews were still diseased, and yet offended concerning 
Him, He again brings back their faith to the Person of 
God the Father, not as excluding Himself, but as honoured 
in the Father too by reason of Identity of Essence. For 
He affirms that they who believe shall not only be par- 
takers of eternal life, but also shall escape the peril of the 
condemnation 2 , being justified, that is: holding forth fear ^Veo-s 
mixed with hope. For thus could He make His discourse 
more efficacious and more demonstrative 3 to the hearers. 3 8<um- 




270 The Son the Judge. The hour that cometh 

ver. 20 



Book 2. 25 Verily verily I say unto you, the hour is coming and now 
c ' v ' ' is when the dead shall hear the voice of the So?i of God, and 

they that hear shall live. 
Having said that believers shall pass from death to life, 
He introduces Himself as Performer of the promise, and 
Accomplisher of the whole thing, partly hinting to the 
Jews, that marvellous in truth is the Power shewn in the 
case of the paralytic, but that the Son will be revealed as a 
Worker of things yet more glorious, driving away from 
the bodies of men not only sickness and the infirmities of 
diseases, but also overthrowing death and the heavily- 
pressing corruption (for this was what was said a little 
before, The Father loveth the Son and sheweth Him all 
things that Himself doeth and greater worhs than these will 
He shew Him, that ye may marvel; for the greater wonder 
is shewn in the raising of the dead), partly also preparing 
the way for that which would probably in no slight degree 
affright the hearers. For He plainly declares that He will 
raise the dead, and will bring the creature 4 to judgment, 
that through the expectation of one day being brought be- 
fore Him and giving account of everything, they might 
be found more backward in their daring to persecute Him, 
and might receive more zealously the word of teaching 
and guidance. 

To these things then the aim of the chapter looks and 
tends : but we must now explain the words. The com- 
mon account then is (as it seems) that the time will come, 
when the dead shall hear the Voice of Him That raiseth 
5 koI vvv them : and they suppose that it is now too 5 no less pre- 
sent, either as when Lazarus for instance is to hear the 
Voice of the Saviour, or as saying that the dead are those 
not yet called through faith unto eternal life, who will 
surely attain unto it, by having received the doctrine of 
the Saviour. And this method of considering it does in- 
deed preserve a plausible appearance, but accuracy not at 
all. Wherefore ruminating 6 again the force of the words, 
we will affix a more suitable sense, and thus open the 
reading : 

4 rb iroi 

6 avafxa- 

\ ,,«• 

Chap. 8. 
v. 2G, 27. 

Supra p. 

the Resurrection-day . Our Lord's mixed speech. 271 

Verily verily I say unto you, the hour is coming and 
now is, when the dead shall hear the Voice of the Son of 
God; the hour again that is, when they that hear shall 
live. By the words then in the beginning, He means the 
time of the resurrection, wherein He teaches through the 
word of the Judge that they that sleep shall rise again 
to answer for their life in the world, that as I said before, 
devising the fear thence arising as a bridle, He might 
persuade them to live full excellently and wisely : by the 
closing words He shews that the due time of believing 
is now come, but also says that everlasting life will be 
the reward of obedience : all but declaring, Ye shall all 
come to judgement, sirs, that is at the time of the Ee- 
surrection, but if it seem bitter to you to be punished, 
and to undergo endless penalties at the hand of the of- 
fended Judge, suffer not the time of obedience to pass 
by, but laying hold of it while yet present, haste ye to 
attain to everlasting life. 

26 For as the Father hath life in Himself, so gave He to the 

27 Son too to have life in Himself, and p-avp Him anthn r U„ 
to execute judgment also because He is the Son of Man. 

Observe again the economy in these words, that thou 
mayest marvel at the form of expression and not, by fall- 
ing into offence thereat from ignorance, bring upon thy- 
self perdition. For the Only-Begotten, being Man in re- 
spect of the nature of His Body, and seen as one of us 
while yet upon the earth with flesh, manifoldly instructing 
the Jews in matters pertaining to salvation, clothed Him- 
self with the glory of two God-befitting things. For He 
clearly affirmed, that He would both raise the dead, and 
set them at His Judgement-seat to be judged. But it was 
extremely likely that the hearers would be vexed at this, 
accusing Him with reason, because He said that Ood v;as Supra 
His Father, making Himself equal with God. Having min- 
gled therefore with God-befitting Authority and Splendour 
language befitting the human nature, He beguiles the 
weight of their wrath, saying more modestly and lowlily 

ver. 18. 

Book 2. 

v. 28, 29. 

7 eti6\i- 

8 yopyfyv 

Supra p. 
57 sqq. 

272 As man He receives to judge, as God quickeneth. 

than was necessary, For as the Father hath life in Himself, 
so hath He given to the Son too to have life in Himself. 
Marvel not (saith He) if I, Who am now as you, and am 
seen as a Man, promise to raise the dead, and threaten 
to bring them to judgement : the Father hath given Me 
Power to quicken, He hath given Me to judge with au- 
thority. But when He had hereby healed the readily- 
slipping 7 ear of the Jews, He bestows zealous 8 care for 
the profit too of what follows, and immediately explain- 
ing why He says that He hath received it, He alleges 
that human nature hath nothing of itself, saying, Because 
He is the Son of Man. 

For that the Only Begotten is also Life by Nature, and 
not a partaker of life from another, and so quickeneth as 
doth the Father, I think it superfluous to say now, since 
no small discourse was expended hereupon in the beginn- 
ing of the book, upon the words, In Him was Life. 

28 Marvel not at this : for the hour is coming, in the which all 

29 that are in the graves shall hear His Voice and shall come 
forth; .they thai have done good unto the resurrection of 

life, and they that have done evil unto the resurrection of 


I l:-H 



He signifies by these words the time of the resurrection 
l Thess. of all, when, as the Divine Paul wrote to us, The Lord 
Himself shall descend from heaven with a summons, with 
Acts xvii. the voice of the Archangel, with the trump of God, to judge 
the world in righteousness, and render to every man accord- 
ing to his works. He leads therefore by repetition of the 
same things the most unlearned understanding of the Jews^ 
to be able clearly to understand, that He will be a Worker 
of greater deeds than those in which the paralytic was 
concerned, and that He will be revealed as a Judge of 
the world : and by profitably contrasting the healing of one 
sick person with the resurrection of the dead, He shews 
that greater and more noteworthy is the operation that 
9 KvrtK ij V undoes 9 death and destroys the corruption of all, and rea- 
sonably and of necessity says, in respect of the lesser mir- 

His works, less and great : He will Reward and Boom. 273 

acle, Marvel not at this. And let us not at all suppose Chap. 8. 
that by these words He means to find fault with the glory v ' 28 ' 29, 
of His own works, or to enjoin the hearers that they 
ought not to hold worthy of wonder, those things whereat 
one may reasonably wonder, but He wishes those who 
were astonished at that to know and believe that the sub- 
ject of wonder as yet was small. For He raiseth by a 
word and God-befitting Operation not only the sick from 
little diseases, but those also who have been already sub- 
merged by death and overcome by invincible corruption. 
And hence introducing the greater, He says, The hour is 
coming in which all that are in their graves shall hear His 
Voice. For He who by a Word brought into being things 
that were not, how should He not be able to win back 
into being that which was already created ? For thus each 
will be the effect of the same Operation, and the glorious 
production of one Authority. And profitably does He 
subjoin that they shall come forth of their graves, they that 
were holden of base deeds and that lived in wickedness 
to undergo endless punishment, the illustrious in virtue to 
receive the reward of their religiousness \ eternal life : at ' *««- 
once (as we said above) introducing Himself as the Dis- * e/w 
penser of what belongs to each, in these words of His; and 
persuading them, either from fear of suffering dreadful 
punishments, to forego evil and to hasten to elect to live 
more soberly, or pricked with desire after some sort for 
eternal life, make more zealous and eager haste after good. 

VOL. I. 


\ , 

t ■■ 

1 ToDOtO). 

Rom. x. 


Infra x. 

yer. 18. 

2 trvvyrjiri- 

8 rix v7 i v 

ver. 21. 

That the Son is jn nothing inferior to God the Father, but is of 
Equal Might in Operation unto all things as God of God. 

30 I can of Mine Own Self do nothing : as I hear, I judge, 
and My Judgment is just, because J seek not Mine Own 
Will, but the Will of the Father Which sent Me. 

Give more exact heed again to the things said, and re- 
. ceive the force of its thought 1 with intelligence. For the 
Jews not knowing the deep Mystery of the economy of 
flesh, nor yet acknowledging the Word of God indwell- 
ing in the Temple of the Virgin, were often excited by 
zeal, mistaken and not according to knowledge, as Paul saith, 
to savageness of manners and fierce anger: and indeed 
were attempting to stone Him, for that He, being a Man, 
was making Himself God, and again because He said that 
God was His Father, making Himself Equal with God. But 
since they were thus hard of understanding and utterly 
unable to endure God-befitting words, but both thought 
and spake meanly of Him, the Saviour by an economy acts 
the child with 2 them, and made His explanation a mixed 
one, neither wholly foregoing words befitting God, nor 
altogether rejecting human language : but having said 
something worthy of His Divine Authority, He forthwith 
represses the untutored mind of the hearers, by bringing 
in something human also; and again having said some- 
thing human by reason of the economy, He suffers not 
what belongs to Him to be seen in mean estate only, 
shewing often by His Superhuman Might and Words that 
He is by Nature God. Some such contrivance 3 will you 
find now too in the passage at present before us. For what 
did He say before ? For as the Father raiseth wp the dead 

The Son God Who is Judge, Who doth nought of Himself . 275 

and quickeneth them, so the Son too quickeneth whom He will, 
next again, For the hour is coming in the which all that are in 
their graves shall hear His Voice; and besides, that they 
shall also come forth to be judged and to receive their re- 
ward according to their works. But He That saith He 
can quicken whom He will, and in like manner as the Father : 
how shall He not be conceived of as clothed with Might be- 
fitting God ? He Who openly says that He will be Judge 
of all, how shall He not with justice terrify those who deem 
that He is yet bare Man ? For it was like that they being 
Hebrews and instructed in the Sacred Writings, should 
not be entirely ignorant that God should be Judge of the 
world, since they too sang often, Arise, God, judge the 
earth, and again, For God is the Judge. 

Since then He knew that the ignorant people of the 
Jews were vexed at these things, He rids them of their 
accustomed anger by saying in more human language, I 
can of Mine Own self do nothing : as I hear, I judge. As 
far then as one can say, taking the words superficially, He 
derides 4 the understanding of the Jews. For the form 
of expression gives the idea of a sort of weakness, and of 
authority not altogether free; but it is not so in truth, 
since the Son being Equal in all things to the Father, 
hath by Nature the same Operation and Authority in re- 
spect to all things. But He saith that He can do nothing 
of Himself, but as He heareth, so He judgeth : in another 
way again shewing Himself Equal in Mind and Power to 
God the Father. 

For neither will the Father be conceived of as doing any- 
thing without the Son, Alone and by Himself, seeing 
He hath Him as His Might and Power (therefore all 
things were made by Him, and without Him was not made 
any one thing) nor will the Son again do ought of Him- 
self, the Father not co-with Him. Therefore He saith also, 
Of Myself I do nothing ; but the Father That dwelleth in Me, 
He doeth the works. And we shall not suppose that the 
Son is strengthened by the Father, as though weak, and 
again that authority over all things is given Him: for then 

' t2 

Chap. 9. 

c. v. 30. 
ver. 28. 


lxxxii. 8. 
Ps. lxxv. 


* oiayeAf 

Supra i. 

viii. 28 ; 
xiv. 10. 

276 The Son hath all the Power of the Father. 

8 bvarpe 

w *' 

Book 2. would He be no longer God by Nature, as having the glory 
* iira.KTbi' of the Godhead bestowed 5 ; but neither would the Father 
Himself still exist in unimpaired excellency of good things, 
if He had the Word, the Impress of His Nature, such as 
to require Power and Authority from another. For a 
giver of the things spoken of will be sought for analogously 
for the Image and Archetype, and thus in short our argu- 
ment will go forth into boundless controversy, and will 
run out into the deep sea of blasphemy. But since the 
Son being of the Essence of the Father takes to Himself 
by Nature all the Properties of Him who begat Him, and 
Essentially attains 6 to one Godhead with Him, by reason 
of Identity of Nature, He is in the Father, and hath again 
the Father in Himself: wherefore He frequently, Unblamed 
and Truly, attributes to the Father the Power of His Own 
Works, not excluding Himself from the power of doing 
them but attributing all things to the Operation of the 
One Godhead : for One is the Godhead in the Father, the 
Son, and the Holy Ghost. 

And that the Son is not inferior to the Father either 
in Power or Operation unto ought, but is Like in all 
things and of Equal Might, has been demonstrated by 
us elsewhere, on the words, The Son can do nothing of 
Himself but what He seeth the Father do : for what things 
soever He doeth, these doeth the Son too likewise. But since 
I think it just and becoming, to display the most devoted 
zeal in Divine doctrines ; come let us after the custom of 
sailors on the sea wind back anew (as a cable) the whole 
argument of the chapter. For in this way one may see, 
that the Son does not accuse His Own Nature by saying 
that He can do nothing of Himself, but rather exposes the 
folly of the Jews, and plainly shews that they trample on 
the law of Moses. For in that to the words, I can do no- 
thing of Myself, is immediately subjoined, As I hear, I 
judge, it frees the Son from all reproach of not being able 
to act of His Own Power : rather it shews clearly that He 
7 (pihoird- j s j n a ll things Filial 7 and Consentient 8 with Him Who begat 
*°£weet- Him. For if as though impotent He were borrowing Hia 


ver. 19. 

i ! 

One Will in all the Holy Trinity. Of Myself what. 277 

Power of the Father, as not having sufficient of Himself: Chap. 9. 
how ought He not rather to say, I can of Mine Own Self do c ' v " ' 
nothing, I receive the power of my Father ? But now as 
He does not say this, but rather adds to the being able to 
do nothing of Himself, that He so judges as He hears, 
it is evident that not in respect of weakness of opera- 
tion as to ought, does He put that He cannot, but by 
reason of impossibility of transgressing in anything the 
Will of the Father. For since One Godhead is conceived 
of in the Father and the Son, the Will too (I suppose) will 
be surely the Same ; and neither in the Father, nor yet in 
the Son or the Holy Ghost will the Divine Nature be con- 
ceived of as at variance with Itself; but whatsoever seemeth 
good to the Father (for example), this is the Will of the 
Whole Godhead. 

Needs therefore does the Son introduce Himself as 
co-approving and consenting to the Father in whatever 
seemeth good to Him, explaining that He cannot do any- 
thing which is not altogether according to the Mind of 
the Father, for this is the meaning of Of Myself . Just as 
if He should say that He cannot commit sin, He would 
not rightly seem to any to incur the charge of weakness, 
but rather to set forth a wondrous and God-befitting Pro- 
perty 9 of His Own Nature (for He gives to understand 9 *$"»>/"* 
that He is Immoveable and Unchangeable) : so when He 
acknowledges that He can do nothing of Himself, we 
shall rather be awestruck as seeing Unchangeableness the 
fruit of the Unchangeable Nature, than unseasonably ac- 
count the not being able to be a mark of weakness. 

Let these things be said by us conformably to our own 
ability, and let the lover of learning search out for better : 
but we will not shrink from interpreting the saying in 
another way too, lowering our manner of speech a little 
from the bounds of the Godhead and the Excellence of the 
Only-Begotten: and since the Son truly was and was called 
Man, translating l the force of the passage to the economy ^ eT appv- 
with Flesh, and shewing that what follows is akin and con- e M ovr * 5 
nected with what preceded. Therefore He clearly testified 

278 The Incarnate Son Law-giver and Law-keeper. I cannot 

Book 2. 

c. v. 30. 
\er. 28. 

Heb. ii. 
E. M. 

3 &>s «'| 


xv. 9. 

W 4M 

if * 

that all that are in the graves shall hear His Voice, and that 
they shall come forth to be judged. When He has once be- 
gun on the subject of His judging the world, He not only 
promises to be a righteous Judge at that time, in which H.e 
says the Resurrection of the dead will take place, but also 
declares that even now He judges rightly and justly of 
matters in this life. What was the question and of what 
the discourse, hear. For our sakes was He born of a 
woman : for as Paul saith, He taketh not hold of angels, hut 
of the seed of Abraham, wherefore it behoved Him in all things 
to be made like unto His brethren. But since He was made 
Man and in servant's form, He the Law-giver as God 
and Lord is made under the Law also. He speaks then 
sometimes as under the Law, sometimes again as above 
the Law, and hath undisputed authority for both. But 
He is discoursing now with the Jews as Law-keeper 
and Man, as not able to transgress the commands ordered 
from above, nor venturing to do ought of His Own 
Mind, which does not agree with the Divine Law. Where- 
fore He says, I com, of Mine own self do nothing ; as I hear, 
I judge. By testifying to Himself that He can do nothing 
of Himself, which is not wholly in accordance with the Law, 
and that He judges and gives sentence in matters, accord- 
ing as He hears, to wit by declaration of the Law, He ex- 
poses the unbelief of the Jews, and lays bare their head- 
strong habit. For this too the words I can of Mine own 
self do nothing, well hint at, as contrasting with, Ye reck- 
lessly transgress the commandments given you, ye were 
bold to do all things of yourselves, fearlessly 2 , and in every 
matter are ye zealous to give judgments not consonant to 
the Divine decrees. For ye teach for doctrines the com- 
mandments of men, and make your own will a law. 

What then is the aim of this way of speaking, or how 
He introduces Himself as judging justly, and they not, 
shall be told next. He had healed the paralytic on the 
Sabbath day, He compassionated a man who had spent 
long time in sickness, shewing forth right and good judg- 
ment upon him. For it was right to pity the sick man 

implies Ye do. God tends Eis creatures on Sabbath. 279 

even on the sabbath day, and by no means to shut up 
His compassion from reverence for the sabbath day, prac- 
tising a most vain piety 3 . As the Father too works 
even on the sabbath day in regard of His economy 
towards His creatures, and that surely through the Son, 
so doth Himself also. For neither did He think that a 
man who needed compassion on the sabbath day ought 
to be deprived of it, by reason of the Sabbath, since He 
knew that the Son of Man was Lord of the sabbath. For 
not man was made for the sabbath, but the sabbath for man. 
Therefore righteous herein and good is the judgment of 
the Saviour, not restraining by reason of the sabbath 
His Loving-Kindness to the prostrate, but that which 
as God He knows how to perform (for the Divine Na- 
ture is the Fountain of Goodness), this He did even on the 
sabbath day : but the judgment of the Jews upon Him in 
that they were vexed on account of the sabbath, and there- 
fore desired to kill Him Who had done them no wrong, 
how is not this exceedingly dissonant to the Divine Laws 
(for it is written, The innocent and righteous slay thou not) 
and the invention rather of their cruelty, and not of the holy 
Scriptures ? 

Understand then that Jesus says with a kind of em- 
phasis to those who were angry at His deeds of good 
and found fault with His holy judgments, following only 
their own imaginations, and so to speak defining as law 
that which seemed to them to be right even though it be 
contrary to the Law : — I can of Mine Own Self do nothing, 
i. e., I do all things according to the Law set forth by 
Moses, I endure not to do anything of Myself, as I hear, 
I judge. For what willeth the Law? Ye shall not respect 
persons in judgment, for the judgment is God's, why then 
(saith He) are ye angry at Me because I have made a man 
every whit whole on the sabbath day, and condemn not 
Moses who decreed that children should be circumcised 
even on the sabbath. Judge not according to the appear- 
ance, but judge righteous judgment. If a man on the sab- 
bath day receive circumcision, that the Law of Moses should 

Chap. 9. 
c. v. 30. 

3 euKdfitt- 

S. Mark 
ii. 28. 
lb. 27. 

xxiii. 7. 

Deut. i. 


Infra vii. 

lb. 2 L 23. 

280 He Just, they unjust. Self-praise worthless. 

Book 2. not be broken, thus without due cause are ye vexed at 

v 31 32 

' ' seeing a man every whit healed on the sabbath day ? 

I therefore judged justly, but ye by no means so, for ye do 
all things of yourselves. But I can of Mine Own Self do 
nothing ; as I hear, I judge, and My Judgment is just, be- 
cause I seeh not Mine Own Will, as ye do, but the Will of 
the Father Which sent Me. 

What manner of sending this is, and the mode of the 
being sent, we having before spoken of at length, will re- 
frain from speaking any more thereof. But we must ob- 
serve for profit's sake that He says that the Law is the 
Will of God the Father. 

p. 193. 

31 32 If I bear witness of Myself , My witness is not true : there 
is another that beareth witness of Me, and I know that the 
witness which He witnesseth of Me is true. 

xviii. 17 
lb. xxvii 

I I'l. 


The most wise Solomon, gathering together the things in 
which a man may very reasonably glory, and shew his man- 
ner of life to be enviable, and placing them before those 
who are apt to learn, says, The righteous man is his own 
accuser in the opening of the trial, and again, Let thy neigh- 
bour praise thee and not thine own mouth, a stranger and 
not thine own lips. For a thing truly burdensome and 
most intolerable to the hearers, is it that some like not 
to be praised by the voice of others, but attest unrestrain- 
edly their own most noble and excellent deeds. But with 
reason is such language distrusted ; for we are wont to be 
invited by certain (so to speak) natural and necessary draw- 
ings of self-love, readily to ascribe to ourselves nought 
that is ill, but ever to put about us and not altogether 
truthfully, the things whereby any may be thought well- 
* k6viuos behaved 4 and good. 

When then our Lord Jesus Christ adjudged to Himself 
that He judgeth righteous judgments, saying openly that 
He could do nothing of Himself, but that He makes the 
Will of the Father His Rule in all His Actions, and in 
saying this, introduced Himself as witness to Himself, 

ver. 19 

The Son God by the witness of the Father. 281 

although it was true, yet of necessity considering the so- 
phistry 5 of the Pharisees, and what they would say in 
their folly (for they knew not that He is God by Na- 
ture) : He anticipates them in putting it forward, and 
says, Ye following the practice of the common people, 
and not advancing beyond surmise befitting Jews, will 
surely say, Thou bearest record of Thyself, Thy record is 
not true; but ye shall hear this in reply (saith He), I 
endure yet with your blasphemies, I am by no means 
exceeding angry with you belching forth your words from 
the ignorance most dear to you, I grant you for argu- 
ment's sake, that even this hath been well said by you : 
Be it so, ye reject My Voice, there is Another That beareth 
witness of Me. He here indicates God the Father Which 
is in heaven Who hath now in divers manners attested 
the Verity of the Essence of His Own Son; and He says 
that He knows that His witness is True shewing that 
His Own Judgement too is in fact most trustworthy 6 and 
true. For lest by admitting as it were that He said things 
untrue of Himself, He should give room for malice 7 , and 
a loophole against Himself to them who are accustomed 
to think otherwise, He having ceded of necessity to what 
is becoming and customary, that one ought not altogether 
to credit as true him who praises and approves himself, 
returns again as God to His due position 8 and says that 
He knows that the witness of the Father is true, all bat 
teaching this; I being Very God know Myself (says Ho), 
and the Father will say nothing of favour 9 concerning 
Me. For I am Such by Nature, as He, being True, will 
declare Me. In the former a part then there was an as- 
sent b so to say of condescension, and the words hypothe- 
tic rather than true; in His saying that He knows that 

Chap. 9. 
v. 31, 32. 
5 evptai- 

viii. 13. 

6 a^lOTTL- 




9 <«x a P'- 


J ranted to 
and so, of 

a ver. 31 If I bear witness of Myself, 
My witness is not true. 

° ffwaiveo-is. S. Cyril means that our 
Lord agreed to the general principle 
that a man's witness to himself is not 
trustworthy, and says it of Himself, 
in a sense, not refusing to those who 
thought He was mere Man, what he- 

longs to a man, and yet in the next 
verse, re- asserts with" the Testimony of 
the Father His own Testimony also 
(/ know &c), hence that (because God) 
He was a sufficient witness to Him- 

c i. e., on the hypothesis of His being 
mere Man. 

280 He Just, they unjust. Self-praise worthless. 

Book 2. 
v. 31, 32, 

p. 193. 

not be broken, thus without due cause are ye vexed at 
seeing a man every whit healed on the sabbath day ? 
I therefore judged justly, but ye by no means so, for ye do 
all things of yourselves. But I can of Mine Own Self do 
nothing ; as I hear, I judge, and My Judgment is just, be- 
cause I seeh not Mine Own Will, as ye do, but the Will of 
the Father Which sent Me. 

What manner of sending this is, and the mode of the 
being sent, we having before spoken of at length, will re- 
frain from speaking any more thereof. But we must ob- 
serve for profit's sake that He says that the Law is the 
Will of God the Father. 

31 32 If I bear witness of Myself , My witness is not true: there 
is another that beareth witness of Me, and I know that the 
witness which He witnesseth of Me is true. 

xviii. 17 



The most wise Solomon, gathering together the things in 
which a man may very reasonably glory, and shew his man- 
ner of life to be enviable, and placing them before those 
who are apt to learn, says, The righteous man is his own 
accuser in the opening of the trial, and again, Let thy neigh- 
lb. xxvh. oour praise thee and not thine own mouth, a stranger and 
not thine own lips. For a thing truly burdensome and 
most intolerable to the hearers, is it that some like not praised by the voice of others, but attest unrestrain- 
edly their own most noble and excellent deeds. But with 
reason is such language distrusted ; for we are wont to be 
invited by certain (so to speak) natural and necessary draw- 
ings of self-love, readily to ascribe to ourselves nought 
that is ill, but ever to put about us and not altogether 
truthfully, the things whereby any may be thoughb well- 
* Kfofiios behaved 4 and good. 

When then our Lord Jesus Christ adjudged to Himself 
that He judgeth righteous judgments, saying openly that 
He could do nothing of Himself, but that He makes the 
Will of the Father His Eule in all His Actions, and in 
saying this, introduced Himself as witness to Himself, 

ver. 19. 

The Son God by the witness of the Father. 281 

although it was true, yet of necessity considering the so- Chap. 9. 
phistry 5 of the Pharisees, and what they would say in Z'Jt'Jt' 
their folly (for they knew not that He is God by Na- Kv *™ 
ture) : He anticipates them in putting it forward, and 
says, Ye following the practice of the common people, 
and not advancing beyond surmise befitting Jews, will 
surely say, Thou bearest record of Thyself, Thy record is Infra 
not true; but ye shall hear this in reply (saith He), I viii * 13# 
endure yet with your blasphemies, I am by no means 
exceeding angry with you belching forth your words from 
the ignorance most dear to you, I grant you for argu- 
ment's sake, that even this hath been well said by you: 
Be it so, ye reject My Voice, there is Another That beareth ' 
witness of Me. He here indicates God the Father Which 
is in heaven "Who hath now in divers manners attested 
the Verity of the Essence of His Own Son ; and He says 
that He knows that His witness is True shewing that 
His Own Judgement too is in fact most trustworthy 6 and ItItIt^p 
true. For lest by admitting as it were that He said things 
untrue of Himself, He should give room for malice 7 , and 7 f afco - 
a loophole against Himself to them who are accustomed 
to think otherwise, He having ceded of necessity to what 
is becoming and customary, that one ought not altogether 
to credit as true him who praises and approves himself, 
returns again as God to His due position 8 and says that 8 a^iav 
He knows that the witness of the Father is true, all but 
teaching this; I being Very God know Myself (says Ho), 
and the Father will say nothing of favour 9 concerning 9 «€ X api- 
Me. For I am Such by Nature, as He, being True, will '3, ( 
declare Me. In the former* part then there was an as- f av ° ur > . 

. and so, of 

sent b so to say of condescension, and the words hypothe- flattery 
tic c rather than true; in His saying that He knows that 

a ver. 31 If I bear witness of Myself, 
My witness is not true. 

° ffvvalvecris. S. Cyril means that our 
Lord agreed to the general principle 
that a man's witness to himself is not 
trustworthy, and says it of Himself, 
in a sense, not refusing to those who 
thought He was mere Man, what be- 

longs to a man, and yet in the next 
verse, re-asserts with the Testimony of 
the Father His own Testimony also 
(/ know &c), hence that (because God) 
He was a sufficient witness to Him- 

c i. e., on the hypothesis of His being 
mere Man. 

282 Father Other than Son. Baptist asked witnessed. 


Book 2. the witness of the Father is true, is the demonstration of 

v. 33, 34. r\ -\ -\ n ' V i -t i 

1 alioiri. brod-benttmg credibility l . 

But it must be observed that in respect of His Own 
Person the Father is Other than the Son, and is not, as 
some uninstructed heretics have imagined, introduced as 
the Son-Father 3 . 



* vioira- 

33 Ye have sent unto John, and he hath borne witness unto the 


As we have just affirmed that it is disgraceful, and 
not without share of the uttermost folly, that any one 
should be seen as an admirer of his own excellencies, 
even though he should by reason of exceeding virtue es- 
cape untruth : so it is an absurdity cognate (so to say) and 
akin to this, that any not called upon to bear witness to 
any thing, should of their own accord appear before the 
judges or those who wish to enquire. For such an one 
would seem (and that justly) not altogether to be anxi- 
ous to tell the truth, but rather to be over-eager to give 
his testimony, to make known not what the nature of the 
bToKow fact is, but rather his own account of it 3 . Most skilfully 
then, yea rather as God, doth our Lord Jesus Christ, over- 
turning beforehand the charge of the Pharisees in regard 
to this, sajr, Ye have sent unto John : not of his own accord 
(says He) does the Baptist come to give his testimony to 
Me, he is clear from any charge of this : he gave free testi- 
mony ; ye sent to ask John, and he hath borne witness unto 
the truth. For when he was asked by them who were sent 
to him, whether he were the Christ, he confessed and denied 
not, but confessed I am not the Christ, but am sent before Him. 
He hath then borne witness to the Truth, for Christ is the 

i. !-0, iii. 



Hi- «f. 

34 But I receive not testimony from man, but these things I 
say, that ye might be saved. 

He doth not reject the word of John as useless, 

apybv uor declare the witness of the truth to be of none effect* 

(for He would with justice have seemed to have wrought 

it? i 

1 1 


If man's witness rejected, God's abideth. 


absurdity against Himself, by unreasonably 5 dismissing Chap. 9. 
from credence him whom He sent to cry. Prepare ye the 5 ^ a ' p a- ' 
way of the Lord, make straight the -paths of our God) but j^x] 
as striving with the unbounded disobedience of the Jews 3 - 
He proceeds to what is better and of more weight 6 , say- e ^ l0 \ - 
ing that not of necessity is testimony to Himself from voice ? WT€ P a 
of man admitted, but rather giving them more glorious 
proof from the Authority befitting Him Who is by Na- 
ture God, and from the Excellence of the Divine Miracles. 
For a person will sometimes reject the voice of man, as 
not true, even though he be haply enrolled among the 
saints. Which some not scrupling to do, used to oppose 
the words of the Prophets, crying out, Speak unto us other lb. xxx. 
things and declare unto tis another deceit : and yet besides 
these, certain of them of Jerusalem, or of the land of Judah, 
who had escaped into Egypt: to wit, Azariah the son of Jer. xliii. 
Hoshaiah, and Johanan the son of Kareah and all the proud 
men, as it is written, openly disbelieving the prophecies of 
Jeremiah, said, Thou speakest falsely, the Lord sent thee not 
to say to us, Go not into Egypt. But demonstration through , 
miracles, what gainsaying will it admit of; and the being 
borne witness to by the Excellencies of God the Father, 
what mode of stubbornness will it yet grant to the fault- 
finders ? And verily Nicodemus (he was one of their 
rulers, and ranked among those in authority) gave incon- 
trovertible testimony from His miracles, saying, Rabbi, we Supra 
know that Thou art a Teacher come from God, for no man 
can cTo these miracles that Thou doest, except God be with 

Since then to disbelieve even the holy Baptist himself 
who brought testimony as far as words go, was not too 
much for the malice 7 of the Jews, He says again, in a 7 kclko- 
sort of irony d , The blessed Baptist hath borne witness to supra 
the truth, even though questioned by you, but since no- ver ' 33 ' 
thing has been left untried by you, and ye have fool- 
hardily accustomed yourselves to launch forth into all 

d ks iv ?)0€i. This use of $Qos is com- A and often beside, 
mon in S. Cyril ; cf. in xii. Proph. 399 


For their salvation every means used. 

Book 2. manne r of reviling, ye have, it is likely, rejected his voice. 
And since this too seems to you to be right, be it so : 
I am haply persuaded, I agree with you, I will put aside 
for your sakes the voice of John too, and with you ex- 
cept against his testimony : I have the Father from above 
bearing testimony. But teaching again that the expres- 
sion implies assent for argument's sake e , He profitably 
subjoined, But these things I say that ye might be saved, 
that is, I used this manner of speech to you, not that the' 

8 iiroBt- truth is so, but for argument's sake 8 , that by every means 

meats .. , 

ye may be saved. 

And here our second book shall end. 

The second Book of Cyril. Patriarch op Alexandria 
on S. John is finished. 

awalveaiv \modeTinr\v cf. the expression used above p. 281. 

'■' *..- *'* 


Chapter 1. A critical enquiry, why the blessed Baptist is called 
by Christ not only a lamp, but burning and shining; on the 
words, He was the burning lamp. 

Chapter 2. That the Son is the Image of God the Father, wherein 
also is an exposure of the Jews as not understanding the words 
darkly uttered by Moses ; on the words, Ye have neither heard 
His Voice at any time, &c. 

Chapter 3. That Moses was indicating the coming of the Saviour, 
when he said A Prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto 
you like unto me. 

Chapter 4. That oftentimes the departures of Christ from Jeru- 
salem signify the transferring of His grace to the Gentiles, wherein 
is also the discourse ol the five barley loaves and the two little 
fishes; on the words, And after these things Jesus departed 
across the sea of Tiberias. 

Chapter 5. That the Only-Begotten is the Impress of the Person 

* of the Father, and no other impress save He, either is or is con- 
ceived of; on the words, Which the Son of Man shall give you, &c. 

Chapter 6. On the manna, that it was a type of Christ's Presence 
and of the spiritual graces by Him ; on the words, Jesus therefore 
said unto them, Verily verily I say unto you, not Moses hath 
given you the Bread from Heaven. 



Archbishop of Alexandria 



Wisd. iii. 

1 oiaKo- 


to hold 
the helm 

2 iyKo\- 

Isa. xliii. 

ver. 34. 


A critical enquiry why the blessed Baptist is called by Christ 
not only the lamp, but burning and shining. 

Having but now with toil stayed our pen on the second 
book and swum through the dee^ and wide sea of Divine 
contemplations, thinking so to reach the end, as a harbour, 
and all but mooring our skiff on the mainland, we see the 
commencement of another ocean, to witj our course on the 
sequel. Which that we should accomplish with all dili- 
gence, both the nature of the thing shames us into, and 
that said by some one persuades us no less unto, For 
glorious is the fruit of good labours. Come then, let us^ 
mounting up unto a courageous purpose of mind, commit 
our affairs to the guidance J of the good and loving God : 
let us, spreading forth like a sail, the expanse of our 
understanding and embracing 2 the grace of the Spirit as the 
sound of a fair wind from the stern, run out into deep in- 
search. For it is Christ Which maheth a way in the sea 
and a path in the water. Our second book then ended 
with, But I receive not testimony from man ; but these things 
I say, that ye might be saved. Let us begin the third, join- 
ing in order what follows concerning the holy Baptist, of 
whom Christ says; 

TJte Son Liyht as God, the creature enlightened. 287 

35 lie was the lamp burning and shining ; and ye were willing Chap. l. 

for a season to rejoice in his light. 

c. v. 35. 

He likens the holy Baptist to a lamp, in that as far as 
appertains to the measure of man, he shone forth before 
His Coming, yet not with his own light : for not its own 
is the light in the lamp, but from without and bestowed 
and added : thus will you see in the saints also the illumi- 
nation that is from Christ in the Spirit. Wherefore they 
both thinking and acting most wisely do themselves con- 
fess out of their own mouth, Of His fulness have all we 
received. For the Only-Begotten is by Nature Light, in 
that from Light too He beamed forth, I mean, from the 
Essence of the Father : but the creation partakes of it, and 
whatever is endowed with power of reasoning and think- 
ing, is as a vessel most excellently fashioned by God the 
Most Excellent Artificer 3 of all things, with capacity for 
being filled with Divine Light. 

The blessed Baptist then is a lamp according to the 
above-given explanation. The Saviour saying this eco- 
nomically calls the foolish Pharisees to remembrance of 
the Yoice of God the Father, saying of Him, I prepared 
a lamp for My Christ. Very profitably and of necessity does 
Christ now subjoin these things to those already afore- 
said. For. since, cutting off all occasion of unbelief from 
the Jews, and from all sides compelling them to the duty 
of believing on Him, He thought good to agree with them 
in not receiving his testimony, saying, I receive not testi- 
mony from man, that they might not suppose that the Lord 
was really and truly so minded respecting His forerunner, 
as the form of the words gives, — profitably to His present 
purpose, does He introduce him, not as Himself saying any- 
thing of him, but as proclaimed by the Yoice of the Father. 
For He thought that from reverence certainly to God the 
Father, the gainsayer must either be ashamed, or shew 
himself now more nakedly fighting against God, as un- 
restrainedly going against the very words of God the 

i. lt>. 

3 apiffTO- 
r4x vou 



ver. 34. 

Book 3. 
g. v. 35. 

Isa. xl. 3 

* iriKpo- 



U- *"'* 

288 Pharisees unstable. Burning and shining, 

He then (saith He) was the lamp, and ye were willing for a 
season to rejoice in his light. For it behoved Him not only 
to shew that the Pharisees easily went astray from what is 
right, and had by the great impiety of their ways thrust 
from them the will to believe, but also to convict them of 
being fickle, and by no means accustomed to cleave to 
the desire of good things, but after having barely tasted, 
and approved in words only those whom they thought to 
be holy, they were not ashamed quickly to go over to the 
contrary habit. For this I think is the meaning of their 
being willi7ig for a season to rejoice in his light. For at 
the commencement they admired the holy Baptist, as an 
ascetic, as a lover of God, as an example of all piety, but 
they who honour the miracle again insult it, not enduring 
■ to hear, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight the 
paths of our God. For this they are clearly found doing 
through unbelief. 

And now (as I think) having kept the well-trodden and 
commonly-used method of interpretation of the passage, 
we have put forth the meaning of it, according to our 
power : but since the Word of the Saviour extendeth to 
deep meanings, and evidently all but necessitateth the 
taking hold of more subtil 4 conceptions, not merely signi- 
fying that John was a lamp, but also burning and shining, 
we deem it needful to apply ourselves more keenly to the 
force of the words and so track out the beauty of the 
truth. The sentence itself shall again be brought forward. 
He was the Lamp, He says. It would have been sufficient 
by this alone to have pointed out the holy Baptist, so 
that the hearers should go back to the thought of the pro- 
phecy concerning Him, which runs thus, I prepared a lamp 
for My Ohrist. But since He adds to the word lamp, the 
burning and shining, it is thence manifest that He carries 
the hearer back not merely to the prophet's voice, but 
also to some pre-figuring of the Law, fore-representing, as 
in figure and shadow, the torch-bearing of John, which he 
well performed by his testimony to Ohrist the Lord. He 
again convicts the Pharisees wise in their own conceits, 

a reference to Lamp before Tabernacle. 


who were conversant in the Law of Moses and that con- Chap. i. 
stantly, of being ignorant, and rather seeming to be wise c ' v * ^' 
than really having understanding of the Law. This then 
is the whole aim of the discourse : but I think we ought, 
bringing forward the Divine oracle itself, incontrovertibly 
to shew that the blessed Baptist is not simply a lamp, but 
one burning and shining. 

When then God was ordaining the arrangements of the 
holy tabernacle, after the completion of the ten curtains, 
He saith to the hierophant Moses, And do thou command Exod. 
the children of Israel and let them bring thee olive oil re- ™-'.?.° 
fined pure beaten to bum for a light, that the lamp burn al- l.*™"' 
ways in the tabernacle of the congregation without the vail, 
which is upon the testament, Aaron and Us sons shall 
burn it from evening to morning before the Lord : a statute 
for ever unto your generations on the behalf of the children 
of Israel : and tale thou unto thee Aaron thy brother and 
his sons with him from among the children of Israel to min- 
ister unto Me. Thus far the oracle of God, we must now 
proceed to the interpretation of it as far as may be 5 . The * e V5« X o- 
oil without lees and pure, seems to signify the most pure M "' r " , 
and undefiled Nature of the Holy Ghost, Which penetrating 
us incomprehensibly like oil, nourishes and preserves and 
increases the illumination in the soul, as in a lamp. And 
thus we believe that the Divine Baptist also shed forth 
the light of his testimony concerning our Saviour, having 
received the power of being able to illuminate from no 
other source than through the spiritual oil, which mightily 
and effectually availeth to kindle within us the Divine 
Light, to which also the Saviour Himself darkly alluded, 
saying, I am come 'to cast fire on the earth and what s. Luke 
will I, if it be already kindled? The blessed Baptist xiL 49, 
then was again as in type the lamp, that was ever burn- 
ing and shining in the tabernacle of testimony : and its 
shining in the tabernacle of testimony shews full well 
that his illumination was received in the churches, and 
will not be outside the holy and Divine Tabernacle of the 
Saviour. But the lamp being seen without the vail, seems 
vol. i. xj 

290 The lamp a type of 8. John Baptist. Apostles succeed. 

Book 3. 

c. v. 35. 
S. Matth. 
iv. 17. 

Heb. ix. 

xxvii. 21. 

6 SaSov- 

1 irpoay- 


Isa. xl. 3, 

S. Luke 
vi. 13. 

to shew that he will bring in a simpler introductory illumi- 
nation, saying, Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven hath drawn 
nigh ; but of the things hidden within the vail, to wit, 
the mysteries of our Saviour, he revealeth nothing at all. 
For he baptized not unto participation of the Holy Ghost, 
nor did his illumination introduce within the vail : for 
it was in the outer tabernacle, while yet standing, according 
to the mouth of Paul. But when it says, that Aaron and 
his sons shall burn it from evening to morning before the 
Lord : a statute for ever unto your generations, I think we 
ought to understand it after this sort. Aaron and his sons 
signify those who execute the priest's office in the Churches 
in their time, that is to say, the teachers therein and minis- 
ters of the Divine Altars. These are commanded to keep 
the spiritual lamp, that is, John, ever bright, for this is 
the meaning of, They shall burn it from evening to morn- 
ing. For the whole period during which the light of the 
lamp was to appear, is the space of night, whereby is 
signified the term of the present life. For by light we 
understand the life to come. But the lamp burns or is 
kept bright, by always making its illumination 6 percepti- 
ble to those who believe in Christ, and by testifying 
through the mouth of the Priests then being that it is 
true in saying such things of Christ. 

That God may teach thee, that by this He was pourtray- 
ing the fore-messenger 7 of the Saviour, He straightway 
subjoins the election of the Priests. You will attain again 
to the whole scope of the passage by ruminating on some 
such idea as this, and not amiss, as seems to me. On the 
completion of the tabernacle the ordering of the lamp is 
introduced, and immediately after, the appointment and 
function of the priests. For at the completion of the law 
and the Prophets, shone forth the voice of the forerunner 
crying in the wilderness (as it is written) Prepare ye the way 
of the Lord, make straight the paths of our God; imme- 
diately after whom is the ordination and manifestation of 
the holy Apostles by Christ. For the Lord chose out 
twelve, whom also He named Apostles. 

Christ takes the part of His Forerunner. 


Our consideration of the lamp being herein completed, Chap.i. 
let us look again at the Voice of the Saviour. He was c ' y '* 5 ' 
(saith He) the burning and shining lamp, and ye were willing 
for a season to rejoice in his light. He blames in the Pha- 
risees their habit of mind unlearned and hard to be brought 
to obedience and convicts them again of being sick with 
incomparable ill-instructedness and not able to under- 
stand even what they professed to know, and very far 
indeed from an accurate knowledge of the law, wholly 
ignorant of what the Lawgiver was pourtraying afore 
in outline through Moses. For by saying that he was 
the burning and shining lamp, He shames (it is like) 
those who did not yet understand that which was long 
ago too limned out in figures of the Law: by saying, 
and ye were willing for a season to rejoice in his light, He 
introduceth them again as ever preferring their own will to 
the Divine Decree, and accustomed to follow only whom they 
would. For whereas the lawgiver (says He) commanded the 
lamp always to shine and be burning, ye were willing for 
it to shine not always, but for a season only, that is for the 
very briefest period. For ye at first marvelling quenched 
(as far as you are concerned) the light of the lamp, 
most unreasonably accusing him that was sent from God, 
and not only yourselves refusing to be baptized, but also 
forbidding him from baptizing others. For ye sent to him, 
saying, Why baptizest thou then, that is, why dost thou en- Supra 
lighten to repentance and the knowledge of Christ ? The l * 25, 
Saviour then brought a charge alike of folly and trans- 
gression of the Law upon the senseless Scribes and Pha- 
risees, contending with them in behalf of the words of 
John. This I think that the blessed Luke also under- 
standing, most excellently declares and cries aloud against 
their folly, saying, And all the people that heard, that s. Luke 
is, the words of the Saviour, justified God, being baptized vii - 29 » 30 - 
with the baptism of John : but the Pharisees and lawyers 
rejected the counsel of God against themselves, being not bap- 
tized of him. 

u 2 


The Son God who does the ivories of God; 

lu> < !i * 

Book 3. 36 But I have greater witness than that of John ; for the works 

v. 36, 3/. which the Father hath given Me to finish, the very works 

that I do, bear witness of Me that the Father hath sent 

37 Me : and the Father Which sent Me He hath borne witness 

of Me. 

Even though lie was the lamp (saith He) both depicted 
by the books of the law, and proclaimed afore by the voice 
of the holy Prophets, that he should one day appear, 
beaming before the true Light, and declaring among you, 
that ye ought to put in good order the way of your Lord 
and God: yet since he haply seemeth to you not trust- 
worthy, albeit so great in virtue, by reason of your innate 
unruly and most absurd folly, I proceed now to what is 
greater, against which probably ye will say nothing, 
ashamed before the very beauty of truth even against your 
own will. For I am no longer receiving glory by the 
words and judgements of men, nor shall I deem it need- 
ful to collect testimonies to Myself from bare words, but I 
will commit My affairs to witness more credible and far 
greater than these, and from the very magnificence of My 
deeds I make manifest that I am God by Nature, and of 
God the Father, and I nothing wrong Mine Own laws, trans- 
ordering them to whatsoever I will, and trans -elementing 
things which were darkly spoken to those of old, from the 
grossness of the letter to spiritual contemplation. 

But let him that loves learning consider again that the 
Saviour by saying that He is well witnessed to by His works 
as to His being by Nature God, teaches clearly, that it was 
not possible that God-befitting Operation and Power should 
8 Anapa- k e { n a \\ exactitude 8 in any one, unless he too were by Na- 
ture God. For He is testified of by His works, in no oUher 
way (I suppose) save this. For if He is seen a Finisher a of 
the works of His Father, and whatever things are more 
suited to Him Alone, these He too accomplisheth by His 
Own Power : how shall it not be clear to every one, that 
He hath obtained the Same Nature with Him, and Kadiant 

a reXeiurijs, referring to the words, Me to finish them. 
The works which the Father hath given. 

as God has, as Man, receives. 293 

with the Properties of the Father, as being of Him, hath 
Equal Power and Operation with Him? 

Yet He says He hath received the Works from Him 
. either by reason of the garb of human nature and servant's 
form speaking more lowlily that was needful, and this 
economically, or extolling by the title of gift the good 
Pleasure and Approval of the Father, in regard to all His 
wondrous Miracles. For thus does He affirm that He was 
also sent, m that He emptied Himself, as it is written of 
His unalloyed » God-befitting Dignity by reason of His 
Love for us. For He humbled Himself, and we shall find 
the lowliness of this His humbling Himself in no other 
ways than in those whereby He sometimes speaks as Man 
To this agreeth that which is said by the Psalmist of Him 
m human wise for our sakes, I was set a King by Him 
upon Sum His Holy Mountain declaring the Law of the Lord 
For He That is King for ever with the Father, Co-en- 
throned and Co-seated, as God with God who begat Him 
says that He has been ordained 1 King and Lord, saying 
that what as God He had, He received when He was 
made Man to whom reigning is not inherent by nature 
but both the title and reality of lordship are wholly from 

Chap. 1. 
v. 3d, 37. 

Phil. ii. 7 
9 aicparccs 

lb. 8. 

Ps. ii. 



1 Kexeipo- 





That the Son is the Image of God the Father, wherein also is an 
exposure of the Jews as not understanding the words darkly uttered 
by Moses. 

Ye have neither heard His Voice at any time nor seen His 
38 Form and ye have not His Word abiding in you, for Whom 
He hath sent, Him ye believe not. 

One may see that not simple is the arrangement of ideas 
poured forth upon the passage before under consideration, 
but that it is a swarm of hidden contemplations, which 
very easily escapes the mind of uncritical hearers, and 
haply admits of being seen by those only who investigate 
* n-iKpore- more keenly 1 . For what was it (will one perchance say) 
that induced Jesus, when He was saying that He was borne 
witness to by His God-befitting Operation, to come to 
something most exceeding remote as though it belonged 
to the subject? I mean that the Pharisees had neither at any 
time heard the Voice of God the Father nor seen His Form 
nor yet had His Word abiding in them. And I will agree, 
and so I suppose will every one else, that not without some 
cause is this their difficulty. What sense then we shall 
adapt to the passage before us, and what again we, on 
all sides holding by the truth, searching shall provide 
ourselves with, by the Operation and grace of the Spirit 
I will endeavour to tell forth. 

It is the custom of the Saviour Christ, when often mak- 
ing useful discourses with the unskilled Pharisees, to gaze 
into the depths of their heart, and to consider in God- 
befitting manner the reasonings still dumbly revolved and 
stirred up in their mind, and to these in particular to direct 
both His answers and words and exposures, and He does 
not altogether keep the thread of His own words unpassed, 

The Son God, Who answers unuttered thoughts. 295 

but to what they are counselling and imagining in them- Chap. 2. 
selves, to this He keenly replies, and by it shews that He v ' 37 ' 38 ' 
is by Nature God, as knowing what lies in the depth and 
searching the hearts and reins. If any one will, let him 
receive the most clear demonstration hereof, from the other 
Evangelists, I mean Luke and his companions. It is writ- 
ten then in the Gospels, that there were once gathered 
together from all the region round about Judea, Pharisees s Llllw 
and doctors of the law. And, behold (he says) men bearing \- 17 - 
on a bed a man which was taken with a palsy, and they were 1B^23. 
seeking to bring him in and to lay him before him ; and when 
they found not by what way they might bring him in because 
of the multitude, they went upon the housetop, and let him 
down through the tiling with his couch into the midst before 
Jesus. And when He saw their faith, He said unto him, 
Man, thy sins are forgiven thee. And the scribes and the 
Pharisees began to reason saying, Who is This which speak- 
eth blasphemies ? who can forgive sins but One, God ? But 
when Jesus perceived (it says) their thoughts, Be answering 
said unto them, Wliat are ye reasoning in your hearts? whether 
is easier to say, Thy sins be forgiven thee, or to say, Rise 
and walk ? Seest thou how He not waiting their answer 
or murmuring in utterance of words, answers as God their 
inward thoughts? You will find again another example 
too, fashioned after this same manner. For thus says the 
blessed Luke, And it came to pass also on another sabbath lb. vi. 
that He entered into the Synagogue and taught, and there & ~ 9 ' 
was a man there ivhose right hand was withered. Arid the 
Scribes and Pharisees watched Him whether He would heal 
on the sabbath day, that they might find an accusation against 
Him : but He knew (it says) their thoughts and said to the 
man which had the withered hand, Rise up and stand forth 
in the midst. And he arose and stood forth. And Jesus 
said unto them, I will ask you, Is it lawful on the sabbath 
day to do good or to do evil ? Seest thou again evidently 
herein, that He framed His words as looking into the very 
heart of those who were foolishly trying to accuse Him? 
Something of this sort again in the passage too before us 


is s 


Recapitulation of our Lord's speech 

Book 3. we will suppose to have been seen by the Saviour in the 
' ' hearts of the Pharisees. But you will see that the dis- 
course does not spurn the right line, or order of the sub- 
ject, if you do not shrink from going over again each of 
those things which have been already said. 

This great long discourse with them took its begin- 
ning about the man that was healed on the Sabbath Day, 
and by manifold devices and arguments was Christ endea- 
vouring to persuade those who were waywardly vexed at 
the healing on the sabbath, that it is lawful even to have 
compassion on the sabbath, and to do good to all, and be- 
sides, that the Law made the rest of the sabbath a sha- 
dow of a most note-worthy reality; moreover having in 
their judgement broken the honour of the sabbath, and 
hereby specially transgressed the law, He was affirming 
and that very strongly, that He had been sent by God the 
Father, and further was clearly telling them that He was 
borne witness unto by Him, and was well-pleasing to Him 
in all that He did. To these things (as far at least as the 
evidence of the arguments goes) the Pharisees again are 
reasoning with themselves (as waiting on the writings of 
the law, and ever holding out as a pretext the commands 
through Moses, and saying they had read) "What does 
this Man say? how will God the Father be well-pleased 
with one who breaks the Law ? when has He testified, or 
what judgement did He give concerning Him ? For we 
know from the Mosaic writings that God descended upon 
Mount Sinai, and His Face was seen by the fathers, and 
His V&fce (say they) was heard : He spake to the whole 
Synagogue, and commanded them to keep the Sabbath 

Exod.xx. Day, clearly commanding thus. Remember the sabbath day 
to keep it holy, six days shalt thou labour and do all thy 
work, but on the seventh day is a holy sabbath to the Lord 
thy God : in it thou shalt not do any work. And none other 
(say they) heard we saying these things : the multitude 
of the fathers was ear-witness to the Voice from God, and 
after them the Word of God was in us : But who is 

; ] V- 
' i .1 • 


God unseen unheard at the giving of the Law. 297 

When He perceived that they were thus imagining, He Chap. 2. 
exposes them as keenly ignorant 3 , saying, Ye have neither s' 8 '''? 8 ' 
heard His Voice at any time nor seen His Form, and ye ^eai- 
have not His Word abiding in you, for whom He sent, 
Him ye believe not. For the things done in a type at that 
time, and why the descent of God upon Mount Sinai was 
figured out to them, these things they knowing nothing 
of, received them not as images of spiritual realities, but 
were imagining that the Divine Nature could actually be 
seen with the eyes of the body, and believed that He used 
a bodily voice. But that the Word of the Saviour to them 
was true, and that they neither at any time heard the Voice 
of God the Father, nor had any one with bodily vision 
seen His Form, that is, the Word in all things like unto 
Him, I think that we ought again to shew clearly, bring- 
ing to spiritual investigation and test the things written 
in Exodus. It says thus, And Moses brought forth the peo- ib. 
pie out of the camp to meet with God ; and they stood at the gfi ig 
nether part of the mount. And mount Sinai was altogether 
on a smolce, because the Lord descended upon it in fire, and 
the smolce thereof was going up as the smoJce of a furnace, 
and the whole people quaked greatly. And the voices of 
the trumpet sounded, going forth exceeding mighty, Moses 
spake, and God answered him by a voice. Thus far then 
the oracle of the all-wise Moses : but I think we ought 
now too to convict the Jews of stumbling into a most ab- 
surd idea of God, imagining that they had both seen His 
Form, and heard the Voice actually inherent in the Divine 

Come then taking courage in the bounty and grace of the 
Saviour,- let us refine the grossness of the letter of the law 
into spiritual contemplation: for so will that be shewn 
to be true which was said to the Pharisees of God; Ye 
have neither heard His Voice at any time nor seen His 
Form. The people then being brought forth by Moses ib. 17. 
to meet God, as it is written, will be a manifest sign 
and token as in enigma, that none can unled and un- 
instructed come to God, but by the law are they led to the 




Manliness of Christ's own. Mountain, smoke, 

Book 3. 
v. 37, 38. 

S. Luke 
xvi. 29. 

viii. 35. 

3 Karave- 

xiii. 12. 
Ps. xviii, 

knowledge of the things which they seek to learn. For 
Moses will be understood to be put for the Law, accord- 
ing as is said by a certain one, They have Moses and the 
Prophets. But the standing by under the mount, when 
God had now descended and was on it, signifies the readi- 
ness of disposition and resolve of those who are called 
to serve Him, not refusing in any way to apply themselves 
even to things above their power and superior to their na- 
ture, while God is with them. Such in all respects are 
they who are partakers of the Saviour. Wherefore they 
practising manliness above men say, Who shall separate us 
from the Love of Christ ? shall tribulation or distress or per- 
secution or famine or nakedness or peril or sword? for all 
dreadful things are tolerable to the godly for love of Christ, 
and though tribulation should rise up as a mountain, they 
will rise superior 3 against all danger, and will not with- 
draw their mind from love to God. But God is said to come 
down, not upon any low ground, but somewhere on high 
and on a mountain is He seen, that you may think some 
such thing as this with yourself, that although the Divine 
Nature condescending to our understandings, brings Itself 
to our conception, yet is It exceeding far above us, both in 
words and thoughts. For the height and intensity of 
the doctrines respecting It, are signified by the mountain, 
which he tells us was wholly darkened with smoke. For 
keen indeed and not very clear to us are words respecting 
the Godhead, wounding like smoke the eyes of the under- 
standing. Therefore the most wise Paul testified that we 
see through a glass and' darkly : the Psalmist again says 
that He, that is, God, made darkness His secret place, under 
the name of darkness hinting the Incomprehensibleness 
around Him, whereof the smoke about the fire on the mount 
may well be taken as a type. But the Godhead Itself des- 
cended in the form of fire, at that particular time, fittingly 
and of necessity for the nature of the thing. For it be- 
hoved, it behoved that He Who called Israel unto bondage 
and understanding through the law that should be put 
forth, should appear as an Enlightener and an Avenger. 

voices of trumpet. Voice created by God, not His. 299 

And both these ends are accomplished by fire. Yea, and the 
voices of the trumpet (saith he) sounded, going forward 
exceeding mighty, that some such effect of ideas again 
may be wrought for us : for the Law too was proclaimed 
by God, yet not continuously at first, by reason of the in- 
firmity of the pupils, but stammeringly, so to say, and not 
with the whole force of the trumpeter. Wherefore Moses 
too called himself slow of speech. But as time advances, 
and carries forward the believers in Christ from the shadow 
in the letter to the spiritual worship, the voices of the Di- 
vine trumpet waxed exceeding mighty, the saving and Gos- 
pel preaching resounding in a way through the whole 
earth. For not as the Law, feeble-voiced and petty-herald- 
ing 4 , was this heard in the country of the Jews only, or 
proclaimed from Dan to Beersheba, but rather, Their voice 
went forth into all the earth, as it is written. And what 
besides ? Moses spake (saith he) and God answered him by 
a voice. 

Keen be again the mind of the more studious, accur- 
ately let it observe the stability inherent in the Divine 
Oracles. For Moses speaks, and God answers him by a 
voice, not surely by His Own Voice, for this it does not 
say, but simply and absolutely by a voice, wrought won- 
drously in more human" wise by sound of words. For in 
respect of what work will God be powerless ? What that 
God wills shall He not perform, and that full readily? 
Therefore Moses spake, and God answered him by a voice. 
Herein is the type, let us see the truth. You have there- 
fore in the holy Gospels the Lord speaking, Father, glorify 
Thy Son*, and the Father answering by a voice, I both 
glorified, and will glorify again. The Saviour shewed -that 
this is not truly the voice of God the Father, by saying to 
those who were then present, This voice was made 5 not 
because of Me, but for your sokes. Thou "seest how He 
clearly affirmed that the Voice was made 6 , since it is not 
meet to suppose that the Divine Nature useth a v>oice 

a S. Cyril seems to have had both The uncial Ms. L reads also Son in 
Name and Son in his Mss. cf. below place of Name. 
among his fragments on cap. xii. 28. 

Chap. 2. 
v. 37, 38. 
xix. 19. 

lb. iv. 10. 

4 XfTTTO- 
@6r)S T€ 

Ka\ fffju- 
Vs. xix. 


xix. 19. 

cf. supra 
p. 46. 

Infra xii. 


lb. 30. 
5 yeyovev 

6 yeytvr)- 



300 The Father seen in the Son; Jews thought to see Him apart. 

Book 3. 
v. 37, 38. 

>i : ■ 



Jer. viii. 

"i ivvivd- 

xiii. 5. 
cf. Rom. 
i. 20. 

Infra x. 
37, 38. 

Infra xiv, 

with a sound, though It conform Itself to our needs and 
speak like us, economically. 

These considerations were of necessity brought into our 
present discourse : we deemed it altogether needful that 
Jesus should be shewn to the readers speaking truth, 
when He is found saying of His Father, Ye have neither 
heard His Voice at any time nor seen His shape, and ye 
have not His Word abiding in you, for Whom He hath 
sent, Him ye believe not. That the Pharisees puffed up 
unto strange boasting, were wont to pretend that the Di- 
vine Word was with them and in them, and therefore fool- 
ishly affirmed that they had advanced to marvellous wis- 
dom, the Spirit Itself will testify, since Christ says by 
the Prophet Jeremiah unto them, How do ye say, We are 
wise, and the word of the Lord is with us ? For nought to 
the scribes became their lying pen ; the wise men were ashamed, 
were dismayed and taken ; what wisdom is in them ? because 
they rejected the word of the Lord. For how are they not 
taken rejecting the Living and Hypostatic 7 Word of God, 
receiving not the faith to Him-ward, but dishonouring the 
Impress of God the Father, and refusing to behold His 
most true Form (so to say) through His God-befit- 
ting Authority and Power ? For the Divine and Ineffable 
Nature is in no other wise apprehended (so far as may be) 
by us, than through what It effects and works, therefore 
Paul directs us to go from the greatness and beauty of 
the creatures proportionably unto the contemplation of the 
Creator, the Saviour again leads us to the apprehending 
of Himself, saying, If I do not the works of My Father, 
believe Me not; but if I do, though ye believe not Me, believe 
My works. And with great reason did He blame His own 
disciple (this was Philip) who imagined thoughtlessly that 
he could in any other way attain to the contemplation of 
God the Father, albeit it was in his power to consider His 
Uncreated Image, which shews accurately in Himself Him 
Who begat Him. Wherefore He said, So long time am 
I with you, and hast thou not known Me Philip ? he that 
hath seen Me hath seen the Father. 

I i 



Scriptures vainly searched if Christ neglected. 301 

Ye search the Scriptures, for in them ye think ye have eternal ^ " ^'aq' 
life, and they are they which testify of Me, and ye will not 
come to Me that ye might have life. 

The smooth, and passable to the many, and beaten ex- 
planation of the passage persuades us to suppose that it 
was spoken in the imperative mood by our Saviour to 
the Pharisees, that they ought to search the Divine Scrip- 
tures and gather testimonies concerning Him unto life. 
But since by interposing the conjunction (I mean, And) 
He joins on the clause, Ye will not come to Me, He evi- 
dently signifies something else, akin to what has been 
said, but a little different. For if it were to be taken im- 
peratively, how should we not say it was necessary to say 
the whole sentence in some such fashion as this, Search 
the Scriptures for in them ye think ye have eternal life, and 
they are they which testify of Me ; but when ye have search- 
ed, come to Me ? But He is blaming them for not choos- 
ing to come, although led to it by the search, saying, And 
"•g will not come to Me. 

We will then, looking to what is more profitable and 
agreeable to what preceded, read it not imperatively, but 
rather as in connection 8 and with a comma. Of this kind s <?„ avv . 
again will be the meaning of the passage before us. For €<m 
when He saw that they were ever running to the books 
of Moses, and ignorantly collecting thence materials for 
gainsaying, but seeking for nothing else, nor receiving 
what would avail them for due belief: needs therefore 
does He shew them that their labour in searching for 
these things is useless and unprofitable, and clearly con- 
victs them of exercising themselves in a great and most 
profitable occupation in a way not becoming its use. For 
what tell me (saith He) is the use of your searching the 
Divine Scriptures, and supposing that by them ye will 
attain unto everlasting life, but when ye find that they 
testify of Me and call Me everlasting life, ye will not 
come to Me that ye might have life ? Whence then ye 
ought to be saved (He saith) ye perceive not that thence 



ver. 40. 

H ■' 





302 The Son hath glory though man ivithhold it. 

Book 3. ye get the greatest damage to your own souls, ye who 
' ' are sharpened from the Mosaic books only unto gainsaying, 
but the things whereby ye could gain eternal life, ye do 
not so much as receive into your minds. 

For that in the Law and the holy Prophets there is 
much said concerning Him Who is by Nature Life, that 
is the Only-Begotten, will I think be plain to all who are 
lovers of learning. 

41 42 / receive not honour from man, but I know you, that ye 
have not the Love of God in you. 

He perceives again, yea rather He sees in a God-befitting 
way, that the stubborn and contumacious band of the Pha- 
risees were cut to the heart, and that not altogether at 
being accused of not searching the Divine Scriptures as 
they ought, but rather at His saying, Ye will not come to 
Me. For what diseases themselves easily fall into, these 
they think can take hold of the Saviour also. For they 
imagined (it seems) of their great folly that the Lord 
was ambitious, and wished to obtain for Himself honour 
from all, through His calling them to be His disciples. 
Having got some such surmise as this into their minds, 
they expected to be deprived forthwith of their authority 
over the nation : they were cut to the heart in no slight 
degree at seeing the Heir desirous of demanding the fruit 
of the vineyard. Wherefore, as far as pertains to their 
wrath and envy at what is said, they all but say what is in 
S. Matth. the Grospel parables, Oome, let us hill Him and let us 
xxi. 38. nave j£i s inheritance. Taking away then their surmise the 
offspring of emptine'ss 9 , and plucking up beforehand by the 
roots the shoots of envy and evil eye, He says downright, 
I receive not honour from m,an. For I do not (says He) call 
My hearers to discipleship under Me, as though hunting 
for honour from you, or from others, as ye do, nor do I re- 
ceive this as the reward of My teaching, having most full 
glory from Myself, and not short of that from you, but 
I said that ye would not come to ife, because I know well, 
that ye have not the love of God in you. And being desti- 

» ci/caio 



Jews rejecting Christ will receive Anti-christ. 303 

tute of Love to God (says He) Low should ye come to Chap. 2. 
Me, Who am the Only Begotten, God of God? v#43,44 - 

43 I am come in My Fathers Name, and ye receive Me not : if 
another shall come in his own name, him ye ivill receive. 

In order that the Pharisees might not think that the 
Lord was idly railing at them, from His saying, Ye have Supra 
not the love of God in you, He immediately adds this also to Ver ' 42 ' 
the above, shewing that the saying is true. That I do not 
lie (says He) in saying that ye are bereft of love towards 
God, I will set before you by one thing. For I came in 
My Father's Name (for I am persuading you zealously to 
perform all things to the glory of God the Father) but ye 
shook off from you by your unbelief Him That cometh 
from above and proceedeth 1 from God : but ye will surely i 4p/tl $. 
receive (for as God, I know things to come) the falsely- ^ vov 
called, who does not offer the glory to God the Father, 
and demands credence from you, yet works in his own 
name. Whence I suppose the blessed Paul too, having un- 
derstanding, says something true concerning the Jews 
and the son of transgression, Because they received not the 2Thess. 

love of the truth, that they might he saved, for this cause God 

sendeth b them an operation of error, that they should believe 
a lie, that they all might be doomed who believed not the 
truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness. This then which 
is said is a proof that the Pharisees were not slandered 
by our Saviour Christ with empty words, for it introduces 
a prophecy of an event which should come to pass in 
its time. 

44 How can ye believe, which receive glory of men, and seek not 

the glory that is of the only God ? 

He accuses the Pharisees of love of rule and of pri- 
zing honours from men, covertly hinting that they do ex- 
ceeding ill, in unadvisedly putting the diseases of their own 
soul upon God Who can by no means know disease. Next 

" j6>7T€t, sendeth. This, in place of the uncial Mss. A. B. and the codex 
the future shall send, is the reading of Sinaiticus. 

ii.10— 12. 

304 Empty glory. God One. Christ too will accuse. 




* & 


; :;| 




• -* 

- 1 


; J 

< > 4 


i 1 



t ; 

*» . 



Book 3. 
c. v. 45. 

Gal. i. 10. 

Supra pp. 



2 avafial- 


Infra ix. 
lb. 28. 

S. Matth. 
x. 32, 33. 

He says that they, fast held by vain glory, thereby lose the 
fairest prize, meaning faith in Him : whereof Paul too speak - 
eth clearly to us: for if (says he) I were yet pleasing men, 
I should not be Christ's servant. It usually then as of 
necessity befalls those who hunt for honours from men, to fail 
of the glory that cometh from above and from the only God, as 
saith the Saviour. He says only,. opposing God to the gods 
of the Gentiles, and not excluding Himself from the honour 
of the Only. For as we have often said already, the Full- 
ness of the Holy and Consubstantial Trinity mounteth up 2 
to One Nature and glory of Godhead. 

45 Do not think that I will accuse yoti to the Father; there is 
that accuseth you, Moses, in whom ye have hoped. 

Having said that the Pharisees cared more to live vain- 
gloriously than piously, and having taught that hence they 
turned aside to unmeasured unbelief, He says that they 
were accused by Moses himself, of whom it was their cus- 
tom to boast very vehemently. And indeed when the man 
who was blind from his birth once said to them of Christ, 
Will ye also be His disciples ? immediately they cry out and 
say openly, Thou art His disciple, but we are Moses' disciples. 
Even Moses himself therefore (says He) shall accuse you, in 
whom ye put all your hope, and he despised with the rest 
will denounce before God your innate folly. And we do 
not deem that they who believe not in Him will be without 
blame from Christ, by reason of His saying to the Jews, 
Do not thinh that I will accuse you to the Father. For what 
shall we say when we hear Him saying, Whosoever there- 
fore shall confess Me before men, him will I too confess be- 
fore My Father which is in Heaven : but whosoever shall 
deny Me before men, him will I also deny before My Father 
which is in Heaven ? shall we not reasonably suppose, 
that they shall be accused to God the Father for their 
denial, who meet with this from Christ ? But I suppose 
this is clear to every one. The Jews then are not surely 
free from accusal who have through long unbelief denied 
Christ, but this applies to them most naturally. For 
since they shook off His admonitions, and made no ac- 

Moses would lead, else will accuse. 305 

count of His Divine and Heavenly teaching, but are ever Chap. 2. 

J D c. v. 46. 

about duly keeping the Mosaic law, so as to be seen at 

length even more nakedly crying out, We know that God infra ix. 
hath spoken unto Moses, this man we know not from whence 
He is : — most necessarily does He convict them of trans- 
gressing against that Moses, in whom they boast, and says 
that they need no other accuser, but that the law given 
through him will alone suffice for their with reason being 
accused for their unbelief in Him, even though the Voice 
of the Judge, that is, Christ, should be dumb. 

46 For had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed Me : for 
of Me he wrote. 

Having said that the Jews would be accused by the 
all-wise Moses, and would undergo indictment at his hands 
for their unbelief in Him; He profitably subjoins these 
things also, teaching that He was not finding fault with 
them for nothing, or otherwise repudiating the suspicion 
of being given to railing, for it is evident that He is making 
no untrue speech. Be it then (saith He) that ye reject 
My words, I will bear with not being believed : receive your 
own Moses, give credence to him whom ye admire, and 
ye shall know of a surety Him whom not knowing ye dis- 
honour. Break off your types which travail with the truth. 
For I am shadowed out in his books. Therefore will Moses 
himself also accuse you (saith He) when he seeth you dis- 
believing his writings about Me. 

We ought then perhaps having interpreted what is be- 
fore us, to proceed in order, committing it to sincere lovers 
of learning to investigate the images of Christ through 
Moses. For his books are full of passages, and there is 
much said by him, yet full of difficulty to understand and 
replete with exceeding subtle and hidden meanings. But 
lest we seem to let indolence have the mastery over us, 
and unreasonably to shirk so glorious a toil, by simply 
clothing with difficulty the books of Moses, we will apply 
ourselves to this too, knowing what is written, The Lord Ps. Ixviii. 
will give utterance to them who evangelize with much power. 

VOL. I. X 

306 Moses typified Christ's Mystery manifoldly. 

Book 3. 
c. v. 46. 

But since there are, as we have said, many words on 
these things, and since the all-wise Moses hath through 
many forms foretypified the Mystery of Christ, we shall not 
deem it necessary to heap up a great multitude before our 
readers, but having chosen one out of the whole number, 
we will essay to make clear proof that the Word of our 
Saviour was true, which He spake to the Jews, saying, 
If ye had believed Moses, ye would have believed Me, for of 
Me he wrote. 


That Moses was indicating the Coming of the Saviour. 

From Deuteronomy, concerning Christ. 

The Lord thy God (it says) will raise up unto thee a Pro- Deut 
phet from thy brethren, like unto me, Him shall ye hear; fT^{ q 
according to all that thou desiredst of the Lord thy God in 
Horeb in the day of the assembly, saying, Let us not hear 
again the voice of the Loed our God, neither let us see this 
great fire any more, nor let us die : and the Loed said unto 
line, Well is all which they spake : I will raise them up a Pro- 
phet from among their brethren like unto thee, and will put 
My word in His Mouth, and He shall speak unto them as I 
shall command Him. And the man who shall not hearken 
unto what the Prophet shall speak in My Name, I will require 
it of him. Deuteronomy is a kind of repetition and sum- 
mary of the Mosaic books : it is not therefore possible to 
take from it a type and image of the legal priesthood. Yet 
since we are not accustomed to be without understanding, 
who in all think rightly by Christ's aid, we will tell our 
readers and throw open the meaning of the passage in 
hand : Lo again is the mystery of Christ plainly told us, 
skilfully moulded by most subtle contemplation from like- 
ness to Moses. For (says he) a Prophet shall the Lord i b- 15 
your God raise up unto you of your brethren like unto me : 
himself explaining, and that unflinchingly 1 , what is the idea i T opy«s 
•which from the likeness to himself his declaration intro- 
duces to us, clearly subjoins, According to all that thou lb. 16. 
desiredst of the Loed thy God in the mount Sinai in the 
day of the assembly, saying, Let us not hear any more the 
voice of the Loed our God, neither let us see this great fire 
any more, and let us not die. For he affirms that himself 

x 2 


Christ exact Mediator God and 

Book 3. 
c. v. 46. 

h * 

f| I 


; ii p 



1 Cor. ii. 

xxxiii. 20. 

Infra xv. 

Infra xii. 

- avrrj 

was at that time spoken of as a mediator, the Synagogue 
of the Jews being yet powerless to have to do with things 
above nature, and therefore prudently declining things 
above their power. For such was the sight of God, sur- 
prising the vision with unwonted sights, and the echoes 
of the trumpets supernatural and intolerable to the hearers. 

Therefore the mediation of Moses was instituted as me- 
dicine of infirmity for those at that time, ministering to 
the synagogue the things decreed of God. You will trans- 
fer again the type to the truth, and will hereby conceive 
of Christ, the Mediator of God and men, ministering to 
the more teachable by means of human voice (when for 
our sakes He was born of a woman) the Ineffable Will of 
God the Father, made known to Him Alone, in that He 
is conceived of as both Son, of Him, and Wisdom, know- 
ing all things, yea the deep things of God. For since it 
was not possible for the eyes of the body to fasten them- 
selves upon the untempered and bare Divine and Ineffable 
glory of the Essence which surpasseth all things (for there 
shall no man (saith He) see My Face, and live :) needs was 
the Only-Begotten Word of God co-fashioned after our in- 
firmities, clothed in this human body according to the In- 
effable mode of the economy, and manifesting to us the 
counsel from above, that is of God the Father, saying, All 
things that I heard of My Father, these will I declare unto 
you, and again, For I spake not of Myself but the Father 
which sent Me, He gave Me a commandment what I should 
say and what I should spealc. Therefore as an image of the 
mediation, Moses of old may be considered a type of Christ, 
ministering most excellently to the children of Israel the 
things appointed from God : but the mediation of Moses 
was ministrative, that of Christ is free and more mystical, 
in that He takes hold by Nature of the things mediated and 
reaches unto both, I mean the manhood that is mediated 
and God the Father. 

For He was by Nature God, as the Only -Begotten of 
God, as not separated from the Essence of Him Who be- 
gat Him, and in-being in It 2 , as He is conceived to be 

Man. Like Moses otherwise too. To unbelief, wrath. 309 

also of it. But He was Man too, in that He became Flesh. Chap. 3. 

c. v. 4C. 

likening Himself to us, that through Him that which is 

by nature far separated might be conjoined to God. When 

then Moses says, A Prophet shall the Lord raise up unto 

you Mice unto me, you will understand it no other wise than 

we have just said. Since God Himself also sets His seal 

on the word saying, Well is all which they spake; I will D£ ;Ut. 

raise them up a Prophet like unto thee, and will put My 17, 18. 

Words upon Him, and He shall speak unto them according to 

all that I shall command Him. For the Son upholdeth all Heb. i. 3. 

things by the ivord of His Power, as Paul saith, and telleth 

us the words of the Father, inasmuch as He is ordained a 

Mediator by Him, as is sung in the Psalms, as of Christ 

Himself, And I was set King by Him upon Sion His holy Ps.ii.6,7. 

Mountain, declaring the decree of the Lord. 

But if it seem good to any, by other considerations also 

to attain unto the mode of likeness, he will understand 

Like unto me as lawgiver, and will bring forward as proof 

the words, It was said by them of old, Thou shalt not com- S. Matth. 

J J v. 27,28. 

mit adultery, but I say unto you, Thou shalt not lust. He 

will understand again like unto me, saying that He is a kind 

of leader and master unto the being able to understand 

the will of the Father, and to the things whereby there is 

the high road into the Kingdom of Heaven : just as to 

them of old too the blessed Moses appeared a teacher 

of the instruction through the Law, adding everywhere 

to his own words, That thou mayest live long, and that \ y \ ^ u y \ 

the Lord thy God may bring thee into the land which ^> xi -.?» 

He sware to thy fathers. But since he subjoined to what 7. 

has been said, And the man that will not hear what the^ e ^\ n 
. .... xviu. 19. 

Prophet shall speak in My Name, I iv ill require it of him ; 

let the ignorant Jews, who harden their minds to most 
utter stubbornness, consider that they are pouring self- 
invited destruction upon their own heads. For they shall 
be under Divine wrath, receiving the total loss of good 
things as the wages of their rage against Christ. For if 
they had believed Moses, they would have believed Christ, 
for of Him he wrote. 


Moses' writings not superior, but if 

Jl- '\ 

Irr ; ' ; ' 

!lin : 

: j > ■ i* 

t j : - ' 

Book 3. 

c. v. 47. 47 ^J M £ y y e fi e ii eve n0 ( fag writings^ }i QW shall ye believe My 

Words ? 

The verse might appear to a person, and with good rea- 
son, to have great obscurity. For he might even without 
being out of the mark, take to untrue surmises, supposing 
that the books of Moses excel the words of the Saviour. 
For the verse hath some such appearance, and as far as 
one can say, taking it without accurate consideration, it 
furnishes to the Mosaic writings a more worthy repute 
than to the words of the Saviour. For by saying, If ye 
believe not his writings, how shall ye believe My Words, He 
somehow gives us to understand that the writings of Moses 
are in a superior position to His Own words. But the 
very nature of the thing will shew that this so incredible 
idea is replete with the extremest folly : for how shall 
the writings of Moses be conceived to excel the words of 
the Saviour, when his were types and shadows, Christ's 
the truth? And it would not perhaps be hard to expend 
much reasoning hereupon : but things which are obvious 
and receive their proof, not from without, but from them- 
selves, I think it superfluous to say that they are not in ill 
case or the reverse. For why should one waste time mak- 
8 v0£ T °" * n £ ^ ne distinctions 3 about such things, and mince up 4 
*KUT<xKep. -what is by no means hard into unseasonable babblings ? 
Some such meaning as this then hath that which is said 
by the Saviour. If (says He) ye who have the Law written 
by Moses, and thoroughly study his writings, make no ac- 
count of transgression of them, burying in strange oblivion 
that which is full often read, how will ye be better disposed 
to My Words, or how will ye shew yourselves more ready 
and more obedient to My sayings, since ye have not often 
nor always attended them, but hear them by the way, and 
scarce once admit them into the bodily ears ? You shall 
either clothe the verse in this dress, or you may consider 
5 xpyvro- it in another way: for to love of learning 5 belongs the 
Ma labour and research herein. The writings of Moses then 

introduce a kind of preparation for, and typical outline 

their clear teaching rejected, what hope yet ? 311 

of the Mysteries of Christ, and the elements, so to say, Chap, 8. 
of knowledge of Him are the things limned in Moses, as °' V " ^' 
we shewed more at large by the things already examined. 
But the end of the instruction of the Law is Christ, accord- 
ing as it is written, Christ is the fulfilment of the law and cf. Rom. 
the Prophets. They then (saith He) who received not the *' *' 
elements of the beginning of the words* of God, and in their Heb. v. 
folly thrust away the Law which by its clearer letter lead- 12, 
eth them, how shall they attain to yet more perfect know- 
ledge ? or how will the greater be acceptable, if that which 
is little and inferior be by no means admitted? 

a \6yo>y, as reads the uncial Ms. D. in place of \oyiuv. 


That oftentimes the departures of Christ from Jerusalem sig- 
nify the transferring of His grace to the Gentiles : wherein is also 
the discourse of the five barley loaves and the two little fishes. 

Chap. vi. And after these things Jesus departed across the sea of 




1 woXujie- 
pas, as 
Heb. i. 1, 


S. Matth. 
ix. 6. 

First I think it needful to tell my hearers, that the Lord 
evidently did not make His departures from Jerusalem 
without some most necessary reason. There is an eco- 
nomy on almost every occasion, and on the nature of things, 
as on a tablet, He inscribes mysteries. Of what nature 
then is the intent of the departure, and what is signified 
thereby, we will make manifest in its proper time, the 
chapters before us having reached their termination. For 
having divided every thing into sections, and interpreted 
what is profitable out of the Scriptures, and so set them 
before our readers for their understanding, we will offer 
the final consideration of the whole, epitomising in a sum- 
mary what has been said in many portions 1 . But I think 
we ought to speak first on what is now before us. 

After these things (saith he) Jesus departed across the sea 
of Tiberias. After what things, must be sought not negli- 
gently. Christ then was manifested in Jerusalem as a 
wondrous Physician. He had healed the man who had 
been thirty and eight years in his infirmity, not by giving 
him any medicine, not by devising any disease-repelling 
remedy, but rather by a word, as God, by Almighty 
Authority and God-befitting beck : for Arise (saith He) 
take up thy bed, and go unto thy house. But since it was 


Theparalytichealed, the Jews unhealed. Why Christ departs. 313 

xxxiv. 18. 

the sabbath, the Jews are ignorantly angry, who were sick c " a p- 4. 
with the grossness of the letter, who more than he, were 
bound by the folly that was their foster brother, who 
were sick of the listless want of all good things alike, 
who were paralytic in mind and enfeebled in habit, to 
whom might with reason be said, Strengthen ye, ye wealc isa.xxxv. 
hands and ye palsied knees. But they are angry, saying 3 * 
that the honour due to the sabbath ought to be paid 
even by the Law-giver Himself; they condemn Christ as 
a transgressor, not admitting into their mind what is 
written, Impious is he who says to a Jang, Thou transgresscst ? Job 
For these things they received sharp reproofs from the 
Saviour, and much and long discourse was prepared to 
shew that the rest of the sabbath had been typically or- 
dained for them of old and that the Son of Man is Lord S. Matth. 
of the sabbath. But they prepared to no good thing, but 
full ready for all waywardness, rise up against Him Who 
teacheth what they ought to learn, and desire to kill Him 
who would make them wise, rewarding Him, as it is written, - 
evil for good. f|; xxxv - 

After these deeds therefore and words, the Lord, as of 
necessity, departs from Jerusalem, and since the Jeivs' Pas- infra 
sover a was nigh (as we shall find a little further on) He ver " * 
sailed across the sea of Tiberias, or the lake in the country 
of the Jews so called. But since what principally drove 
Him away, and induced Him to withdraw and to go to 
other places and those so far removed from Jerusalem, was 
(we have just said) that the Jews' Passover was nigh, I think 

a The words, the Jews' Passover, here 
and just below have been retained in the 
text as there is no manuscript authority 
for omitting them. But the whole con- 
text indicates that the true reading is, 
i] hopr)) roiv lovSalav, the Jews' feast 
(though no known MS. of the Gospels 
is cited as so reading); for the whole 
scope of the passage that follows is 
upon the Feast of Tabernacles, not the 
Passover. S. Cyril appears to take this 
chapter as contemporaneous in time 
with chapter 7, in the commentary on 
which no notice is taken of verse 2, 
Now the Jews' feast of tabernacles was 
at hand, except as forming the heading 

of the chapter (Book iv chapter v). It 
was pointed out to me some years ago 
by the Rev. F. J. A. Hort, that an old 
Latin translation of this work by George 
of Trebizond omits the mention of the 
passover here. But George of Trebizond 
lived in the fifteenth Century and does 
not appear to have had access to any 
Ms. better or at all differing from that 
from which Cod. Vat. and Cod. S. Marci, 
Venice are co-transcripts, and moreover 
his translation is very free and often of 
the nature of an abstract rather than 
a translation. It becomes impossible 
therefore to lay any stress on bis onus, 
sion of the words. 

314 Feast of Tabernacles what. People easily sivayed. 

Book 3. 
cap. vi. 1. 


' : ii. 



i ' ' 

4 w 

vii. 1. 

lb. 3. 

it fitting to shew that exceeding well did Jesus eschew 
being found in Jerusalem at that time. 

The Law of Moses then commanded that the Jews should 
hasten from the whole country round about to Jerusalem, 
there to celebrate in a type the feast of tabernacles. 
And the spiritual person will thence perceive the gather- 
ing together of all the Saints into Christ, when they shall 
be brought together from the whole world after the re- 
surrection of the dead to the city which is above, the 
heavenly Jerusalem, there to offer the thank-offerings of 
the true pitching of tabernacles, that is of the framing 
and abidance of bodies, corruption having been destroyed 
and death fallen into death. As far as one can speak 
as to the fact of history, the multitude of them who 
went up to Jerusalem knew not number, and it was prob- 
able that at that time the Pharisees had great influence, 
making believe to take the part of the law, and mid so 
great a multitude crying out against the transgressor, 
or Him Who seemed to them to transgress. For it is 
not at all hard to fire up the countless swarm of com- 
mon people, when one says that they are wronged and 
endeavours to stir them up even against those that have 
nothing wronged them. For like water or fire, they 
are flung about everywhere by unconsidered and ran- 
dom impulses, and advance to everything that can hurt. 
These things then the Lord not ignorant of, withdraws 
privily from Jerusalem with His disciples, and goes across 
the sea of Tiberias. But that He does exceeding well in 
shunning the Jews who desire to kill Him, we shall see 
by these things also. For the blessed Evangelist himself 
says, And after these things Jesus walked in Galilee, for 
He would not walk in Jewry because the Jews were seeking 
to kill Him. 

That He avoids walking -in Jewry, in order not to un- 
dergo death before His time, I will grant (will some one 
haply say) but whether He also avoids the feast, I do 
not yet know. They then that were reputed His brethren 
come to Christ in Galilee, saying, Depart hence and go into 


Christ's lesson through Eis flight Aliens the Church. 315 

Judcea, that Thy disciples also may see the works that 
Thou doest. But the Lord answered them, Go ye up unto 
the feast, I go not up unto this feast, for My time hath not 
yet been fulfilled. 

It is then very plain and clear, that the Saviour had 
withdrawn from Jerusalem, not only sent into voluntary 
banishment, so to say, from thence, but also loathing the 
abomination of the unbelieving, both by His skill eluding 
the fierceness of His persecutors, and by His prudence 
thrusting back the dart of envy. He withdraws again, 
albeit able to suffer nothing, even though He were pre- 
sent, that He may limn us a fair example, not of cow- 
ardice, but of piety and charity towards our neighbour. 
For we shall know, led as by a pattern to the know- 
ledge of what is profitable, that if our enemies persecute us, 
even though no harm at all be seen in our remaining, yet 
by retiring, and thereby evading the broadside of the on- 
slaughts, and retreating from present heat, we may find 
the anger of those who wrong us beyond its zenith, and 
may cut away the boldness of their arrogance, profiting 
those who were not good towards us, and that unjustly, 
rather than ourselves profited, which is plainly, not seek- 
ing our own but also others' good. The work of love 
then, is the not wholly withstanding those who wish us 
evil, nor by being satisfied with not being able to suffer 
anything even if present, to work in them anger more 
bitter, from its not being able to attain the mastery over 
that which is hated. Love then, as Paul says, seeketh not 
her own, and this was purely in Christ. 

But if you fix again the keen eye of the understanding 
upon what is written, you will be surprised to find a most 
excellent economy in the departures of our Saviour, I mean 
from Jerusalem. For He is driven out oftentimes by the 
mad folly of the Jews, and lodging with the aliens, seems 
both to be kept safe by them, and to enjoy due honour. 
Where by He gives judgment of superiority to the Church 
of the Gentiles, and through the piety of others, convicts 
them of Israel of their hatred of God, and shews the cruel- 


lb. 8. 

xiii. 5. 

316 The sea severs from Christ them who provoke Him. 


Book 3. ty that is in them by means of the gentleness that is in 

CAP. VI. 1. J . J ° 

these, that m every respect they may be proved to have 
been well and rightly thrust out of the promise to the 
fathers. But the Lord having hastened away from Je- 
rusalem, lodges not at one of the cities round about, nor 
takes up His abode in the neighbouring villages, but 
goes across the sea of Tiberias, by a most evident act all 
but threatening thqse who blasphemously take up the 
idea that they ought to persecute Him, that He would 
so far depart from them and estrange Himself from their 
whole nation, as even to make the way of their conver- 
sion to Him in some sort impassable : for the sea can by 
no means be trodden by foot of man. Some such thing as 
this will He be found saying to them in what follows too, 
Ye shall seek Me and shall not find Me, and whither I go, ye 
cannot come. For most smooth and easy and free from rug- 
gedness to those who by faith go to Him is the way of 
righteousness; rugged and up-hill, yea rather, wholly im- 
passable to them that provoke Him, as is said by one of 
the holy Prophets, For right are the ways of the Lord, and 
the just shall ivalk in them, but the transgressors shall fail 
therein. Therefore the intervening tract of sea signifies the 
toilsomeness yea rather the impassableness by the Jews, of 
the way to Him, since God declares that He hedges up the 
lb. ii. 6. ways of the ungodly soul, saying in the Prophets, Therefore, 
behold, I will hedge up her way with thorns, and she shall not 
find her path. What then the thorns there signified, this 
here too the sea in that it separates the Insulted from those 
who chose recklessly to insult Him, and severs the Holy 
from the unholy. 

But the type seems as though it were pregnant to us 
with yet another hidden mystery. For when Israel was 
sent forth from the country of the Egyptians, Pharaoh was 
following in exceeding exasperation and, maddened at the 
unexpected well-doing of the nation, was hastening by law 
of battle to dare his envious and grievous designs ; he was 
following, thinking he should be able to constrain to re- 
turn to bondage those who had late and hardly slipped 

vii. 34, 
viii. 21. 

Hos. xiv, 


Pharaoh of 'old drowned,now Jews make them selves Pharaoh. 317 

away from under his serfdom: but God was leading His 
people through the midst of the sea; and he hotly pursu- 
ing, and by no means enduring to abate his anger, and 
foolishly persuaded of his ungoverned wrath to fight against 
God, was swallowed up in the midst thereof with his whole 
army, and Israel alone was saved. But let now too Moses 
come forward in the midst of us, who lamented beforehand 
the mad folly of the Jews, and let him in his indignation at 
their impiety towards Christ say to them, An evil and adul- 
terous generation, do ye thus requite the Lord? Him that 
bare thee through the midst of the sea and through mighty 
waves thou drivest over the sea, and dost thou not blush at 
persecuting Him? Thine then is the suffering, Jew: 
thee will the sea at last swallow up. For to the persecu- 
tors, not to the persecuted did death belong both then in 
their case, and now in regard of Christ and of the unholy 
Jews. The divine David too singe th to us, Let not the 
waterflood overflow me, neither let the deep sivalloiv me up, 
hinting at the all-dread shipwreck of the Synagogue of 
the Jews, and entreating not to be swallowed up with 
them in their depth of ignorance. But in respect of the 
Egyptians and him that ruled over them, the peril was 
then of their earthly bodies, but the Jews' conduct be- 
ing in respect of what is more precious, more severely 
are they punished; for they undergo punishment of the 
soul, receiving recompence proportionate to their wicked- 
nesses. For with reason was Pharaoh punished, endeav- 
ouring to get what was free into bondage: contrariwise 
again justly is Israel punished, for not entering into 
bond-service under the Lord of all: but what the one 
was to him in the might of his greed, this was he too 
found to be towards God from his great vain-glory. 

We must note, that he calls the Lake of Tiberias a 
sea, in accordance with the words of Divine Scripture, /or 
the gathering together of the waters called the" Creator Sea*. 
Among profane 2 writers too the word is often indifferently 
used, insomuch that some do not hesitate sometimes to 
call the sea a lake. 

Chap. 4. 
cap. vi. 1. 

xxxii, 5, 

Ps. Ixix. 


Gen. i. 10. 

2 irapa 
rots e£« 

318 Christ's ascent into the mountain. Loyalty of 

Book 3. 
c. vj. 2-4. 


Infra xii. 

1 " 

viii. 48. 
S. Matth 
xiii. 55. 


cf. Wis- 
' dom xiii. 

h ] 

; 1 : ■ 
•1 ' ■ 

v. 36 v 
Infra x. 
37, 38. 

-r : 


■ 1 r : 

xiii. 5. 

2 And a great multitude was following Him because they saw 

3 His miracles which He did on them that were diseased: and 
Jesus went up into the mountain and there He sat with His 

4 disciples, and the Passover, a feast of the Jews, was nigh. 

For when Christ had gone forth from Jerusalem, ac- 
cording to that which is said in the Prophets; I have 
forsaken Mine House, I have left Mine heritage; when hav- 
ing spurned the disobedient and unruly people of the 
Jews, He gave Himself to the aliens, then a great multi- 
tude follow eth Sim. But He goeth up into a mountain, ac- 
cording to that surely which He had afore said, And I, if 
I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto Me. 
For He was lifted up from the earth, on ascending the 
Cross for our sakes; He was lifted up again in another 
way having ascended as unto a mountain, unto God-be- 
fitting honour and glory. For we do not, like Israel, dis- 
honour Him as Man, but we worship Him as God and 
Saviour and Lord. For among them He was conceived 
of as some lowly one and as nothing at all ; and verily they 
would shrink not from calling Him a Samaritan, and with 
graver dishonour would call Him the carpenter's Son : but 
among them who believe on Him, He is admired as the 
Mighty Worker and God, a Doer of miracles. For you 
may hear how pious is the purpose of them who followed 
Him. For because they saw His miracles upon the infirm, 
therefore they thought they ought to follow Him more 
zealously, as being led from the things performed propor- 
tionably unto the knowledge of the Performer, and from 
His God-befitting Authority considering that He who was 
clothed therewith is by Nature Son. For by this way the 
Saviour commanded us to advance unto faith in Him. 
For the works that I do (saith He) the very works bear 
witness of Me, and again, If I do not the vjorks of My 
Father, believe Me not, but if I do, though ye believe not 
Me, believe My works. As then from the greatness of the 
beauty of the creatures, their Maker God is seen, so from 
miracle, by a like process of thought, the Perfecter of 

His followers. The brave and loyal shall ascend too. 319 

signs is seen, and the faith of His followers is rightly 
marvelled at. 

But I deem that some more special and not obvious in- 
terpretation is concealed in the things said. For we see 
that the Evanglist says that they who followed Christ were 
not only glad beholders 3 of miracles, but also of what mir- 
acles they were most just admirers. For he adds, Which 
He did on them that were diseased, that hence he might 
shew that the frame of mind of those that followed Him 
was contrary to that of the Jews. For these because He 
had healed the sick of the palsy, are impiously angry, 
but the former not only admire Him for these things when 
present, but also flock together to Him at His departure, 
as Wonder-worker and God. Let us then, who have 
subscribed 13 unto ourselves Christ as our Lord, flee the 
ignorance befitting the Jews, let us cleave to Him by 
patience, as the most wise disciples did enduringly, by no 
means enduring to depart from Him and be deserters, but 
by our very deeds crying aloud, that which was valiantly 4 
spoken by Paul, Who shall separate us from the love of 
Christ ? Let us then follow Him, both persecuted and in flee- 
ing from the stubbornness of those who strive against Him, 
that we may both go up into a mountain and there sit with 
Him, that is, may spring up into glorious and most ex- 
cellent grace, by reigning together with Him, according as 
Himself said, Ye which have followed Me in My temptations, 
in the regeneration when the Son of Man shall sit in the throne 
of His glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging 
the twelve tribes of Israel. For I think that the disciples 
being said to abide with the Saviour, and to go up into a 
mountain and sit with Him, introduces these ideas. 

5 When Jesus therefore lifted up His Eyes and saw that a great 
company cometh unto Him, He saith unto Philip, Whence shall we 

6 buy bread that these may eat ? and this He said to prove him, for 

7 He Himself knew what He would do. Philip answered Him, 
A lesson most excellent did Christ again devise for His 

b iiriypa<j>6fj.evoi. The word was used inscribe his name as their Patron on the 
of the neroiKoi at Athens who were public Register. Liddell and Scott sub 
obliged by Law to have a Patron and to voce. 

Chap. 4. 
c vi. 5,6. 

3 (j>i\o6e- 


4 veaviKzct 

viii. 35. 

S. Matth. 
xix. 28, 
cf. S. 
xxii. 28. 

320 Hospitality to be striven after. Christ looks on and 

Book 3. 
c. vi. 5, 6. 

5 UKpiXTOlS 


t \ if 

Vi I'- 
ll l: 





KrjffftV to 

grow stiff 

7 Karave- 


29, 30. 

vi. 26. 

8 iravSat- 
x. 3. 

disciples, and fittest for the most holy men, both per- 
suading them in utter 5 straits to overcome cowardice in 
respect of hospitality, and to cast far away hesitation 
hereto, rather with more zealous motions to attain unto 
the virtue thereof. For what is there greater than this 
among those who know and will the things whereby it 
befitteth to purchase unto themselves the friendship from 
above ? For when no small crowd cometh to Him, and 
an innumerable multitude is pouring forth like waters 
upon the parts, wherein He was stopping, He immediately 
ordered them to make preparations for feeding them. And 
in truth it was not unlikely that the zeal even of a very 
rich man would numb 6 , by the multitude of those he saw 
startled into fear of not being able to be hospitable. But 
Christ shews that it is nothing at all great, when our 
brotherly love comes to a few, but wills that we should 
overcome with manful courage 7 alsa things that surpass 
our expectation, firmly grounded by confidence in Him to 
boldness unto all good things. 

In regard then of the narrative, the force of what is 
said, aims not away from the mark; but changing again 
these things unto their spiritual significance, and cutting 
away the gross typical dress, we say more openly, that 
those who by good zeal and faith seek Him, God fore- 
beholdeth, as from a mountain, that is from His high and 
God-befitting foreknowledge, according to that which is 
said by Paul, For whom He did foreknow and predestinate 
to be conformed to the Image of His Son, these He also 
called. Christ then lifts up His Eyes as shewing that they 
who love Him are worthy of the Divine Gaze, even as 
in blessing it was said to Israel, The Lord lift up His Coun- 
tenance upon thee and give thee peace. But not by the mere 
looking on them is His grace toward them that honour 
Him bounded, but the blessed Evangelist adding some- 
thing more, shews that the Lord was not unmindful of the 
multitudes, but well prepared for their food and entertain- 
ment 8 : that hereby again thou mayest understand that 
which is delivered us in Proverbs, The Lord will not suffer 




provides for His own. Philip why questioned. Whence. 321 

the righteous soul to famish. For He sets before them 
Himself, as Bread from Heaven, and will .nourish the souls 
of them that fear Him : and prepareth all things sufficient 
to them for sustenance, as he saith in the Psalms, Thou 
preparest their food, for thus is Thy provision. And Christ 
Himself somewhere saith, Verily poerily I say unto you, he 
that cometh to Me shall never hunger. For He will give, 
as we said before, food from heaven, and will richly be- 
stow the manifold grace of the Spirit. He prepareth more- 
over to give food to them that come to Him, not even 
awaiting their asking. For we hioiv < not what we should 
pray for as we ought, but He forecometh us in reaching 
forth those things which preserve us unto eternal life. 

He saith then unto Philip, Whence shall we buy bread? We 
must needs see, why to Philip, although the rest of the 
disciples were standing by and cleaving to Him: Philip 
then was a questioner and apt to learn 9 , but not over quick 
in ready power of understanding the more Divine. This 
you will learn, if you consider with yourself that he, after 
having followed the Saviour for a long time and gathered 
manifold lessons concerning His Godhead and gotten to 
himself apprehension through both deeds and words, as 
though he had learnt nothing yet, in the last times of 
the economy says to Jesus, Lord, shew us the Father, 
and it sufficeth us ; but as saying it in his simplicity 1 he 
was fitly re-instructed, So long time am I with you, and 
hast thou not known Me, Philip? saith Christ. Therefore 
as to one duller of understanding, and advancing more 
slowly than he ought to the apprehension of things more 
Divine, He puts forth the question, exercising the disciple 
in faith. For this is one meaning of, To prove him 2 , in 
this passage, although as the blessed Evangelist affirmed, 
He Himself knew what He would do. 

But His saying Whence shall we buy proves the uncare 
for money 8 of them that were with Him, and their volun- 
tary poverty for God's sake, in that they had not even 
wherewithal to buy necessary food. Together with this 
He works something, and orders it skillfully. For He 

VOL. I. y 

Chap. 4. 
c vi. 6, 6. 

Ps. Ixy. 9. 

ver. 35. 



9 (piAofia- 

xiv. 8. 
1 d/co/fo- 
lb. 9. 

2 iretpd- 
C(*>v, temp- 

3 rb a<pi- 

• I 

f '-'■ 



Book 3 


4 els 




Whence. S. Philip's slow advance. 

I J 



i * 




. says Whence, not emptily, as to those who had taken no 
trouble to provide anything at all, but as to those who 
were accustomed to entire uncare for money 4 . Exclud- 
ing then, and cutting short most skilfully expectation 
arising from money, He well nigh persuades them to go 
on to entreat the Lord, that He would, if He willeth 
them when they have nothing to feed those that come 
to Him, by His unspeakable Power and God-befitting 
Might create food. For this was what yet remained, 
and He was calling them at length to see that their only 
remaining hopes were thence, according to the Greek 

— the iron wound of necessity. 

Two hundred pennyworth of bread is not sufficient for them, 
that every one of them may take a little. 

Feebly again does Philip advance, not to the power of 
Jesus to do all things, and that easily, but on hearing Whence 
shall we buy said to prove him, forthwith he catches at it, 
and looks at the means by money alone, not conceiving that 
the nature of the thing may be accomplished otherwise 
than by the common law, and that practised by all, to 
wit, prodigality of expenditure. Therefore as far as regards 
5 a<pi\o- the disciples' uncare for money 5 and their possessing no- 
XptiM-aTov fljjug^ an( j Philip's own apprehension, which did not as 
yet with perfect clearness view the exceeding dignity of 
our Saviour, liberality towards the multitudes is turned 
into an impossibility. But it was not so, the will of the 
Saviour conducts it to its completion. The impossible with 
men is possible with God, and the Divine Power proves on 
all sides superior to the natural order of things with us, 
strong to accomplish all things wondrously, even what 
overleap our understanding. 

8 One of His disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter's brother, saith 

9 unto Him, There is a lad here which hath five barley loaves 
and two small fishes, but what are they among so many ? 

10 Jesus saith, 

He both thinks and reasons akin to Philip, and is con- 

S. Luke 
xviii. 27. 

8. Andrew's tardy apprehension exalts Christ's Might. 323 

victed of having a kindred apprehension of the Saviour 
Christ. For neither considering the power, nor yet led by 
the greatness of His preceding works unto Jesus' being 
able for all things, and that most easily; he points out 
what the lad has, but is evidently weak in faith : for what 
are these (he says) among so many ? Albeit (for we must 
say it) in no unready way 6 but resolutely rather ought 
he to go forth to the memory of those things which had 
been already miraculously wrought, and to consider that 
it was a work by no means strange or foreign from Him 
Who had transformed into wine the nature of water, had 
healed the palsied and driven away so great an infirmity by 
one word, that He, I say, should create food of that which 
had no being, and multiply Divinely the exceeding little that 
was found ready to hand. For the Authority that wrought 
in the one, how should it not be able to work in the other? 
Wherefore the pair of disciples answered more feebly than 
was meet. But herein we must consider this again. For 
those things which appear^to have been little falls in the 
Saints, are oftentimes not without their share of profit, but 
have something wrapt up with them, helpful to the nature 
of that in regard to which is the charge of their apparent 
infirmity. For the above mentioned holy disciples, having 
considered, and openly said, one, that Two hundred penny- 
worth of bread is not sufficient for them that every one may 
take a little, the other, of the five loaves and two little fishes, 
that what are these among so many ? raise the marvel to its 
height, and make the Might of the Saviour most marked, 
indicating by their own words the multitude that but now 
was to be filled, and the strength of their unbelief is con- 
verted into good testimony unto Christ. For in that they 
confessed that so large money would not suffice the multi- 
tude for even a slight enjoyment, by this very thing do they 
crown the Ineffable Might of the Host, when He, while 
there was nothing (for, as Andrew says, what were the lad's 
supplies among so many ?) very richly outdid His work of 
love towards the multitude. 

The like littleness of faith we shall find in the wilderness 

y 2 

Chap. 4.,9. 



ver. 7. 


324 Moses understood not. Duty of faith since 

Book 3. 

c. vi. 8,9 


-i j, 

"' ~'i 
-: i\ 


u J" 

a 1 1 J 

Num. xi 

lb. 23. 

in the all-wise Moses too. For they of Israel were weeping 
and, excited to a foul lusting after the tables of Egypt, 
were picturing to themselves unclean dishes of flesh, and 
turning aside after most strange pleasure, of onions and 
garlic, and the like unseemly things, and disregarding the 
Divine good things, were attacking Moses their mediator 
and leader. But God was not ignorant, for what the multi- 
tude were eagerly groaning, and promised to give them 
flesh. But since the promise of liberality was made in the 
wilderness, and the thing appeared hard of accomplishment, 
as regards man's understanding, Moses came to Him cry- 
lb. 21, 22. ing out, The people among whom I am, are six hundred 
thousand footmen, and Thou saidst, I will give them flesh, 
and they shall eat a whole month : shall the flocks and the 
herds he slain for them, and shall it suffice them ? And what 
said God to these things ? Will the Lord's Hand suffice not? 
For unto what can God be powerless ? 

Therefore one may well say to the words of Philip and 
Andrew also, Will the Lord's Hand suffice not ? And let us 
too taking the nature of the thing by way of example, hold 
that littleness of faith is the worst of sicknesses and sur- 
passes all evil, and if God work or promise to do, be it 
full surely received in simple faith, and let not the Deity 
be accused, from our inability to conceive how what is 
above us shall happen, by reason of our own powerless - 
ness unto ought. For it becomes the good and sober- 
minded and him that hath his reason sound, to consider this 
too in his mind, how the bodily eye too sees not surely as 
far as one would like, but as far as it can, and as the limit 
of our nature permits. For the things that are situated 
at too great a height, it cannot distinguish, even if it im- 
agine them, with difficulty snatching even the slightest 
view of them. So do thou conceive of the mind of man 
also, so far as the bounds given it by its Maker it attaineth 
and stretcheth forth, even if it be wholly purified ; for it 
will see none of those things that are beyond, but will give 
way, even against its will, to what is above nature, wholly 
unable to grasp them. The things then that are above 

nature so weak. God spared not Moses doubting. 325 

us are received by faith, and not by investigation, and as Chap. 4. 
he that so believes is admired, so he that falls into the °' V1 * ' 
contrary is by no means free from blame. And this will 
the Saviour Himself testify, saying, He that believeth on the Supra 
Son is not condemned, but he that believeth not is condemned 

Now having once taken up the discourse upon the duty 
of not mistrusting God, come, let us again shewing forth 
somewhat out of the sacred writings, put it forward, and 
blazon forth the punishment of the unbelief for the profit 
of our readers. Therefore (for I will go again to the 
hierophant Moses) he was once bidden, in the wilderness, 
when the people were oppressed with intolerable thrist, 
to take Aaron, and smite the rock with his rod, that it 
might gush forth fountains of water. But he, not wholly 
believing the words of Him Who bade Him, but faint- 
hearted by reason of human nature, saith, Hear notv, ye Num. xx. 
rebels, must we fetch you water out of this rock ? And Moses ' ' 
lifted wp his hand and with his rod he smote the rock once 
and again, and much water came out: and the Lord spake lb. 12. 
unto Moses and Aaron, Because ye believed Me not, to sanctify 
Me in the eyes of the children of Israel, therefore ye shall 
not bring this congregation into the land which Ihave given 
them. Is it not hence clear to every one, how bitter the 
wages of unbelief? And if Moses so great as he was, was 
reproved, whom shall God spare, upon whom will not He 
who thus respecteth not persons, inflict His wrath for their 
unbelief, since He would not spare 7 even that Moses, to 7 s V(ra . 
whom He had said, I know thee above all, and thou didst Exod" 
find grace in My Sight. 

Make the men sit down : and there was much grass in the 
place : the men therefore sat down, in number about Jive 

The Saviour practised His accustomed gentleness, and 
takes away the sharpness of His reproaches. For He doth 
not rebuke bitterly His disciples, albeit they were deeply 
slumbering in respect of their faintheartedness and little- 
ness of faith in Him : but rather He leads them by His 



326 Christ wrought through Elias. Men alone counted, ivhy; 

Book 3. 
c. vi. 10. 



1 Kings 
xvii. 14. 


8 vtaut- 

Deeds to the apprehension of the things which as yet they 
believe not. For the words Make the men sit down have 
no slight force, and wellnigh shew Jesus speaking after 
this sort, slow to understand My Power, and to per- 
ceive Who it is that speaketh, Make the men sit down, 
that ye may see them filled with the nothing that lies be- 
fore you and marvel. Make the men sit down. For it is 
what is lacking to them. For not two hundred pence 
would have sufficed to get means of life for the multitudes, 
but the lack of money such as men use, in respect of its being 
able to preserve life, My Power shall attain, which calleth 
all things into being, and createth out of things which 
are not. Nor did Elias the Prophet render the widow's 
cruse of oil unfailing, and make the barrel the source 
of unwasting food : but He, Who gave him the power, 
shall He not be able to multiply nothing, and to render 
any mere chance supply a fount of His ineffable Bounty 
and the principle and root of unlooked for grace ? 

It is not incredible that such were Christ's thoughts in 
what He said. Profitably doth the blessed Evangelist men» 
tion, that there was. much grass in the place, shewing that 
the country was fit for the men to sit down in. But observe 
how, whereas the multitude of them that were fed was 
promiscuous, and that women were there with their child- 
ren, he numbered the men only, following I suppose the 
custom of the Law. For Grod commanded the hierophant 
Moses, saying, Take ye the sum of all the congregation of 
the children of Israel, after their families, by the house of 
their fathers, ivith the number of their names, by their polls, 
every male from twenty years old and upwards. The Pro- 
phet did as he was commanded, and collected a great 
list of names, and is seen to have completely passed over 
females and childhood, and enrols the multitude that are 
of full age. For honourable in the book of God too is all 
that is manly and vigorous 8 , and not what is infantile 
in purpose after good things. Therefore did he honour 
the custom of the Law also herein, and form again some 
spiritual conception. For shall we not with reason say, if 

their reward. Grass, res£. Christ gives thanks oiw Pattern. 327 

we look to the whole mind of the passage, that the violent 
and vainglorious people of the Jews Christ rightly turns 
away from and leaves : but receives very graciously them 
that come to Him, and fattens them with heavenly Food, 
reaching them the Spiritual Bread, which strengthened 
man's heart ? For He feedeth them not sadly 9 , but joy- 
ously and freely and with much enjoyment in piety. For 
this the reclining of the multitudes on the grass signifieth, 
so that now too it is fit that each one to whom such grace 
has been vouchsafed should say that in the Psalms, The 
Lord is my Shepherd, and nought shall fail me : in a grassy 
spot there He settled me. For in much enjoyment and de- 
light through the gifts of the Spirit is the mind of the 
Saints fed, as it is said in the Song of Songs, Eat and 
drink and be inebriated, ye neighbours. But while there were 
many, and they sitting down promiscuously, as we said 
before, he mentioned the men alone, passing over in silence 
the women and children profitably for the idea [conveyed 
thereby] . For he teaches us, as in a riddle, that to those 
who quit them as men, that is, in good, will the food be 
supplied by the Saviour more fittingly and specially, and 
not to those who are effeminate unto no good habit of 
life, nor yet to those who are infantile in undei-standing, 
so as to be thereby able to understand none of the things 
that are necessary to be known. 

11 Jesus therefore took the loaves, and when He had given 

thanks, He distributed c to them that were set down ; likewise 

of the fishes also as much as they would. 

He gives thanks, as an ensample to us and a pattern 

of the piety which ought to be in ns : and attributes 

again as Man the Power of the miracle to the Divine 

Nature. For this was His custom, both helping by an 

example of piety, as we have said, those to whom He was 

manifested as a Teacher of what is most excellent, and by 

an economy concealing yet His God-befitting Dignity, 

till the -time of His Passion should be at hand: for it was 

c The words to the disciples and the Codices and the earliest Syriac transla- 
disciples S. Cyril appears to omit with tion. 
the Alexandrine Vatican and Sinaitic 

Chap. 4. 
c. vi. 11. 

Ps. civ. 


9 iwiir6- 


Ps. xxiii. 
1, 2. 

Song of 
Sol. v. 

328 He wills to be hid, speaks as God and Man. Blessed. 

li' 1 


Book 3. 
c. vi. 11. 
SO, cf. 1 
Cor. ii. 8. 

Infra xi. 

1 iropct- 


lb. 42. 


S. Matth. 
xiv. 19. 

1 Tim. 
iv. 4, 5. 

His earnest care that it should be hid from the prince of 
this world. For this reason, doth He elsewhere too 
use words befitting men, as a Man, and heals again the 
understanding of His hearers, sometimes making most 
wise alluring as in the words, Father, I thank Thee that 
Thou heardest Me. Seest thou in how human guise His 
speech, and well calculated to trouble the understanding 
of the more simple ? But when He says this, as Man, then 
again He straightway unfolds the mode of the economy, 
and the object of His will to lie hid, by most excellent 
arrangement fortifying the mind of the more simple which 
had received a shock 1 . For I knew (He saith) that Thou 
hearest Me always. Why then dost Thou speak these 
things ? Because of the multitude which stood by I said it, 
that they may believe (saith He) that Thou sentest Me. 
Is it not then hereby plain, that with a view manifoldly 
to assist us, and to fulfill, as befitted Him, the secret 
economy with Flesh, He sometimes speaks more lowlily, 
than He really is ? As therefore in that passage, I thank 
Thee, is taken economically, so here too. [ d iZe blessed is 
understood of the bread.] 

But we must observe that instead of gave thanks, Mat- 
thew has said, blessed, but the edition of the saints will 
in no wise differ. For Paul will shew that they are both 
one, saying that every meat e of God is good, and nothing to 
be refused : for it is sanctified by the word of God and prayer. 
But that which is sanctified through the prayer in suppli- 
cation, which we are wont ever to make over the table, 
is surely blessed. - 

But since it is fit that nothing profitable be left unin- 
vestigated by us ; come let us say a little of the five loaves 
which the lad had and of the two little fishes : for both the 


d I have bracketed the words, He 
blessed is understood of the bread, which 
as the text at present stands i'oi m part 
of the sentence. But the words seem 
as if they were a marginal explanation 
of the next. clause, such as occur at 
times in Mss. 

The explanation given by S. Cyril in 
this next clause would seem to be, that 

what is sanctified 9 (us S. Paul says) by 
prayer is blessed, and that in prayer 
thanksgiving is included, so that when 
our Lord gave thanks, the thanksgiving 
was itself a blessing of the bread. 

e jSpcSjua. So reads S. Cyril (though 
no known Ms. of S. Paul has it) in the 
place of the usual Krlff/xa, creature. 


Loaves why barley, fish why two. 


species itself, and besides the numbers are replete with Chap. 4. 
mystery. For why (will some more studious person say) ' ' 
were not the loaves rather five, and the fishes three ? why 
not five, and the fishes four ? what occasion was there at 
all for recounting the number found, and why did not he 
rather say more simply and absolutely that the innumer- 
able multitude of them that followed Him were fed off ex- 
ceeding few chance things ? But the fact that the blessed 
Evangelist recounted very diligently these things too, gives 
us something surely to think of, which we must needs 
search into. 

He says then that the loaves are five, and they of barley, 
and the fishes two, and with these Christ feedeth them 
that love Him. And I think (and let the lover of wisdom 
look out for something better) that by the five barley loaves 
are signified the five-fold book of the all-wise Moses, that is, 
the whole Law, bringing in as it were coarser food, that by 
the letter and history. For this the bay-ley hints at. But 
by the little fishes is signified the food got through the 
fishermen, that is, the more delicate books of the dis- 
ciples of the Saviour; and these two (he says), the apos- 
tolic and Evangelic preaching, shine forth among us. And 
both these are draughts and spiritual writings of the fish- 
ermen. The Saviour therefore mingling the new with the 
old, by the Law and the teachings of the New Testament 
nourishes the souls of them that believe on Him, unto 
life, plainly eternal life. That the disciples were of fisher- 
men, is (I suppose) plain and clear : and though all were 
not so, yet since there are some such among them, our 
argument will not recede from truth in what has been 

12 When they were filled, He saith unto His disciples, Gather up 

13 the fragments that remain, that nothing be lost. Therefore 
they gathered them together, and filled twelve baskets with 
the fragments of the five barley loaves which remained over 

and above unto them that had eaten. 

To some one Christ may seem out of sparing of the frag- 

330 Why Christ gave such abundance of fragments. 

Book 3. 
vi. 12, 13. 

Isa. lviii. 

S. Luke 
vi. 38. 

Deut. xv, 

ments to have bidden His disciples to gather them to- 
gether. Yet (I think) every one will fitly imagine, that 
Christ would not endure to descend to such littleness : and 
why say I Christ ? not even one of us would do so : for 
what would be supposed to be the remnant of five barley 
loaves ? But the verse has a great economy, and makes 
the miracle evident to the hearers. For so great is the 
efficacy of God-befitting Authority in this matter, that not 
only was so great a multitude sated from five barley loaves 
and two little fishes, but twelve baskets full of fragments 
were gathered besides. Moreover the miracle repelled 
another (as is like) suspicion, and by the finding of the 
fragments confirmed the belief of there having been really 
and truly an abundance of food, and not rather the ap- 
pearance of a vision deceiving both the eye of the feas- 
ters and of those who minister to them. But greater 
yet and more noteworthy, and of exceeding profit to us, 
is this : consider how by this miracle He makes us most 
zealous in our desire to exercise hospitality most gladly, 
wellnigh calling aloud to us by the things that were done, 
that the things of God shall not fail him that is ready 
to communicate, and rejoiceth in habit of neighbourly love, 
and readily fulfilleth what is written, Break thy bread to 
the hungry. For we find that the disciples at the begin- 
ning were hampered by reluctance about this, but seeing 
they were thus minded, the Saviour gave them, a rich 
gathering from the fragments: and teacheth us too there- 
by, that we, on expending a little for the glory of God, 
shall receive richer grace according to the saying of Christ, 
Good measure, pressed down and shaken together and run- 
ning over, shall they give into your bosom. "We must not 
be slothful therefore unto the communion of love to the 
brethren, but rather advance unto good resoluteness, and 
put as far as possible from us the cowardice and fear that 
dispose us to inhospitality and, confirmed in hope through 
faith in the power of God to multiply little things too, 
let us open our bowels to the needy, according to the 
appointment of the Law, for He says, Thou shalt open 

Now time to shew mercy. Christ ivorhs through others. 331 

thy bowels* wide unto thy needy brother within thee. For 
when wilt thou be found merciful, if thou remainest hard 
in this life ? when wilt thou fulfil the commandment, if 
thou sufferest the time of being able to do it to slip by 
in idleness ? Remember the Psalmist saying, For in death 
there is none that remembereth Thee : in the grave who shall 
confess to Thee ? For what fruit is there yet of the dead, 
or how shall one of them that have gone down into the 
pit remember God by fulfilling His Commandments ? For 
God closed upon him, as it is written. Therefore did the 
most wise Paul too instruct us, writing to certain, While we 
have opportunity let us do good. 

And these things shall be said for profit from the nar- 
rative. But since we taking what has been said in a spi- 
ritual sense (for so we ought, and not otherwise) said 
that by the five barley loaves the book of Moses was 
hinted at, and by the two little fishes, the wise writings of 
the holy Apostles : in the gathering together of the frag- 
ments too, I suppose we ought to perceive some mystical 
and spiritual conception, agreeing with the order of the 
account. The Saviour then commanded the multitudes to 
sit down, and having blessed, He distributed the bread 
and the fishes, i. e., through the ministry of the disciples : 
but when they that had eaten were miraculously filled, 
He commands them to gather together the fragments, 
and twelve baskets are filled, one (it seems) for each of 
the disciples : for so many were they too. What then 
shall we understand from thence, save surely this, and 
truly, that Christ is the President 3 of them that be- 
lieve on Him, and nourishes them that come to Him with 
Divine and heavenly food? doctrines plainly of the Law 
and Prophets, Evangelic and Apostolic. But He does not 
altogether Himself appear as the Worker of these things, 

Chap. 4. 

vi. 12, 13. 

Ps. vi. 5. 

J ob iii. 


of solemn 

f S. Cyril seems to read t& ffir\6.yx va ril's writings, viz., De Adoratione lib. 
<rov thy bowels for t^v x e 'P a ffov thine 8. p. 271 where S. Cyril cites this among 
hand, which the LXX, following the passages of the Pentateuch bidding bro- 
il ebrew, has. Dr. Holmes in his most therly love : and in an exhortation to 
diligently laborious edition of the LXX, almsgiving in his 18th [19th in ed.] Pas- 
which he did not live to complete, has chal homily p. 253. 
cited two other instances from S. Cy- 

332 Basket of fragments reward of teachers. Rejection of Jews. 

Book 3. 

c. vi. 14. 
S. Matth 


3 irepj<£a- 

but the disciples minister to us the grace from above (for 
it is not they that speak, as it is written, but the Spirit 
of the Father which speaJceth in them) yet not without 
reward to the holy Apostles shall be their labour therein. 
For they having dispensed to us the spiritual food, and 
ministered the good things of our Saviour, will receive rich- 
est recompense and obtain the fullest grace of bounty 
from God. For this and nothing else, I think, is the 
meaning of the gathering together of a basketful by each 
at the commandment of Christ, after their toils and the 
service expended upon the feasters. But there is no 
doubt, that after them the things typically signified will 
pass also to the rulers of the holy Churches. 

14 The men therefore, when they had seen the miracle that Jesus 
did', said, This is of a truth the Prophet that should come 
into the world. 

They marvel at the sign who know how to approve 
things God-befitting, and regulate themselves by human 
reason rather than are diseased with unreason befitting the 
beasts, as were the blasphemous Jews, who, when they 
ought to have profited by the publicity 3 of the things 
wrought, lost even the power of right judgment. For they 
deemed that Jesus ought now to be stoned also, because 
He so often appeared as a Worker of miracles. Superior 
then, and that in no small degree, to the folly of those men, 
are they who marvel, soberly persuaded by this one great 
miracle, that He it surely was Whose coming into the world 
as a Prophet was foretold. But observe, how great a differ- 
ence hence appears, I mean, between the race of Israel, and 
those situate out of Judaea; for the one, although they 
were spectators of many things, and those not unworthy 
of admiration, are not only hard of heart and inhuman, but 
also desire unjustly to slay Him Who was zealous to save 
them, driving Him with their wild folly from their city 
and country : while they who dwelt away from Jerusalem, 
and hence signify the race of aliens, from one miracle alone 
glorify Him, and nobly determine that their conceptions 
of Him should be received with faith unhesitatingly. From 

Christ eschewedglory ,they too who thirst j or the 'eternal glory, 333 

all these things, was Israel shewn to be self-condemned 
and self-invited to her final just rejection, and that it was 
due to the Gentiles to obtain at length their share of mercy 
from above and love through Christ. 

15 When Jesus therefore perceived that they would come and 
take Him by force to make Him a King, He departed again 
into the mountain Himself Alone. 

Most praiseworthy judgment would one give, and full 
rightly, to those who had been easily brought by the great 
miracle to believe, that it was indeed befitting that their 
very choicest should be Christ's, and their chiefest offered 
to Him as an honour. For what else but this does their 
desire to choose Him for their King signify to us ? But 
among other things one may admire this too ; for Christ is 
made an example to us of contempt of glory 4 , in. that He 
flees from those who desire to give Him due honour, and 
refuses a kingdom that highest earthly prize, although to 
Him it was in truth no object of envy, in that He with 
the Father reigneth over all things, yet giveth He to them 
too who look for the hope to come, to understand that little 
to them is worldly greatness, and that it is not good to 
accept honours in this life, that is, in the world, though 
they offer themselves, that they may mount up to honour 
from God. For unseemly is .it in truth that they should 
wish to shine in these things, who are pressing on to the 
Divine grace, and thirsting for everlasting glory. 

We must then eschew the love of glory, sister and 
neighbour of arrogance, and not far distant from its bor- 
ders. And illustrious honour in this present life let us 
eschew us hurtful, let us rather seek for a holy lowliness, 
giving way to one another as the blessed Paul too ad- 
monisheth, saying, Be each among you so minded accor- 
ding to what was also in Christ Jesus; Who, being in the 
form of God, thought it not robbery to be Equal with God, 
but emptied Himself talcing servant's form, made in the like- 
ness of men, and being found in fashion as a Man, He hum- 
bled Himself, made obedient unto death, even the death 
of the Cross : wherefore God also highly exalted Him and gave 

Chap. 4. 
c. vi. 15. 

4 ad>i\o- 

Phil. ii. 
cf. supia 
p. 138 

334 After lowliness exaltation. Chbist's departure over 

. J. 


Book 3. 

c. vi. 15. 


Him the g Name which is above every Name. Seest thou how 
His voluntary abasement hath a glorious consummation, and 
His lowly-mindedness shews itself a root of many good 
things to us ? For the Only-Begotten being in the Form 
of God the Father hath humbled Himself, being made Man 
for our sakes, but even though He appeared in this life with 
Flesh, yet He remained not lowly : for He hastes back 5 
to His ancient Dignity and to His God-befitting glory, 
even though He became Man : this same way may one 
suppose will it be as to us too. For when we bring our- 
selves down from the empty heights of the present life 
and seek low things, then shall we surely receive in re- 
turn the glory from above, and mount up unto being 
gods by grace, receiving after likeness so to say to Him 
Who is truly and by Nature Son, the being called children 
of God. And that I may say something akin to the subject 
before us, let us refuse, if it offer itself, excellency upon 
earth, the mother of all honour, if we mind heavenly 
things, and live for things above rather than those on the 

But our discourse is not devoid of spiritual thought, 
therefore we will repeat, summing up as it were the 
whole force of what has been done, and again going 
through from the beginning the account before us. For 
so will it become clear to us what is about to be said, 
specially as the blessed Evangelist hath added, as though 
6 airapal- hinting at something necessary and not to be rejected 6 , 
rijToy tha^ jj e withdrew into the mountain Himself Alone. There- 
fore rejecting the cruelty of the Jews, Christ began to de- 
part from Jerusalem, which plainly is, I have forsaken Mine 
House, I have left Mine heritage. When He had crossed 
the sea of Tiberias, and was very far removed from their 
folly, He goes up %nto a mountain together with His dis- 
ciples. This we said signified the impassable so to say 
and impracticable nature of the way to Him unto the Jews, 

Jer. xii, 


ver. 3. 
p. 316. 

e the name which is. This passage is found in the Alexandrine, Vatican and 
often found in S. Cyril's writings with Sinaitic codices, 
the article as here: the article is likewise 

sea, forsaking Jews. Recapitulation of whole. 


and Christ's withdrawal from them in anger at His Pas- Chap. 4. 
sion, for a season, that is, the fit time, and that Christ will 
be manifest, together with His disciples, when He departs 
from Judaea, and goes unto the Gentiles, transferring 
His grace to them. From the mountain did He look on 
them that followed Him, and moreover take thought for 
their food. And this again we said signified as it were 
typically, the supervision from above which is due to the 
Saints according to, The eyes of the Lord are upon the righ- Ps. 
teous, and that Christ is not without thought for them XXX1V ' ° - 
that fear Him. Next much people were miraculously fed 
with the five loaves and two little fishes ; of which we de- 
fined that they ought to be conceived to be the writings 
of the Saints old and new set by the Apostles before them 
that love Christ. Moreover, that the choir of the disciples 
will receive from God the rich fruit of their ministry to 
usward, and after them, the overseers of the holy churches 
of God: for the type was in the beginning to all in them. 
Next the spectators marvel at the miracles, and devise to 
take Jesus by force for a king. This He understanding, de- 
parts alone into the mountain, as it is written ; for when 
Christ was marvelled at by the Gentiles, as Wonder-worker 
and God, when all enrolled 11 Him their King and Lord, 
then was He received up Alone into Heaven, no one at 
all following Him thither. For He, the Firstfruits of the 
dead, hath gone up Alone into the great and truer moun- 
tain, according as is said by the Psalmist, Who shall ascend Ps - *xiv. 
into the hill of the Lord ? or who shall stand in His holy 
place ? He that hath clean hands and a pure heart. For 
such an one shall follow Christ, and shall go up into the 
spiritual mountain also, at the time of the Kingdom of 
Heaven. But He hath withdrawn into the mountain, that 
is, hath gone up into Heaven, not refusing to reign over 
them that believed on Him, but delaying the time of His 
more manifest kingdom, until His return to us from above, 
when He shall descend in the glory of the Father, no 
longer by miracles, as before, known to be truly and by 

h eireypctycwTo see above on verse 2, 3, p. 319. note b. 


336 Why Alone. He teaches disciples, the world's teachers. 

Book 3. 
vi.16, 17 


lxxxiv. 7. 

Phil. ii. 

Nature Lord, but by God-befitting glory confessed that 
He is undoubtedly King. 

Therefore (for I will say it again briefly, compressing 
the multitude of words), when by His miracles He was 
believed on and acknowledged to be God, having gone 
away from the Jewish people, then do all press forward to 
receive Him for their King, but He ascends into Heaven 
Alone, laying up for its fitting time the more open mani- 
festation of His Kingdom. 

16 And when even was come, His disciples went down unto the 

17 sea, and entered into a ship and went over the sea unto 


The first sign having been miraculously accomplished, 
His flight and withdrawal are economically found to be 
the root again and occasion of another, and the Wonder- 
worker proceeds, as it is written, from might to might \ 
For since He was being sought as King by them who were 
astonished at that great miracle, and was Himself refusing 
worldly honours according to the preceding account; it was 
altogether necessary that He should depart from the place, 
yea, rather from their whole country. In order then that 
He might seem to have sailed away, and might relax 
somewhat the intensity of the seekers, He orders the dis- 
ciples to depart before Him, but Himself stays, advanc- 
ing opportunely unto the next miracle. For it was His 
most earnest endeavour, by every occasion and act, to con- 
firm the mind of the Apostles in their faith to Himward. 
For since they were to be teachers of the earth, and to 
sl^ne forth as lights in the world, as Paul saith, He neces- 
sarily led them to all things that would profit them. For 
this was to shew kindness not on them alone, but to those 
also who should be led by them unto the unerring appre- - 
hension of Him. 

But why (will some one perchance say) after that miracle, 
is the Power of Jesus to walk on the very sea immediately 
introduced ? Such an one shall hear a very credible cause. 

1 4k Svvd/jitus us Svvafitv, Mvapis, acle, as in S. Matth. xiii. 58, And He 
might, meaning also a mighty deed, mir- did not many mighty works there. 


He teaches them through miracle. Alone in storm. 337 
For when He desired to feed the multitudes, Philip and Chap, 4. 

vi 17 18 

Andrew supposed that He would be powerless thereto, ' ' 
the one saying that no small sum of money would barely 
suffice them for just a little enjoyment, the other telling 
that five loaves and two small fishes were found with one of 
the lads, nay that what was found was nothing to so great 
a multitude ; and from all (so to speak) their words, they 
thought that He could do nothing out of the due course 
"of our affairs : — needs, in order that He might free Him- 
self from so petty a conception, and might bring the still 
feeble mind of the Apostles to learn, that He doth all 
things wondrously which He willeth, unrestrained by the 
nature of things, the necessary order of things not ham- 
pering Him in the least, does He place under His Feet the 
humid nature of the waters, albeit unpractised 7 to lie 7yue\e-r^- 
under the bodies of men, for all things were possible, as eX°ou 
to God. Evening then being now come, and the time abat- / ^ €T J 1 ^ 
ing the vigilance of those who were seeking for Him, the )> een con - 
choir of the holy disciples goes down to the sea, and began and seems 
to sail away immediately, obeying in all things their God ary< s " 
and Teacher, and that without delay. 

And it was now dark, and Jesus was not come to them, 
18 and the sea arose by reason of a great wind that blew. 

Many things at once are being profitably contrived 8 , 8 ohcovo- 
and the circumstances drive the disciples to a more zealous 
search after the Saviour. For the deep darkness of the 
night troubles them, hovering like smoke upon the ra- 
ving waves, and takes from them all knowledge of whither 
at length to steer. Moreover the fierceness of winds 
troubles them not a little, riding on the waves with a rush- 
ing noise, and raising the billows to unwonted height. 
Yea, and though these things had taken place, Jesus (it 
says) was not yet come to them : for herein was their special 
danger, and the absence of Christ from the voyagers was 
working increase of their fear. 

They therefore must needs be tempest-tost, who are not 
with Jesus, but are cut off, or seem to be absent from 

vol. i. z 










338 Without Jesus no safety. Brave endurance. In 

Book 3. Him through their departure from His holy laws, and 
vi. 19, 20. severe( j b eC ause of sin from Him Who is able to save. 

If then it be heavy to be in spiritual darkness, if griev- 
*Karranrvl us to be swallowed up 9 in the bitter sea of pleasures, let 
7<F(r "' us receive Jesus : for this will deliver us from dangers, 

and from death in sin. The figure of what has been said 

will be seen in what happened, He will therefore surely 

come to His disciples. 

19 So when they had rowed about five and twenty or thirty 
furlongs, they see Jesus walking on the sea and drawing nigh 

20 unto the ship ; and they were afraid. But He saith unto them, 

It is I, be not afraid. 
When they are separated by great interval from the land, 
and it was like that they in their trouble would no way be 
saved (for they were now in the midst of the sea) then 
Christ thrice longed for appears to them. For thus could 
He give most welcome salvation to those in danger, when 
fear had already cut off all hope of life. But He appears 
to them miraculously (for so was it ordered to their greater 
profit) and they are astonished beholding Jesus going 
through the midst of the sea and upon the very waters, 
and make the miracle an addition to their fear. But Christ 
immediately relieves them from their misfortunes, saying, I 
am, be not afraid. For need, need must all disquiet be 
away, and they be openly superior to all danger, to whom 
Christ is now present. We shall see then by this again, 
that we ought to have a spirit courageous and manly in 
temptations, and endurance intense from hope in Christ, 
confirmed unto good confidence in our being surely saved, 
even though many be the fears of temptation that pour 
around us. 

For observe that Christ does not appear to those in the 
boat immediately on their setting sail, nor at the com- 
mencement of their dangers, but when they are many 
furlongs off from the land. For not when the condition 
which harasses us first begins, does the grace of Him who 
saves visit us, but when the fear is at its height, and the 
danger now shews itself mighty, and we are found, so to 

deep peril He comes and red and jut/. Apostles' successors. 339 

say, in the midst of the waves of afflictions : then unlooked Chap. 4. 
for does Christ appear, and puts away our fear, and will °' vi ' 21 * 
free us from all danger, by His Ineffable Power changing 
the dread things into joy, as it were a calm. 

21 They therefore would receive Him into the ship, and imme- 
diately the ship was at the land whither they were going. 

The Lord not only releases the voyagers from dangers, 
wondrously shining on them, but also frees them both from 
toil and sweat, by His God-befitting Power thrusting for- 
ward the ship on to the opposite shore. For they were 
expecting that by rowing on still, they should with diffi- 
culty be able to reach the end, but He releases them from 
these their toils, revealing Himself to them in a very little 
time the Worker of many miracles to their full assurance. 
When then Christ appears and beams upon us, we shall 
without any labour succeed even against our hope, and we 
who are in danger through not having Him, shall have no 
more need of toil to be able to accomplish what is profit- 
able for us, when He is present. Christ then is our de- 
liverance from all danger, and the accomplishment of 
achievements beyond hope to them that receive Him. 

But since we have discoursed on every portion of the 
subject singly, come and let us, joining the meaning hereof 
with the connexion of the preceding portions, work out the 
spiritual interpretation. We said then that Jesus ascended Supra 
into Heaven as into a mountain, that is to say, being re- He. 335 ' 
ceived up, after His resurrection from the dead. But when 
this has taken place, then His disciples alone and by them- 
selves, a type of Ecclesiastical teachers in succession through- 
out all time, swim through the billows of this present life 
as a kind of sea, meeting with varied and great tempta- 
tions, and enduring no contemptible dangers of teaching 
at the hands of those who oppose the faith and war against 
the Gospel preaching : but they shall be freed both from 
their fear and every danger, and shall rest from their toils 
and misery, when Christ shall appear to them hereafter 

z 2 


j ;; 340 At Second Coming Cliurch gains her haven. 

< ! Book 3. too in God-befitting Power, and having the whole world 

*' [ ' ' ' under His Feet. For this I deem His walking on the 

f \\ sea signifies, since the sea is often taken as a type of the 

• {) Ps. civ. world by Divine Scripture, as it is said in the Psalms, This 

^1; ' great and wide sea, there are things creeping innumerable, 

:■■ | S.Matth. loth small and qreat beasts. When Christ then cometh in 

fe ' . xvi. 27. . 

:. : | " the glory of His Father, as it is written, then shall the ship 

of the holy Apostles, that is, the Church, and they that sail 
therein, i. e., they who through faith and love toward God 
are above the things of the world, without delay and without 
all toil, gain the land, whither they were going. For it was 
their aim to attain unto the Kingdom of Heaven, as to 
a fair haven. And the Saviour confirms this understanding 
of all that has been said, in that he says to His Disciples at 
Infra one time, A little while and ye shall no 'more see Me, and 
again a little while and ye shall see Me, at another again, 
« - , lb. 33. Tribulation shall ye have in the world, but be of good cheer, 

Ijjj I have overcome the world. But in the night the Lord com- 

eth down from the mountain and visiteth His disciples who 
are watching, and they look on Him coming, not without 
fear (for they tremble) that something needful for our un- 
IH derstanding may in this too be made known unto us. For 

If; He shall descend from Heaven, as in the night, the world 

j; yet sleeping and slumbering in much sin. Therefore to us 

w S. Matth. too doth He say, Watch therefore, for ye know not what hour 

\i] XX1V * "" your Lord doth come. The parable too of the Virgins will 

Ij'i no less teach us this. For He says that five were wise, five 

lb. xxv. foolish : but while the Bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered 
' ' and slept: and at midnight there was a cry made, Behold, the 
Bridegroom cometh, go ye out to meet Him. Seest thou how 
at midnight the Bridegroom is announced to us ? And what 
the cry is, and the mode of the meeting, the Divine Paul 

tiji i Thess. will make known, saying at one time, For the Lord Him- 

i' ' iv. 16. . 

self shall descend from heaven with a summons, with voice of 

archangel, with the trump of God, at another of the saints 

lb. 17. who are raised up, we which are alive and remain shall be 

caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord 

in the air, and so shall we ever be with the Lord. But the 


The good will fear. Nought hid. Seek not glory. 341 
disciples being smitten with fear, albeit they saw Him Chap. 4. 

• vi 99 9^1 

coming, and were found in toil and watching, signifies that ' ' " 
the Judge will come terrible to all, and that the righteous 
man will surely quake within himself, proven as by fire, 
albeit ever foreseeing Him Who was to come, and not 
shrinking from toils in virtue, nourished in vigilance 1 alike l Aty^ 
and good watching. But the Lord doth not enter into the 
ship with His disciples, as though He were going to sail 
with them, but rather moveth the ship on to the land. For 
Christ will not appear co-working any more with those who 
honour Him, unto their achievement of virtue, but to give 
to them that have already achieved their looked-for end. 

22 The morrow, when the people which stood on the other side of 
the sea saw that there was none other boat there save that one 
whereinto His disciples were entered, and that Jesus went not 
with His disciples into the boat, yet that His disciples had gone 

23 away, howbeit there came other boats from Tiberias nigh unto 
the place where they did eat bread, after that the Lord had 

given thanks. 

The miracle does not escape notice, I mean Jesus walking 
on the very sea, although it took place by night and in the 
dark, and was ordered in secret. But the crowd of those who 
were wont to follow Him perceives, assured (as is probable) 
by much watching, that He had neither sailed with His dis- 
ciples, nor had crossed in any other ship. For there was 
there the Apostles' ship alone, which they took and went 
away before Him. Nought then is hidden of what is good 
even though it be performed in secret by any, and here we 
see that that is true, Nothing is secret that shall not be made s. Luke 
manifest, neither hid that shall not be hnown and come vm ' 17, 
abroad. I say then that he who desireth to track the foot- 
steps of Christ, and, as far as man can, to be moulded after 
His Pattern, ought not to be eager to live in much boast- 
ing 2 , nor when he practises virtue to be led away in pur- 2 ^xo- 
suit of praise, nor if he enter upon an extraordinary and *4 t " rft ' s 
exceeding disciplined 3 life, should he desire to glory 3 \i av 
immoderately thereat, but should desire to be seen alone by ^Hl"* 1 ' 
the Eyes of the Deity, Who revealeth hidden things, and 

342 Unreal love of the Lord in those who folloived 
Book 3. that which is performed in secret bringeth He into clearest 

vi. 24, 25. , 


24 When the people therefore saw that Jesus was not there neither 
His disciples, they also took shipping and came to Capernaum 

seeking for Jesus. 

These men follow Him, marvelling perchance at His 
miracles, yet not receiving any profit from them unto the 
duty of faith, but as though they were making some re- 
turn to the Wonder-worker by merely bestowing on Him 
4 tyvxpby a not undesired praise. For this is a dreary 4 disease of 
a mind and soul which is never accustomed to be led to 
the choice of what is profitable for her. The reason why 
this was so with them was, that they delighted solely in the 
pleasures of the flesh, and jumped eagerly at the meanest 
temporal food, rather than hasten after spiritual goods, and 
endeavour to gain what would support them to life eternal. 
This you will learn clearly by what follows too. 

25 And when they had found Him on the other side af the sea, 

they said unto Him, Rabbi when earnest Thou hither ? 

Their speech takes the form of being that of those who 
love Him and feigns sweetness, but is convicted of being 
exceeding senseless and childish. For they ought not on 
meeting with so great a teacher, to have talked to no pur- 
pose, and taken no pains to learn anything. For what 
was the need of being eager to ask Him, when He 
came there ? what good would they be likely to get from 
knowing ? We must then seek wisdom from the wise, and 
let a prudent silence be preferred to undisciplined words. 
Col. iv. 6. For the disciple of Christ bids that our speech be seasoned 
with salt; and another of the wise exhorts us to this, say- 
ing, My son, if thou hast a word of understanding, answer, if 
not, lay thy hand upon thy mouth. And how evil it is to be 
condemned for an undisciplined tongue, we shall know from 
another : for he says, If any man among you seem to be reli- 
gious, and bridleth not his tongue but deceiveth his own heart, 
this man's religion is vain. 

v. 12. 

S. James 
i. 26. 

Him. Their reproof just. He God knowing thoughts. 343 

26 Jesus answered them and said, Verily, I say unto you, ye 
seek Me, not because ye saw the miracle, but because ye ate 
of the loaves and were filled. 
We will say something common, yet worn by little use. 
Great teachers are often wont to be not slightly angry, when 
they are questioned about vain and useless matters. And we 
shall find them so, not out of haughtiness, but rather from 
annoyance at the folly of the questioners. Of us therefore 
and those like us I think that this is not unrightly 6 said : 
but the Saviour inflicts a warm rebuke upon those who made 
those enquiries, for speaking uninstructedly, and unwisely 
enquiring not because it was their duty to seek out the 
things whereby they might become honest and good, but 
because they followed Him for carnal reward and that a 
most mean one. For what is less than daily food, and 
that not sumptuous? We must then practise piety to- 
wards Christ and Love of Him, not that we may obtain 
ought of carnal goods but that we may gain the salvation that 
is through Him ; and let us not say good words to Him, as 
these say Rabbi, nor devise fair-speaking as a foundation of 
gain and boundless ingathering of riches. Truly he that 
attempts such things, will not be ignorant that he shall 
encounter Christ Who keenly 6 convicteth him, and reveal- 
eth his hidden wickedness. 

It is meet again to admire also the economy herein. 
For when He saw that they were enveloped with the 
afore-mentioned disease, as a Physician skilful and master 
of his art 7 , He devised a twofold medicine for them, 
entwining the helpful reproof with most glorious miracle. 
The miracle then we shall find in His knowing their 
thoughts; and in the Wonder-worker not telling them 
what they sought not out of piety to know, you will behold 
the reproof. And the advantage is twofold. For in that 
He knows perfectly their devices and has accurate percep- 
tion thereof, He shews that they are without understanding, 
in that they think to escape the Divine Eye, while they 
heap up wickedness in their heart, and practise sweet words 
with their tongue. But this is the part of One Who per- 

Chap. 4. 
c. vi. 26. 

s d/cJ/x- 

ver. 25. 


i apiffro- 
rtx vas 


Book 3. 
c. vi. 26. 

8 KoXaKtl- 

v. 20. 

pp. 340, 

ver. 22. 
9 airapa- 

1 K0\UK€V- 

344 Rulers must rebuke. The Day of Doom. 

suades them to leave off this their disease, and to cease from 
no slight sin. For outrageous is he and lawless, who hath 
this conception of God. In usefully convicting them of 
sinning, He restrains in some sort the future course of 
evil. For that which has no hindrance, creeps on and 
extends itself; but when caught in the fact, it is well-nigh 
ashamed, and like a rope contracts into itself. Therefore 
the Lord profiteth them by reproving also, and by those 
things whereby one thinks that He smites, by these very 
things He is seen to be their Benefactor. We must then 
hold that even though some flatter or with mild words 
wheedle the rulers of the Churches, yet are not sound con- 
cerning the faith, it is not meet that they should be carried 
away by their fawnings 8 nor by way of payment for their 
applause lend in turn to them who need correcting, silence 
in regard to their faults : but we ought rather boldly to re- 
buke them, and to persuade them to change for the better, 
or at least hereby if so be to profit others, according to 
that spoken by Paul, Them that sin rebuke before all, that 
the rest also may fear. 

This then for the subjects separately : but that they are 
in connexion, and of necessity follow those before considered, 
I think I ought to shew. "We said then that our Saviour's 
coming down from the mountain typified His second and 
future Coming to us from Heaven, and we added as in 
summary, that He appeared to His disciples while they were 
watching, and yet toiling, and released them from their fear, 
and brought the ship at once to land. And what is hence 
pourtrayed to us, as in a type, we have there declared. But 
now observe, that after Jesus had come down from the 
mountain, certain miss following Him, and come to Him at 
last. For they come on the day following, the Evangelist 
having not without care 9 added this also. Then on meet- 
ing with Him, they endeavour to wheedle x Him with good 
words: but Christ chides them, bringing upon them hot 
and keen reproof, that we might consider this again, that 
after the Coming of our Lord to us from Heaven,. most vain 
and profitless unto men is the search after good things, nor 





Severity then, not Mercy. Some Christ will not know. 345 

will the desire to follow Him find any fitting season. Yea 
even though, certain approach Him, thinking to appease 
Him with smoothest words, they shall meet the Judge 
no longer mild and gentle, but reproving and aveng- 
ing. For thou wilt see the flattery of them that are 
reproved, and the reproof itself in the words of the Sa- 
viour, when He saith, Many will say to Me in that Bay, 
to wit, the Day of Judgment, Lord, Lord, did we not in 
Thy Name cast out devils ? But says He, Then will I pro- 
fess unto them, Verily I say unto you, I never Jcnew you. 
For ye sought Me not purely (saith He) nor loved to excel 
in holiness, for thereby would I have known you, but since 
ye practised piety in semblance only and in mere imaginaries 
for the purpose of gain, justly do I confess that I have not 
known you. What then in that passage is Lord, Lord, 
here is Rabbi. To whomsoever therefore punishment is 
a bitter thing, let him not fall into inertness k nor be 
manifoldly infirm in transgression, looking to the goodness 
of God, but let him prepare his works for his going forth, as 
it is written, and make it fit for himself in the field, i. e., 
while he is in the world. For the Saviour interpreted that 
the field is the world. Let him prepare to shew holiness and 
righteousness before the Divine Judgment Seat. For he 
will behold no unseasonably clement 2 Judge, nor yet 
yielding to entreaties for mercy, in Him Whom he ought 
without delay to have obeyed when He was calling him 
to salvation, while the time of mercy was granting to 
him both to beg for forgiveness for his already past trans- 
gressions, and to seek for loving-kindness from God Who 

Chap. 4. 
c. vi. 27. 

S. Matth. 
vii. 22. 

lb. 23. 

ver. 25. 

xxiv. 27 

S. Matth. 
xiii. 38. 


27 Labour not for the meat which perisheth, but for the meat 
which endtireth unto everlasting life. 

Something of this sort doth Paul teach us expanding the 
discourse universally and more generally, saying, He that Gal. vi. 
soweth to his flesh shall of the flesh reap corruption, but he 
that soweth to the Spirit shall of the Spirit reap life ever- 

k hvavhpiav, the absence of a courageous manly resolve to strive. 

346 Sowing to flesh, to Spirit. Care of body only, 

Book 3. 
c, vi. 27. 


3 ytoip- 

xiii. 14. 


5 ityoSjei- 

Col. iii. 

S. Matth 
vi. 31. 

lb. 25. 
6 f v xh 
life or 

lasting. For he says that they sow to the flesh who giving 
as it were full rein to the pleasures of the flesh, advance at 
full speed to whatever they will, by no means distinguish- 
ing what is profitable for them from what is hurtful and 
injurious, nor in any way accustomed to approve what 
seems good unto the Law-giver, but heedlessly hurried off 
to that alone which is pleasant and agreeable, and prefer- 
ring nothing to things seen. Again he affirms that they 
sow to the Spirit, who expend the whole aim of their mind 
on those things wherein the Holy Ghost willeth us to excel, 
employing a mind so intense toward the cultivation 3 of 
good things, that, did not voice of nature not to be dis- 
regarded constrain them to minister needful food to the 
flesh, they would not endure to descend even to this. 
I think then that we ought to take no forethought whatever 
for the flesh for the lusts thereof, but rather to apply ourselves 
to what is most needful, and to be zealous in practising those 
things, which bring us to the everlasting and Divine Life. 
For admiration for the delights 4 of the body, and the 
esteeming nothing better than the superfluities of the belly, 
is truly brutish and akin to the extremest folly. But to 
apply ourselves to good things, and earnestly to strive to 
excel in virtues, and to be subject to the laws of the Spirit, 
and with all readiness to seek after the things of Grod, 
which are able to support 5 us unto salvation : — I will grant 
that this truly beseemeth him who knoweth his own nature, 
and is not ignorant that he hath been made a reasonable 
creature after the Image of Him that created Mm. Therefore 
as the Saviour somewhere saith, Take we no thought, what 
shall we eat ? or, what shall we drink ? or, wherewithal shall 
we be clothed ? but considering that the soul 6 is more than 
meat, and the body than raiment, let us take thought how 
the more precious part of us may do well. 

For though the body do well, and be fat with succession 
of delights, it will not profit the miserable soul ; but on the 
contrary, will work it much harm. For it will depart into the 
everlasting fire, since they who have wrought no good, 
must needs undergo punishment for it : but if the body 

but brings it to Fire. The soul's Food unto Life. 347 

have been bridled with due reason, and brought under the £"^4 
law of the Spirit, both must surely be saved together. It is 
then most absurd, that for the flesh we should so take 
thought, which is but for a time and even now shall perish, 
as to think that it ought not to lack any one thing which it 
loves : and to take care for the soul, by way of appendix, or 
as though it were nothing worth 7 ; albeit I think we ought 7 T $ 
to apply ourselves so much the rather to cares for the soul, ^a-piaovvy 
as it is of more value than the body. For so of a truth pre- 2'iuewith 
ferring what surpasses in the comparison to what is inferior, nothing 
and giving a just vote in this matter, we shall become holy 
and wise jurors, and not bestow upon any other the palm of 
right reasoning, but rather shall put it upon our own heads. 
Let us then, as the Saviour saith, labour not for the meat 
which perisheth, which when it hath passed into the belly, and 
for a very little while deluded the mind with pettiest plea- 
sure, goeth out into the draught, and is conveyed forth 
again from the belly. But the spiritual food which 
strengtheneth the heart, keepeth the man unto life everlast- Ps. civ. 
ing, which also Christ promiseth to give us, saying, 
Which the Son of Man shall give unto you ; at once knitting 
the human with that which is Divine, and connecting the 
whole mystery of the economy with Flesh in its order. 
But He hints, I suppose, at the Mystic and more Spi- 
ritual Food, whereby we live in Him, sanctified in body 
and soul. But we shall see Him speaking more openly of 
this hereafter. The discourse then must be kept for its fit 
time and place. 



That the Only-Begotten Son is the Impress of the Person of God 
the Father, and no other Impress either is, or is conceived of, 

save He. 

which the Son of Man shall give unto you : for Him the Fa- 
ther sealed, God. 

He was not ignorant, as God, of the charges that would 
• result from Jewish folly, nor of the reasons why they were 
often foolishly enraged. He knew that they would reason 
in themselves, looking to the flesh alone, and not conceiving 
of God the Word therein, Who is This That seizeth upon 
God-befitting words ? for who can give unto men food 
that keepeth them unto everlasting life ? for wholly fo- 
reign to man's nature is such a thing, and it beseemeth 
Him Alone Who is God over all. The Saviour therefore 
defends Himself beforehand, and by seasonable arguments, 

« a$v P o- gh am es their looked-for shameless talk l . For He says that 
yKuTTiar , ... 

the Son of Man will give them the food which nourisheth 

them unto everlasting life, and immediately affirmed that 
He is sealed by the Father. Sealed again is either put 
for anointed (for he who is anointed is sealed), or as shew- 
ing that He has been by Nature formed unto the Father. 
Just as if He had said, I am not unable to give you food 
which endureth and bringeth up unto everlasting life and de- 
2 rpv<pitp light 3 . For though I seem as one of you, that is Man with 
flesh, yet was I anointed and sealed by God the Father unto 
an exact Likeness with Him. For ye shall see (He saith) 
that He is in Me, and I again in Him Naturally, even though 
for your sakes I was born Man of a woman, according to 
the Ineffable order of the economy. For I can do all 
things in God-befitting Authority and do not in any way 
come short of the Might inherent in My Father. And 

God and Man One Christ. 


though God the Father giveth you the Spiritual Food, Chap. 5. 
which preserveth unto everlasting life, it is clear that the 
Son too will give it, even though made in Flesh, since He is 
His Exact Image ; the Likeness in every thing being con- 
ceived, not after the lineaments of flesh, nor yet ought con- 
ceived of in bodily form, but in God-befitting glory and 
Equal Power and royal Authority. But we must observe 
again, that when He says that the Son of Man will give 
the things God-befitting and that He hath been sealed unto 
the Image of God the Father, He endureth not the divi- 
sion of him that separateth the Temple of the Virgin from 
the true Sonship, but defines Himself and willeth to be 
conceived of again as One. For One in truth over us is 
Christ, bearing as it were the royal purple His Own Robe 3 , 3 4><W« 
I mean His Human Body, or His Temple, to wit of Soul 
and Body; since One too of Both is Christ. 

But, most excellent sir, will the Christ-opposer again say, 
give the truth the power of overcoming: deal not subtilly 4 * ^ ra(re - 
with the saying, dishonourably 5 turning it about, whither- Acts vii. 
soever thou wilt. Lo clearly hereby is the Son proved to 5 ' i, K 
be not of the Essence of the Father, but rather a copy 6 of f?*™^- 
His Essence. Suppose some such thing (say they) as we "'"V" 1 
say : A seal or signet impressed on wax, for example, or 
any other matter fit to receive it, and engraving a like- 
ness only of itself, is taken away again by him who pressed 
it on, having lost no part of itself: so the Father, having 
imposed and imprinted Himself Wholly upon the Son in 
some way by a most accurate Likeness, from Himself hath 
He surely no part of His Essence, nor is conceived of as 
therefrom but a mere image and accurate likeness. 

Let him that is zealous for knowledge see that now too 
is our opponent darting on us, like a serpent, and rears 
aloft his head surcharged with venom : but He Who shat- 
tereth the heads of the Dragon, will shatter it too, and will p s. lxxiv. 
give us power to escape his manifold stubbornness. Let 
him then tell us, who has just been dinning us with dread- 
ful words, Does not the seal or signet, which is made (it 
may be) of wood or of iron or of gold, full surely seal with 


The Son in the Father and of Him. 


Book 3. 
c. vi. 27. 


HeK i. 3. 

7 x a P aK - 
r^ip TTJS 


8 X a P«- 

1 itirat- 

2 owau- 

3 irpoittiir- 


5 (Accept- 

Ps. iv. 6 


some impress those things whereon it comes, and will it 
not be and be conceived of as a seal apart from the im- 
press ? But I suppose that any one of our opponents too, 
even against his will constrained by fitness unto the very 
truth would confess that it will by all means seal with an 
impress ; and without an impress, according to fair reason- 
ing, not at all. Since then, as the Divine Scripture tes- 
tifieth to us, the Son is the Impress of the Person 7 of God 
the Father, in that He is in It and of It by Nature, where- 
upon is Himself impressed, or through whom else will the 
Father seal His Own Impress 8 ? For no one will say 
that the Father is not altogether in God-befitting Form, 
which is the Son, the Form of Him That begat Him ; 
Whom if any behold spiritually, it is manifest that he 
will see the Father. Wherefore He says that He too is 
in Him Naturally, even though He be conceived to be 
of 9 Him by reason of His Own Existence : as the bright- 
ness 1 for instance, is in the brightening 3 and of the 
brightening, and something different, according to the 
mode of conception, and again not different, as viewed in 
relation to it, because it is said to be of it, and again in 
it. And not I suppose in the way of division and com- 
plete essential partition are these things considered of : for 
they are inherent in respect of identity of essence in 
those things whence they are, and of which they are be- 
lieved to be, tending forth 3 according to expression in 
idea to something else, of their own 4 , yet not separate 5 . 
The Word of the Essence of the Father, not bare Word, nor 
without Flesh, is sealed then by the Father, yea rather 
through Him are sealed those things which are brought to 
likeness with God, as far as cari be, as we understand in 
that which certain say, The light of Thy Countenance was 
marked 6 upon us, Lord. For he says that the Counten- 
ance of God the Father, is the Son, Which is again the Im- 
press, but the light thereof is the grace which through the 
Spirit passeth through unto the creation, whereby we are 
remoulded unto God through faith, receiving through Him 
as with a seal, the conformation unto His Son, Who is 

The Son God or the Father begat not. 


the Image of the Father, that our being made after the Chap. 5. 
Image and Likeness of the Creator, might be well pre- c ' V1 ' " ' 
served in us. But since the Son is confessedly the Coun- 
tenance of God the Father, He will surely be the Impress 
too with which God seals. 

Yea (says our opponent) we believe that God through 
the Spirit seals the Saints, but the things that you are 
bringing forward have no place in the present question. 
Wherefore we will recapitulate and say, The seal supposed 
to be of iron, or may be gold, impresses its own likeness on 
. the matter whereon it comes, losing nothing of its own, 
but by the operation only of its being pressed on does it 
mark the things that receive it : thus do we hold that the 
Son has been sealed by the Father, not having ought of His 
Essence but possessing merely an accurate likeness thereof, 
and being Other than He, as the image to the arche- 

boundless folly, and perilous conceit ! how easily hast 
thou forgotten those things just now gone through. For 
we said that the Son was the Impress 7 of the Father, i X a P ait. 
and that with Him was sealed other than He, and not Him- 
self, lest He be thought to be His Own Impress. But thou, 
having not rightly spurned our argument hereon, dost not 
blush to put about Him a likeness of operation only. In 
image only then will the Son be God according to you, and 
by Nature not at all, but merely in that He was fashioned 
and well formed after the Likeness of Him That begat; 
haply no longer of Him That begat : for it is time that ye 
should on these accounts take away the begetting also, yea 
rather there is every need even if ye will it not. On the 
duty of believing that the Son is begotten of the Father, 
we have already expended much argument, or shall do so in 
its place. But it were more fitting that we should proceed 
to the matter in hand, putting forward to those who are 
accustomed unrestrainedly to shameless talk the question, 
Will they not surely say that that which is given may 
also be taken away, and confess that that which is 
added can altogether be also lost ? for does it not at 



Likeness to God may be lost. 

Book 3. 
c. vi. 27. 

" irvpwffiv 

9 veavt- 
ko'i, with 
the force 

belongs to 

xxviii. 12 

some time happen that every thing is rejected, which is 
not firmly rooted in any by nature? It is evident, even 
should any of them not assent thereto. Some time then 
or other, according to the argument of possibility, the Son 
will be bereft of His Likeness. For He was sealed (as 
ye say) by the mere Operation of His Father upon Him, 
not having the stability that'is of natural Endowments, but 
conceived of and existing wholly other than His Father, 
and completely severed from His Essence. Doing then 
very excellently and fore-seeing matters by most cunning 
reasoning did ye secure the Father, by saying that He 
gives nought of Himself to the Son, save that He vouch- 
safes Him Likeness only, lest ought of passion should be 
conceived of as about Him. For this is your foolish mys- 
tery. For belike ye were ignorant that God the Father 
Who doeth all things without passion, will also beget with- 
out passion, and is superior to fire (for the argument brings 
us down to this necessity) which without passion or cor- 
poreal division, begets the burning 8 which is of it. Let 
those then hear who are zealous 9 in fancies only, and 
account unrestrained blasphemy to be not an unholy thing, 
but rather a virtue, that if they say that the Son is classed 
with the Father, in the propriety 1 of likeness alone, He 
will abide in no secure possession of good things, but will 
wholly risk His being by Nature God, and will in pos- 
sibility at least, admit of change for the worse. For there 
was said to that governor of Tyre too, words which reason 
necessitates us to attribute to the person of the devil, Thou 
art the seal of the likeness : but he to whom that speech is 
addressed, is found to have fallen from the likeness. Thou 
seest then, and clearly too, by such instances, that the 
mere being in the likeness of God is no security for an 
unmoved stability in things spiritual, nor yet does it suffice 
to perfect endurance in the good things in which they 
are, to have been duly sealed unto the Nature of the 
Maker. For they too fall, and are borne headlong, oft- 
times changing into a worse mind, than they had at the be- 
ginning. It is then possible, according to this argument, 


The Son God, worshipped and at the Bight Hand. 353 

that the Son, attaining to Likeness with the Father by 
sameness of work only, and not firm fixed by the prop 2 
by Nature, but having His stability in the mere motions 
of His Own Will, should undergo change, or, though He 
do not suffer it, should find the not so suffering the re- 
sult of admirable purpose 3 , and not rather the steadfast- 
ness of Native stability, as God. 

What then, most noble sirs, is the Son no longer God 
in truth? And if according to you, He is so found, why do 
we worship Him ? why is He co-glorified with God the Fa- 
ther ? why is He borne, as God, upon the highest Powers ? 
Are then with us the Holy Seraphim themselves too igno- 
rant that they do greatly err from what is fit, in glorifying 
Him Who is not by Nature God ? They err, it seems, in 
calling Him Who is honoured with equal honour Lord of 
Sabaoth. Or shall we not say, that the highest Powers, 
Principalities Thrones and Dominions and Lordships, essay, 
after their power, to appear conformed to God ? For if the 
so small animal of the earth, in respect of that creation, I 
mean man, be honoured with such beauty, what reason has 
one not for fully thinking, that to them who are far better 
than we, far better things are allotted ? How then do they 
both call Him Lord of Sabaoth, and stand around as a 
guard, as ministering to the King of the universe ? why 
sitteth He with the Father, and that on His Eight Hand, 
the -bond with the Lord, the creature with the Creator ? 
For is it not fitter to bring that which by means of heed 4 
and wariness is free from passion and perfect, to the level 
of things originate rather than of God by Essence Who 
hath Naturally the inability to suffer ? But it is manifest, 
though they confess it not. WTio then will endure these 
babblers, or how will they not with reason hear, Woe to 
them that are drunken without wine ? 

But perchance they will Be ashamed of the absurdities of 
such arguments, and will betake themselves to this, and 
say, that the Son was sealed by the Father unto a most 
accurate Likeness, and is Unchangeable in Nature, even 
though He be not from the Father. 

vol. i. A a 

Chap. 5. 
c. vi. 27. 
2 vwofid- 

3 irpoai- 

Isa. vi. 3. 



xxviii. 1 

354 The Son God, lest the creature share some Divine 

\% : 

Book 3. 

c. vi. 27. 

5 rh XStov 

6 irpoe\- 

7 ra IfSja 

9 rb tdiov 

How then, tell me, will that which is not of God by Na- 
ture, bear His Attribute 5 , and that be found not without 
share-essentially of the Excellences of the Divine Essence, 
which proceeded 6 not therefrom, after the true mode of ge- 
neration ? For it is, I suppose, clear and confessed by all, 
that the Properties 7 of the Godhead are wholly unattainable 
by the created nature, and that the qualities belonging 
to It by Nature will not exist in ought else that is, in equal 
and exact manner : as for example, Immutability is in 
God Naturally ; in us by no means so, but a kind of stabi- 
lity likens 8 us thereto, through heed and vigilance not suf- 
fering us readily to go after those things which we ought 
not. But if it were possible, that according to them, ought 
of Divine Attributes should be in any who is not of the 
Divine Nature Essentially, and that they should be so in 
him as they are in It; what (tell me) is to prevent all 
things God-befitting from at length coming down even 
upon those who are not by nature gods ? For if one of them 
unhindered finds place (I mean Immutability) there will be 
room for the rest also, and what follows ? utter confusion. 
For will not the superior pass below, and the inferior mount 
up into the highest place ? And what is there yet to hinder 
even the Most High God from being brought down to 
our level, and us again from being gods even as the Father, 
when there no longer is or is seen any difference inter- 
vening, if the qualities which belong to God Only pass to 
us, and are in us naturally ? And since God the Father 
contains in Himself Alone, as it seems, those Properties 
whereby we should be as He, we have remained men, and 
the angels likewise with us what they are, not mounting 
up to That which is above all. For if God should reveal 
Himself not Jealous, by putting His Own Attribute 9 into 
the power of all, many surely would be those who were by 
nature gods, able to create earth and heaven and all the 
rest of the creation. For the Excellencies of Him Who is 
by Nature the Creator having once passed on, how will not 
they be as He is ? or what prevents that which is radiant 
with equal goods from appearing in equal glory ? But the 

attribute. Each Person exists, Godhead not parted, 355 

God-opposer surely sees completely, how great the rnulti- Chap. 5. 
tude of strange devices which is hence heaped up upon us °' V1 * 
and exclaims against the mislearning l that is in him. The J Suoyta- 
Godhead then will remain in Its Own Nature, and the crea- 
ture will partake of It through spiritual relationship 3 , 2 oIku6- 
but will never mount up unto the Dignity that unchange- TVT ° S 
ably belongs to It. But our argument being thus arranged, 
we shall find that Immutability exists Essentially in the 
Son : He is then God by Nature, and of necessity of 3 the 3 4k 
Father, lest ought that is not of Him by Nature should 
reach to an equal dignity of Godhead. 

But since they hold out to us as an incontestable argu- 
ment their saying that the Son is other than the Father, 
as Image to archetype, and through this subtlety 4 think 4 ebpe- 
to sever Him from the Essence of Him That begat Him, ^ ° yias 
they shall be caught in no slight folly, and to have studied 
their assertion to no purpose, of any force in truth to 
accomplish fairly what they have at heart. For what fur- 
ther are they vainly contending for, or whence do they 
from only the distinctness of His own Being 5 , sever the 5 «.wb 
Son from the Father ? For the fact that He exists Per- Kal^isktl 
sonally 6 does not (I suppose) prove that He is diverse from j^eTJ^- 
the Essence of Him who begat Him. For He is confessedly ™* 
of the Father, as being of His Essence ; He is again in the a-rdrocs 
Father, by reason of His being in Him by Nature ; and you infra xvi. 
will hear Him say, at one time, I proceeded forth from the ff ' vm ' 
Father, and am come, again at another time, I am in the jj? xiv * 
Father and the Father in Me. For He will not withdraw 7 «* 'Sh- 
into a Personality 7 wholly and completely separated, see- 8 nark 
ing that the Holy Trinity is conceived of as being in One ^ ( w ff '. 
Godhead; but being in the Father, in mode or position <Tlv * Sld - 
undivided as to consubstantiality 8 , He will be conceived of T V &>* *" 
as likewise of 9 Him, according to the Procession which ttjti 
ineffably manifesteth Him x in respect of beaming forth 3 . 1 ^ t4 
For He is Light of Light. Therefore in the Father and * P . 6 ?\T 
of the Father, alike Undivided and separate, in Him as &<*>«*t<- 
Impress, but as Image to Archetype will He be conceived 2 faavyd- 
of in His Own 3 Person. But we will not simply discourse z^Jisia 

a a 2 



Book 3. 
c. vi. 28. 



12, 13. 

4 shekel 

• vapa 

6 iStotru- 

~l SlCMfK- 


356 Father and Son ai'i JEWi yet are not separate. 

concerning this, but will confirm it by example from the 
Law, on all sides fortifying the force of truth against those 
who think otherwise. 

The Law then appointed to the children of Israel to 
give to every man a ransom for his poll, half a didrachm *. 
But one stater contains a didrachm. Yea and herein again 
was shadowed out to us Christ Himself, Who offered Him- 
self for all, as by 5 all, a Ransom to God the Father, and is 
understood in the one drachma, but not separately from 
the other, because that in the one coin, as we said before, 
two drachmae are contained. Thus may both the Son 
be conceived of in respect of the Father, and again the 
Father in t respect of the Son, Both in One Nature, but 
Each Separate in part, as existing in His own Person 6 , 
yet not wholly severed 7 , nor One apart from the Other. 
And as in the one coin were two drachmae, having equal 
bulk with one another, and in no ways one less than the 
other; so shalt thou conceive of the in nought differing 
Essence of the Son in respect of God the Father, and 
again of the Father in respect of the Son, and thou shalt 
at length receive wholesome doctrine upon all points spoken 
of concerning Him. 

28 They said therefore unto Him, What shall we do, that we 

29 might work the work of God 9 Jesus answered and said 

unto them, 

Not of good purpose is the enquiry, nor yet as one might 
suppose does the question proceed from desire of know- 
ledge on their part, but is rather the result of exceeding 
arrogance. For as if they would deign to learn nought 
beyond what they knew already, they well nigh say some- 
thing of this sort, Sufficient, good Sir, to us are the 
writings of Moses : we know as much as we need of the 
things at which he who is skilful in the works of God 
ought to aim. What new thing then wilt Thou supply, 
in addition to those which were appointed at that time ? 
what strange thing wilt Thou teach, which was not shewn 
us before by the Divine words ? The enquiry then is 
rather of folly, than really of a studious will. You have 

Boasting reply of rich youth. Trust due to teachers. 357 

something of this kind in blessed Matthew too. For a cer- 
tain young man, overflowing with not the most easily-got- 
ten abundance of wealth, was intimating that he would 
enter upon the due service of God. When he came to Je- 
sus, he eagerly enquired what he should do, that he might 
be found an heir of everlasting life. To whom the Lord 
saith, Thou knowest surely the commandments, Bo not kill, 
Do not commit adultery, Do not bear false witness, and the 
like. But he, as lacking none of these things, or even not 
accepting an exposition of teaching which fell far short 
of his existing practice, says. All these things have I kept 
from my youth up, what lack I yet ? what then he did join- 
ing haughtiness to ignorance in his question, what lack I 
yet, the same do these too through their over much arro- 
gance alike and self-conceit 8 , saying, What shall we do, 
that we might work the works of God? 

A good thing then is a low conceit, and it is the work 
of a noble 9 soul, to commit to her teachers the thorough 
knowledge of what is profitable, and so to yield to their 
lessons, which thev think it right to instil 1 , seeing they 
are superior in knowledge. For how shall they be ac- 
cepted at all as teachers, if they have not superiority of 
understanding above what the mind of their pupils hath, 
since their advance will scarcely end at the measure of 
their masters' knowledge, according to the word of the 
Saviour, The disciple is not above his Master, and, It is 
enough for the disciple that he be as his Master? 

This is the work of God, that ye believe on Him whom He 
Most severely doth the Lord, even though secretly as 
yet and obscurely, attack the folly of the questioners. 
For one would suppose, looking merely at the simple 
meaning of the words, that Jesus was commanding them 
nothing else, save to believe on Him : but on examining 
the intent of the words, he will see that they refer to 
something else. For full well does He arrange His dis- 
course suitably to the folly of the questioners. For they, 
as though they learnt sufficiently through the Law how 

Chap. 5. 
c. vi. 29. 

S. Luke 
xviii. 20. 

S. Mntth. 
xix. 20. 

8 SoKrjcri- 

a evye- 

S. Matth. 
x. 24. 
lb. 25. 


Belief in the Truth surpasses types. 

Book 3. 
c. vi. 29. 

ver. 28 

to work what was well -pleasing to God, blasphemously 
neglect the teaching of our Saviour, saying, what shall 
we do, that we might work the work of God ? But it was 
necessary that He should shew them, that they were still 
very far removed from the worship most pleasing unto 
God, and that they knew no whit of the true good things, 
who cleaving to the letter of the law, have their mind 
full of mere types and forms. Therefore with some great 
emphasis does He say, opposing the fruit of faith to the 
worship of the Law, This is the work of God that ye believe 
on Him whom He sent. That is, it is not what ye sup- 
posed (He says) looking to the types alone; but know 
ye, even though ye will not learn it, that the Lawgiver 
took no pleasure in your sacrifices of oxen, nor needest 
thou to sacrifice sheep, as though God willed and required 
this. For what is frankincense, though it curl in the air 
in fragrant steam, what will the he-goat profit (saith He) 
Ps. 1. 13. and the costly offerings of cinnamon ? God eateth not the 
flesh of bulls, nor yet drinketh He the blood of goats : He 
knoweth alv the jowvs of the Heaven, and the wild beasts of 
the field are with Him. But He hath hated and despised 
your feasts, and will not smell in your solemn assemblies, as 
Himself saith: nor spake He unto your fathers concerning 
whole burnt offerings or sacrifices. Therefore not this is the 
tvork of God, but rather that, that ye should believe on Him 
ivhom He sent. For of a truth better than the legal and 
typical worship is the salvation through faith and the grace 
that justifieth than the commandment that condemneth. 

The work then of the pious soul is faith to Christ-ward, 
and more excellent far the zeal for to become wise in the 
knowledge of Him, than the cleaving to the typical shadows. 
You will marvel also at this besides : for whereas Christ 
was wont to take no notice of those who questioned Him, 
tempting Him, He answers this for the present economi- 
cally (even though He knew that they would be nothing 
profited) to their own condemnation, as He says elsewhere 
too, If I had not come and spoken unto them, they had not 
had sin ; but now they have no cloke for their sin. 

lb. 11. 

Amos v. 

Jer. vii. 

Infra xv. 

The Jews give the palm to Moses. 


30 They said therefore unto Him, What sign doest Thou then, Chap. 5. 
that we may see and believe Thee ? what dost Thou work ? vu ' 

31 our fathers ate the manna in the desert, as it is written, Bread 

from Heaven gave He them to eat. 

The disposition of the Jews unveils itself by little and 
little, although hidden and as yet buried in less overt 
reasonings. For they were saying in their folly, What shall Supra^ 
we do that ive might work the ivorhs of God? as if, as we said 
before, they held the commandment through Moses suffi- 
cient to conduct them to all wisdom, whereby they might 
know how to perform what was well -pleasing unto God. 
But their aim being such was concealed, but is now being 
unveiled, and by little and little comes forth more plainly. 
For nothing is secret, as the Saviour says, that shall not be ^. L ^ e 
made manifest. What then (are they saying) What sign 
sheivest Thou ? The blessed Moses was honoured (he says) 
and with great reason, he was set forth as a mediator be- 
tween God and man. Yea and he gave too a sufficient sign, 
for all they that were with him ate the manna in the wilder- 
ness. But do Thou at length, since Thou comest to us in a 
position greater than his, and dost not shrink from adding 
to the things decreed of old, with what signs wilt Thou give 
us a warrant, or what of wondrous works dost Thou shew- 
ing us, introduce Thyself as the Author of more novel doc- 
trines unto us ? Hereby too is our Saviour's word shewn 
to be true : for they are convicted by their own words of 
thinking that they ought to seek Him, not to admire Him 
for those things which He had in God-befitting manner 
wrought, but because they did eat of the loaves and were Supra 
filled. For they demand of Him a sign, not any chance 
one, but such as (they thought) Moses wrought, when not 
for one day, but for forty whole years, he fed the people 
that came out of Egypt in the wilderness, by the supply 
of manna. For, knowing nothing at all (it seems) of the 
Mysteries in the Divine Scriptures, they did not consider 
that it was fit to attribute the marvellous working hereun- 
to to the Divine power which wrought it, but very foolishly 
crown the head of Moses for this. They therefore ask of 

u • 


Cheist they own not. 

Book 3. 
vi. 30, 31. 


Christ a sign equal to that, giving no wonder at all to the 
sign which had been shewn them for a day, even though it 
were great, but saying that the gift of food ought to be 
extended to them for a long time. For that even so hardly 
would He shame them into confessing and agreeing that 
most glorious was the Power of the Saviour, and His Doc- 
trine therefore to be received. Manifest then is it even 
though they do not say it in plain terms 2 , that they wholly 
disregard signs, and under pretext of marvelling at them, 
are zealous to serve the impure pleasure of the belly. 




Of the manna, that it was a type of Christ's Presence and of the 
spiritual graces through Him. 

32 Jesus therefore said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, 
not Moses hath given you the Bread from Heaven, 

Now too does the Saviour most severely convict them of 
being without understanding, and exceedingly ignorant of 
what is in the Mosaic writings. For they ought to have 
known quite clearly that Moses was ministering the things 
of God to the people, and again those of the children of 
Israel to God, and was himself the worker in none of the 
miracles, but a minister rather and under-worker of those 
things which the Giver to them of all good things willed 
to do for the benefit of those who had been called out of 
bondage. What they then were impiously imagining, this 
Christ very resolutely cuts away (for to attribute things 
which befit and are due to the Divine Nature Alone, to the 
honour of men and not rather to It, how is not this replete 
with folly alike and impiety ?) and in that He deprived the 
hierophant Moses of the miracle, and withdrew it out of 
his hand, it is (I suppose) manifest that He rather attributes 
the glory of it to Himself together with the Father, even 
though He abstained from speaking more openly, by reason 
of the uninstructedness of His hearers. For it was a thing 
truly not contrary to expectation, that they should rage 1 , 1 diroT«« 
as though Moses were insulted by such words, and should f ot,r t ai 
be kindled unto intemperate anger, never enquiring what 
the truth was, nor recognizing the dignity of the Speaker, 
but heedlessly going about to only honour Moses, and not 
reasonably as it happened, when he was compared with 
what excelled him. 

Let us learn then, with more judgment and reason, to 

362 Saints to be honoured. Manna not the Bread 



1 Cor. 
xiv. 32. 


lxxxix. 6, 

Book 3. practise respect towards our lioly fathers and to render, as 
' it is written, fear to whom fear, honour to whom honour 
(for we shall in no wise injure, if we render what fittingly 
belongs to each, since the spirits of the Prophets are subject 
to the Prophets) but when any discourse about our Saviour 
Christ is entered into, then we must needs say, Who in the 
clouds can be equalled unto the Lord ? or who among the 
sons of the mighty shall be Weened unto the Lord ? 

but My Father giveth you the True Bread from heaven : 
33 for the Bread of God is He ivhich cometh down from heaven 
and giveth life unto the world. 

It was needful not only to remove Moses from God-be- 
fitting Authority, according to their conception, and to 
shew that he was a minister of that miraculous working, 
rather than the bestower of it, but also to lessen the wonder 
though miraculously wrought, and to shew that it was no- 
thing at all in comparison with the greater. For imagine 
Christ calling out something like this, The great things, 
sirs, do ye reckon among the little and meanest, and the 
beneficence of the Lord of all ye have meted out with most 
petty limits. For with no slight folly do ye suppose that 
the manna is the Bread from heaven, although it fed the 
race alone of the Jews in the wilderness, while there are 
other nations besides without number throughout the 
world. And ye supposed that God willed to shew forth 
lovingkindness so contracted, as to give food to one peo- 
2 t5 " , pie only (for these were types of universalities 2 , and in the 

ytv utter e- . ^ . . . 

f~»v partial was a setting forth of His general Munificence, as 

it were in pledge, to those who first received it) : but when 
the time of the Truth was at our doors, My Father giveth 
* you the Bread from heaven, which was shadowed forth to 
them of old in the gift of the manna. For let no one 
think (saith He) that that was in truth the Bread from 
heaven, but rather let him give his judgment in favour of 
That, which is clearly able to feed the whole earth, and 

' u\ws to give in full 8 life unto the world. 

He accuses therefore the Jew of cleaving to the typical 

from Heaven, but Christ, our very Life. Olden type of Him. 363 

observances, and refusing to examine into the beauty of Chap.g. 
the Truth. For not that was, properly speaking, the yi ' ' 
manna, but the Only-Begotten Word of God Himself, who 
proceedeth 4 from the Essence of the Father, since He is 4 «px<W- 
by Nature Life, and quickeneth all things. For since He 
sprang of the Living Father, He also is by Nature Life, 
and since the work of that which is by Nature Life is to 
quicken, Christ quickeneth all things. For as our earthly 
bread which is gotten of the earth suffereth not the frail 
nature of flesh to waste away : so He too, through the 
operation of the Spirit quickeneth our spirit, and not only 
so, but also holdeth together our very body unto incor- 

But since our meditations have once got upon the subject 
of manna, it will not be amiss (I think) for us to consider 
and say some little on it also, bringing forward out of the 
Mosaic books themselves severally the things written there- 
on. For thus having made the statement of the matter 
most clear 5 , we shall rightly discern each of the things » tlicpiv- 
signified therein. But we will shew through them all, that e<rraT7! " 
the Very Manna is Christ Himself, understood as given 
under the type of manna to them of old by God the Fa- 
ther. The beginning of the oracles thereon, speaks on this 
wise, On the fifteenth day of the second month after their de- Exod 

' J J 7 7 7 ±- /.XV1. 1-3. 

parting out of the land of Egypt, the whole congregation of 
the children of Israel were murmuring against Moses and 
Aaron, and the children of Israel said unto them, Would 
to God we had died, stricken by the Lord in the land of 
Egypt, when we sat by the flesh pots and tvere eating bread 
to the full, for ye have brought us forth into this wilderness to 
kill this whole assembly with hunger. The matter then of 
the history is clear and very plain, and I do not think it 
needs any words to test the obvious 6 meaning : but we will 6 n P 6 X ei- 
speak of it, looking only to the spiritual meaning. The p ° v 
children of Israel then, while still in the country of the 
Egyptians, by Divine command were keeping typically 
their feast to Christ, and having taken their supper 7 of the i 6oii>ns 
lamb, did thus hardly escape the tyranny of Pharaoh's 


364 Israel lusting in desert depicts our tempests. 

Book 3. 
vi. 32, 33. 

8 Oi)Ttlav 

v KO.TCL- 



1 airoSrjfi- 
lav, the 
going out 

2 efhnliia,- 


3 avKori- 

1 iucri&las 

xvi. 4, 

rule and shake off the intolerable yoke of bondage. Then 
having miraculously crossed the Red sea, they got into the 
wilderness : and there famishing craved flesh to eat, and 
were dragged down to the accustomed desire for food : and 
so they began murmuring against Moses and fall into 
repenting of their free gift from God when they ought to 
have given no small thanks for it. Egypt then will be 
darkness, and will signify the condition of the present life, 
and the worldly state, wherein we enrolled as in some 
state, serve a bitter serfdom 8 therein, working nothing at 
all to Godward but fulfilling only the works most delight- 
some to the Devil, and hasting down 9 unto the pleasures 
of impure flesh, like clay or stinking mud, enduring a mi- 
serable toil, unpaid, profitless, and pursuing a wretched 
(so to say) love of pleasure. 

But when the Law of God speaks to our soul, and we 
behold at length the bitter bondage of these things, then 
oh then do we, thirsting after riddance x from all evil, come 
to Christ Himself, as to the beginning and door of free- 
dom, and provisioned 2 with the security and grace that 
come through His Precious Blood, we leave the carnal 
condition of this life, as it were a troublous and stormy 
sea, and, out of all the tumult of the world, we at length 
reach a more spiritual^ and purer state, as it were so- 
journing in the wilderness. But since he is not unexer- 
cised unto virtue, who is through the Law instructed there- 
unto, when we find that we are at length in this case, then 
we falling into the temptations which try us, are some- 
times devoured by the memory of carnal lusts, and then, 
when the lust inflames us mightily, we cry oftentimes out 
of recklessness 4 , albeit the Divine Law hath called us to 
liberty, being as it were in hunger for our old accustomed 
pleasures, and making slight account of our toils after 
temperance, we look upon the bondage of the world as 
no longer evil. And in truth, the will of the flesh is suf- 
ficient to draw the mind to all faintheartedness after good- 

And the Lord said unto Moses, Behold I rain you bread 

Christ enmightens. Jews not punished at first, why. 365 
from heaven. In these words you may very clearly see Chap .6. 

J -. , j j, VI. 6a, OO. 

that which is sung in the Psalms, He gave them bread of Ps . 
heaven; man did eat angels' bread. But it is, I suppose, 2**25!" 
evident to all, that of the reasonable Powers in heaven, 
none other is the Bread and Food, save the Only Be- 
gotten of God the Father. He then is the True Manna, 
the Bread from heaven, given to the whole rational crea- 
tion by God the Father. But entering into the order of 
our subject we say this: Observe how the Divine grace- 
from above draws unto itself the nature of man even 
though at times sick after its wonted things, and saves 
it in manifold wise. For the lust of the flesh like a 
stone falling on the mind thrusts it down, and despo- 
tically forces it unto its own will; but Christ brings us 
round again, as with a bridle, unto longing for better 
things, and recovers them that are diseased unto God- 
loving habit of mind. For lo, lo to them that are sinking 
down into carnal pleasures, He promises to give Food from 
Heaven, the consolation, that is, through the Spirit, the 
Spiritual Manna. Through this are we strengthened un- 
to all endurance and manliness and obtain that we fall not 
through infirmity into those things we ought not. The 
Spiritual Manna therefore, that is, Christ, was strengthen- 
ing us before too unto piety. 

But since we have once, by reason of need, digressed, I 
think it well not to leave the subject uninvestigated, since 
it is very conducive to our profit. Some one then may 
reasonably ask, Why is God who is so Loving to man and 
so loveth virtue 5 when it behoved Him to forecome their 5 ^V- 
request, tardy 6 in respect of His Promise: and He nowise s^rre- 
punishes those so perverse men, albeit He punished them pifet 
afterwards, when they were sick with the same lusting, 
and pictured to themselves bread to the full, and fleshpots, 
and admitted longing for the rankest 7 onions. For wenvawZe. 
shall find in Numbers, that both certain were punished, * rT<£ ' ra "' 
and the place, wherein they were then encamping, wasN um - xi - 
called the graves of lust 8 , for there they buried the people 8 Kib- 
that lusted. With respect then to the first question, we \l &y ^ ' 

366 The 

1 ' 

Book 3. 
vi. 32, 33, 

9 a.K7]5l- 
as, the 
being out 
of heart 
1 tcrofioi- 

2 aicrjSlas 

Ps. civ. 



a awo- 


xvi. 4. 

cry of babes heard, the stronger must fight. 

say that it assuredly behoved Him to wait for the desire, 
and so at length to reveal Himself in due season the Giver. 
For most welcome is the gift to those in good case, when 
certain pleasures appear before it and precede it, inciting 
to thirst after what is not yet come : but the soul of man 
will be devoid of a more grateful sensation, if it do not 
first stretch after and labour for the pleasures of being 
well off. But perhaps you will say that there had been 
no way any entreaty from them, but murmuring rather, 
repentance, and outcry : for this would indeed be speak- 
ing more truly. To this we say, that entreaty through 
prayer will befit those who are of a perfect habit : and per- 
chance the murmuring of the more feeble from depression 9 
or whatever cause, will partake 1 of this : and the Saviour 
of all, being loving to man is not altogether angry at it. 
For as in those who are yet babes, crying will sometimes 
avail to the asking of their needs, and the mother is often 
called by it to find out what will please the child : so to 
those who were yet babes, and had not yet advanced to 
understanding, the cry of weariness 2 so to say, has the 
force of petition before God. And He punisheth not in 
the beginning, even though He see them worsted by 
earthly lusts, but after a time, for this reason, as seems 
to me. They who were but newly come forth of Egypt, 
not having yet received the manna, nor having the Bread 
from heaven, which strengtheneth man's heart, fall as might 
be expected, into carnal lusts, and therefore are pardoned. 
But they who had already delighted in the Lord, as it is 
written, on preferring carnal delights to the spiritual good 
things, have to give most righteous satisfaction, and over 
and above their suffering have assigned them 3 a notable 
memorial of their fate. For the graves of lust is the name 
of the place of their punishment. 

And the jpeojple shall go out and gather the day's portion 
each day. We will consider the sensible manna a type of the 
spiritual manna; and the spiritual manna signifies Christ 
Himself, but the sensible manna adumbrates the grosser 
teaching of the Law. With reason is the gathering daily, 

S&hba,th.ourrestatGhrist , scoming.l)o\ih\egathering ) what. 367 

and the lawgiver forbids keeping it till the morrow, Chap. r>. 
darkly hinting to them of old, that when the time of sal- ' ' 
vation at length shines forth, wherein the Only Begotten 
appeared in the world with Flesh, the legal types should 
be wholly abolished, and the gathering food thence in 
vain, while the Truth Itself lieth before us for our pleasure 
and enjoyment. 

And it shall come to pass, on the sixth day, and they shall lb. 5. 
'prepare that which they bring in, and it shall be double ivhat 
they gather. Observe again, that thou mayest understand, 
that He does not suffer them to gather on the seventh 
day the sensible manna, but commands that which is 
already provided and gathered to be prepared for their 
food beforehand. For the seventh day signifies the time 
of the Advent of our Saviour, wherein we rest in holiness, 
ceasing from works of sin, and receiving for food, both 
the fulfilment of our faith, and the knowledge already 
arranged * in us through the Law, no longer gathering 4 o-vyKt- 
it as of necessity, since more excellent food is now before vr)V 
us, and we have the Bread from heaven. The manna is 
collected in double measure before the holy sabbath : and 
you will understand thence, that the Law being concluded 
in respect of its temporal close, and the holy sabbath, that 
is, Christ's coming, already beginning, the getting of the 
heavenly goods will be after some sort in double measure, 
and the grace two-fold, bringing in addition to the advan- 
tages from the Law, the Gospel instruction also. Which 
the Lord Himself too may be conceived to teach when 
He says, as in the form of a parable. Therefore every scribe s. Matth. 
instructed unto the kingdom of heaven is like unto a wealthy* 
man which putteth forth out of his treasure things new and 
old : the old the things of the Law, the new those through 

And Moses and Aaron said unto all the congregation of Ex. xvi. 
the children of Israel, At even ye shall know that the Lord 
brought you forth from the land of Egypt, in the morning 

a So reads S. Cyril constantly, in place Holy Gospel now extant seems to give 
of the word householder. No Ms. of the this reading. 

xiii. 52. 

6, 7, 8. 

368 Quails and evening intimate incompleteness. 

Book 3. 
vi. 32, 33. 

Infra xii. 

• avro- 

2 Cor. iii. 


xvi. 13, 

ye shall see the glory of the Lord, in that the Lord giveth you 
in the evening flesh to eat and in the morning bread to the 
full. Moses promises to them of Israel, that quails shall 
be given them by God in the evening, and declares that 
hereby they shall know surely that the Lord brought them 
up out of Egypt. And in the morning ye shall see plainly, 
(he says) the glory of the Lord, when He shall give you 
bread to the full. And consider, I pray you, the differ- 
ence between each of these. For the quail signifies the 
Law (for the bird ever flies low and about the earth) : 
thus wilt thou see those too who are instructed through 
the Law unto a more earthly piety through types, I mean 
such as relate to sacrifice and purifications and Jewish wash- 
ing. For these are heaved a little above the earth, and 
seem to rise above it, but are nevertheless in it and about 
it : for not in the Law is that which is perfectly good and 
lofty unto understanding. Moreover it is given in the 
evening : the account again by evening signifying the ob- 
scurity of the letter, or the darksome condition of the 
world, when it had not yet the Very Light, i. e.,. Christ, 
who when He was Incarnate said, I am come a Light into 
the world. But He says the children of Israel shall know 
that the Lord brought them out of Egypt. For knowledge 
only of the salvation generally through Christ is seen in 
the Mosaic book, while grace was not yet present in very 
person 5 . This very thing He hinted at, when He added, 
In the morning ye shall see the glory of the Lord, in that 
He giveth you bread to the full. For when the mist of 
the Law, as it were night, hath been dispersed, and the 
spiritual Sun hath risen upon us all, we behold as in a 
glass the glory of the Lord now present, receiving the 
Bread from heaven to the full, I mean Christ Himself. 

And it was evening and the quails came up and covered 
the camp, and in the morning as the dew ceased round about 
the host, and behold, upon the face of the wilderness a small 
thing, as coriander seed, white. Look at the arrangement 
of the things to be considered. He says of the quails, 
that they covered the camp; of the manna again, that 

What signified by Manna, morning, coriander seed. 369 

in the morning when the dew was gone up, it lay on the face Chap. 6. 
of the wilderness round about the camp. For the instruc- ' ' 
tion through the Law, I mean that in types and figures, 
which we have compared to the appearance of quails, 
covers the synagogue of the Jews : for, as Paul saith, the 2 Cor. iii. 
veil lieth upon their heart, and hardness in part. But when Rom. xi. 
it was morning, that is, when Christ had now risen, and ' 
flashed forth upon all the world, and when the dew was 
gone up, that is, the gross and mist-like introduction of 
legal ordinances (for Christ is the end of the Law and the lb. x. 4. 
Prophets) ; then of a surety the true and heavenly manna 
will come down to us, I mean the Gospel teaching, not up- 
on the congregation of the Israelites, but round about the 
camp, i. e., to all the nations, and upon the face of the 
ivilderness, that is the Church of the Gentiles, whereof it 
is said that more are the children of the desolate than of the Isa. Uv. 
married wife. For over the whole world is dispersed the 
grace of the spiritual manna, which is also compared to 
the coriander seed, and is called small 6 . For the power c x^rhv, 
of the Divine Word being of a truth suutie •, anu. cooiing ? Xfirri] 
the heat of the passions, lulleth the fire of carnal motions 
within us, and entereth into the deep of the heart. For 
they say that the effect of this herb, I mean the coriander, 
is most cooling. 

And when the children of Israel saw it they said one to Exod. 
another, What is this ? for they wist not what it was ; being 
unused to what had been miraculously wrought and not 
being able to say from experience what it was, they say 
one to another What is this ? But this very thing which 
is said interrogatively, they make the name of the thing, 
and call it in the Syrian tongue, Manna, i.e., What is this ? 
and you will hence see, how Christ would be unknown 
among the Jews. For that which prevailed in the type, 
trial shewed that it had also force- in the truth. 

And Moses said to them, Let no man leave of it till the lb. 19, 20. 
morning ; and they hearkened not unto Moses, but sorns of 
them left of it until the morning, and it bred worms and stank, 
and Moses was wroth with them. The morning in this place 

VOL. i. b b 

Book 3. 
vi. 32, 33, 


Phil. iii. 

xvi. 33. 

Rom. xi. 

Eccl. vii. 

1 '< f 

1 i 


9 ardfi- 

vov XP v<r - 

f .; 


f f 



and so S. 

1 \ 


Heb. ix. 


370 The Law's shadow transient. Pot of Manna soul 

signifies the bright and most glorious time of the coming of 
our Saviour, when the shadow of the Law and the mist of 
the devil among the nations, being in some sort undone 8 , 
the Only-Begotten rose upon us like light, and spiritual 
dawn appeared. The blessed Moses then commanded not 
to leave of the typical manna until the morning ; for when 
the aforementioned time hath risen upon us, superfluous 
and utterly out of place are the shadows of the Law by 
reason of the now present truth. For that a thing truly 
useless is the righteousness of the Law when Christ hath 
now gleamed forth, Paul shewed, saying of Him, for whom 
I suffered the loss of all things, to wit, glorying in the Law, 
and do count them dung, that I may win Christ and be found 
in Sim, not having mine own righteousness which is of the 
Law, but that which is th7'ough the faith of Jesus Christ. 
Seest thou then, how as a wise man he took care not to leave 
of it till the morning ? They who kept of it unto the morn- 
ing are a type of the Jewish multitude which should believe 
not, whose eager desire to keep the law in the letter, should 
be a producing of corruption and of worms. For hearest 
thou how the Lawgiver is exasperated greatly against them? 
And Moses said unto Aaron, Take one golden pot, and put 
therein manna, an omer full, and thou shalt lay it up before 
Ood to be kept. Well in truth may we marvel hereat, and 
say, the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of 
Ood! Por incomprehensible in truth is the wisdom hidden 
in the God-inspired Scriptures, and deep their depth, as it is 
written, who can find it out ? Thou seest then how our last 
comment fitted these things : Por since Christ Himself was 
shewn to be our Yery Manna, declared in type by way of 
image to them of old, needs does he teach in this place, of 
Whom and of what virtue and glory will he be full, who 
treasureth up in himself the spiritual Manna, and bringeth 
Jesus into the inmost recesses of his heart, through right 
• faith in Him and perfect love. For thou hearest how the 
omer full of manna was put in a golden pot 9 , and by the hand 
of Aaron laid up before the Lord to be kept. Por the holy 
and truly pious soul, which travaileth of the Word of Grod 


■which contains Christ. Moses, a mediator. Jews' unwisdom. 371 

perfectly in herself, and receiveth entire the heavenly trea- Chap. 6. 
sure will be a precious vessel, like as of gold, and will be c ' vL ^' 
offered by the High Priest of all to God the Father, and 
will be brought into the Presence of Him Who holdeth all 
things together and preserveth them to be kept, not suffer- 
ing to "perish that which is of its own nature perishable. 
The righteous man then is described, as having in a golden 
vessel the spiritual Manna, that is Christ, attaining unto in- 
corruption, as in the Sight a of God, and remaining to be J *"«*- 
kept, that is unto long-enduring and endless life. Christ *" 
with reason therefore convicts the Jews of no slight mad- 
ness, in supposing that the manna was given by the all- 
wise Moses to them of old, and in staying at this point their 
discourse thereon and considering not one at all of the 
things presignified thereby, by His saying, Verily I say 
unto you, Not Moses hath given you the manna. For they 
ought rather to have considered this and perceived that 
Moses had brought in the service of mediation merely : 
but that the gift was no invention of human hand, but the 
work of Divine Grace, outlining the spiritual in the grosser, 
and signifying to us the Bread from Heaven, Which giveth 
Life to the whole world, and doth not feed the one race of 
Israel as it were by preference 2 . 2 «ora 


34 They said therefore unto Him, Lord evermore give us this pirtiaUu, 

35 Bread. Jesus said unto them, T.l^™' 
Hereby is clearly divulged, though much desiring to be 

hid, the aim of the Jews, and that one might see that it is 
not lawful for the Truth to lie, which said that not because 
they saw the miracles, were they therefore eager to follow 
Him, but because they did eat of the loaves and were filled. Supra 
With reason then were they condemned for their much ver-26 * 
dulness 3 , and I suppose one should truly say to them, 3 f^a- 
Lo a foolish people and without heart, they have eyes and see j«.y. 2 i. 
not, they have ears and hear not. For while our Saviour 
Christ by many words, as one may see, is drawing them 
away from carnal imaginations, and by His all-wise teach- 
ing winging them unto spiritual contemplation, they attain 

Bb 2 

372 Misconception of Jews as of woman of Samaria. 


Book 3. 35. 
ver. 33. 
Phil. iii. 


Supra iv, 
13, 14. 

4 Svffpa- 


lb. 15. 

5 ifia\a- 





not above the profit of the flesh, and hearing of the Bread 
which giveth life unto the world, they still picture to them- 
selves that of the earth, having their belly for god, as it is 
written, and overcome by the evils of the belly, that they 
may justly hear, whose glory is in their shame. And you 
will find such language very consonant to that of the wo- 
man of Samaria. For when our Saviour Christ was ex- 
pending upon her too a long discourse, and telling her of 
the spiritual waters, and saying clearly, Whosoever drinketh 
of this water shall thirst again, but whosoever drinketh of the 
water that I shall give him shall never thirst, but the water 
that I shall give him shall be in him a ivell of water spring- 
ing up into everlasting life : she caught at it through the 
dulness 4 that was in her, and letting go the spiritual foun- 
tain, and thinking nothing at all about it, but sinking down 
to the gift of sensible wells, says, Lord give me this water, 
that I thirst not neither come hither to draw. Akin therefore 
to her language is that of the Jews. For as she was weakly 5 
by nature, in the same way (I think) have these too nought 
nly in their understanding, but are effeminated 


• €U<T 


unto the unmanly lusts of the belly, and shew that that is 
true of them which is written, For the foolish man will utter 
folly, and his heart will imagine vain things. 

I am the Bread of life 

It is the custom of our Saviour Christ when explaining 
the more Divine and already foretold Mysteries, to make 
His Discourse upon them darksome and not too transpa- 
rent. For He commits not His so dread word to lie un- 
veiled before the unholy and profane indiscriminately at 
their pleasure, to be trodden down by them, but having 
veiled it in the armour of obscurity, He renders it not in- 
visible to the prudent, but when He seeth among His 
hearers any foolish ones, and who understand no whit of 
the things spoken, He opens clearly what He wills to 
make known, and removing as it were all mist from His 
Discourse, He sets the knowledge of the Mystery before 
" them bare and in full view 6 , hereby rendering their unbe- 

Christ veils His words yet also utters them forth. 373 

lief without defence. That it was His wont (as we have 
said) to use an obscure and reserved 7 method of speaking, 
He will Himself teach us, saying in the Book of Psalms, I 
will open My Mouth in parables. And the blessed prophet 
Isaiah too no less will confirm our explanation hereof, and 
shew it in no wise mistaken, proclaiming, Behold a righteous 
King shall reign, and princes shall rule with judgment, and a 
man shall veil his words : for he says that He has reigned 
a righteous King over us who saith, Yet was I appointed 
King by Him, upon Sion His holy mountain, declaring the 
commandment of the Lord : and princes living together in 
judgment, that is, in uprightness in every thing, he calls the 
holy disciples who came to the Saviour Christ oftentimes 
veiling His words, saying, Declare unto us the pay-able. 
And He once on hearing the question, Why spealtest Thou 
unto the multitudes in parables ? is found to have declared 
most manifestly the cause, Because they seeing (He says) 
see not, and hearing they hear not, nor understand. For 
they were no ways worthy (it seems) seeing that God who 
judgeth justly, decreed this sentence upon them. The 
Saviour then, having devised many turns in His Discourse, 
when He saw that His hearers understood nothing, at 
length says more openly, I am the Bread, of life, and well- 
nigh makes an attack upon their unmeasured want of rea- 
son, saying, ye who have the mastery over all in your 
incomparable uninstructedness alone, when God declares 
that He will give you Bread from Heaven, and has made 
you so great a promise in feeding you with manna, do ye 
limit the Divine Liberality, and are ye not ashamed of 
staying the grace from above at this, not knowing that it 
is but a little thing both for you to receive such things of 
God, and for God Himself to give them you ? Do not then 
believe (saith He) that that bread is the Bread from 
Heaven. For I am the Bread of Life, Who of old was fore- 
announced to you as in promise, and shewn as in type, but 
now am present fulfilling My due promise. I am the Bread 
of Life, not bodily bread, which cutteth off the suffering 
from hunger only, and freeth the flesh from the destruction 

Chap. 6. 

c. vi. 35. 

7 iirtffKl- 








xxxii. 1, 

2 LXX. 

Ps. ii. 6, 
7 LXX. 

S. Matt. 
xv. 15. 
lb. xiii. 

lb. 13. 


Joshua a type of Christ. 

Book 3. 
c. vi. 35 

Josh. iii. 
lb. v. 2. 

8 knives 
of flints 

£. m. 

9 (TVVfffT- 

S. Matth. 
i. 21. 

Josh. iv. 

Zech. ix 


therefrom, but remoulding wholly the whole living being 
to eternal life, and rendering man who was formed to be 
for ever, superior to death. By these words He points to 
the life and grace through His Holy Flesh, through which 
this property of the Only Begotten, i. e., life, is introduced 
into us. 

But we must know (for I think we ought with zealous 
love of learning to pursue what brings us profit) that for 
forty whole years was the typical manna supplied to them 
of Israel by God, while Moses was yet with them, but 
when he had attained the common termination of life, and 
Jesus was now appointed the commander and general of 
the Jewish ranks : he brought them over Jordan, as it is 
written, and having circumcised them with hiives of stone 8 
and brought them into the land of promise, he at length 
arranged that they should be fed with bread, the all-wise 
God having now stayed His gift of manna. Thus (for the 
type shall now be transferred to the truer) when Moses 
was shrouded 9 , that is, when the types of the worship after 
the Law were brought to nought, and Christ appeared to 
us, the true Jesus (for He saved His people from their sins), 
then we crossed the Jordan, then received the spiritual cir- 
cumcision through the teaching of the twelve stones, that is 
of the holy disciples, of whom if is written in the Prophets 
that the holy stones are rolled upon His land. For the holy 
stones going about and running over the whole earth, are 
of a surety these, through whom also we were circumcised 
with the circumcision made without hands in Spirit, i. e., 
through faith. When then we were called to the kingdom 
of Heaven by Christ (for this and nought else, I deem, it 
pointeth to, that some entered into the land of promise), 
then the typical manna no longer belongeth to us (for not 
by the letter of Moses are we any longer nourished) but 
the Bread from Heaven, i. e., Christ, nourishing us unto 
eternal life, both through the supply of the Holy Ghost, 
and the participation of His Own Flesh, which infuseth 
into us the participation of God, and effaceth the deadness 
that cometh from the ancient curse. 

Never hunger a gift superior to Moses'. 


He that cometh to Me shall not hunger, and he that believeth Chap. 6. 
on Me shall never thirst. 

There is herein again something concealed which we 
must say. For it is the wont of the Saviour Christ, not 
to. contend with the praises of the saints, but on the con- 
trary to crown them with glorious honours. But when 
certain of the more ignorant folk, not perceiving how great 
His excellence over them, offer them a superior glory, then 
does He to their great profit bring them to a meeter idea, 
while they consider Who the Only-Begotten is, and that He- 
will full surely surpass by incomparable Excellencies. But 
not over clear does He make His Discourse to this effect, 
but somewhat obscure and free from any boast, and yet 
by consideration of or comparison of the works it forcibly 
takes hold on the vote of superiority. For instance, He was 
discoursing one time with the woman of Samaria, to whom 
He promised to give living water ; and the woman under- 
standing nought of the things spoken said, Art Thou greater Supra iv. 
than our father Jacob who gave us the well ? But when 
the Saviour wished to persuade her that He was both 
greater than he, and in no slight degree more worthy of 
belief, He proceeds to the difference between the water, 
and says, Whosoever drinlceth of this water shall thirst again, 
but whosoever drinlceth of the water that I shall give him, it lb. 13, 14. 
shall he in him a ivell of water springing up into everlasting 
life. And what thence does He give to understand but 
surely this, that the Giver of more excellent gifts must 
needs be surely Himself more excellent than he with whom 
was the comparison ? Some such method then of leading 
and instruction He uses now too. For since the Jews 
were behaving haughtily towards Him, and durst think 
big l , putting forward on all occasions their Lawgiver i ^ya. 
Moses, and often asserting that they ought to follow his ^ff ' 
ordinances rather than Christ's, thinking that the supply 
of manna and the gushing forth of water from the rock, 
were most reasonable proof of his superiority over all, and 
over our Saviour Jesus Christ Himself, needs He did 
return to His wonted plan, and does not say downright, 

376 Christ's Body our Life. Firm resolve, not 

Book 3. 
c. vi. 35. 

3 evKoyiav 
S. Cyril's 
name for 
the Eu- 

4 wtiroi- 

5 ev\oyl- 

that He is superior to Moses, by reason of the unbridled 
daring of His hearers, and their being most exceeding 
prone 2 to wrath; but He comes to this very thing that is 
marvelled at, and by comparison of it with the greater, 
proves that it is small. For he that cometh to Me (He 
says) shall never hunger and he that believeth on Me shall 
never thirst. Yea (saith He) I too will agree with you 
that the manna was given through Moses, but they that 
did eat thereof hungered. I will grant that out of the 
womb of the rocks was given forth unto you water, but 
they who drank thirsted, and the aforesaid gift wrought 
them some little temporary enjoyment; but he that com- 
eth to Me shall never hunger, and he that "believeth on Me 
shall never thirst. 

What then doth Christ promise ? Nothing corruptible, 
but rather that Blessing 3 in the participation of His Holy 
Flesh and Blood, which restoreth man wholly to incorrup- 
tion, so that he should need none of the things which drive 
off the death of the flesh, food (I mean) and drink. It 
seems that He here calls water, the Sanctification through 
the Spirit, or the Divine and Holy Ghost Himself, often so 
named by the Divine Scriptures. The Holy Body of Christ 
then giveth life to those in whom It is, and holdeth them 
together unto incorruption, being commingled with our 
bodies. For it is conceived of as the Body of none other, 
but of Him which is by Nature life, having in itself the 
whole virtue of the united Word, and inqualitied 4 , yea or 
rather, fulfilled with His effectuating Might, through which 
all things are quickened and retained in being. But since 
these things are so, let them who have now been bap- 
tized and have tasted the Divine Grace, know, that if 
they go sluggishly or hardly at all into the Churches, 
and for a long time keep away from the Eucharistic gift 5 
through Christ, and feign a pernicious reverence, in that 
they will not partake of Him sacramentally, they exclude 
themselves from eternal life, in that they decline to be 
quickened; and this their refusal, albeit seeming haply to be 
the fruit of reverence, is turned into a snare and an offence. 


keeping away from Eucharist, our duty. Disfavour to unbelief. 377 

For rather ought they urgently to gather up their implanted 
power and purpose,' that so they may be resolute in clear- 
ing away siu, and essay to live a life most comely, and so 
hasten with all boldness to the participation of Life. But 
since Satan is manifold in his wiles, he never suffers them 
to think that they ought to be soberminded, but after 
having defiled them with evils, persuades them to shrink 
from the very grace, whereby it were likely, that they re- 
covering from the pleasure that leads to vice, as from wine 
and drunkenness, should see and consider what is for their 
good. Breaking off therefore his bond, and shaking off 
the yoke cast upon us from his tyranny, let us serve the 
Lord with fear, as it is written, and through temperance 
shew ourselves superior to the pleasures of the flesh and 
approach to that Divine and Heavenly Grace, and mount 
up unto the holy Participation of Christ; for thus, thus 
shall we overcome the deceit of the devil, and, having be- 
come partakers of the Divine Nature, shall mount up to life 
and incorruption. 

Chap. 6. 
c. vi. 36. 

Ps. ii. 11. 

2 S. Pet 

36 But I said unto you that ye have both seen Me and believe 


By many words doth He struggle with them, and in 
every way urge them to salvation by faith. But He was 
not ignorant, as God, that they would run off to unbelief, as 
their sister or intimate foster sister, and would regard as 
nought, Him who calleth them to life. In order then 
that they might know that Jesus was not ignorant what 
manner of men they would be found, or rather, to speak 
more fittingly, that they might learn that they were under 
the Divine wrath, He charges them again, But I said unto 
you that ye have both seen Me and believe not. I foreknew 
(says He) and clearly foretold, that ye would surely remain 
hard, and keeping fast hold of your cherished disobedience, 
ye would be left without share in My gifts. And when 
did Christ say any thing of this kind? remember Him 
saying to the blessed prophet Isaiah, Go and tell this I i a vi 
people, Hear ye in hearing and understand not, and looking 



Jews without excuse. Christ grieved. 

Book 3. 
c. vi. 37. 


cf. Prov. 

v. 22. 

ver. 15. 

cf. Wis- 
dom xiii. 

look and see not, for the heart of this people is waxen fat. 
Will not the word be shewn to be true by these things also 
which are before us ? for they saw, they saw that the Lord 
was by Nature God, when He fed a multitude exceeding 
number which came unto Him with five barley loaves, and 
two small fishes, which He brake up. But they have seen 
and believe not, by reason of the blindness which like a mist 
hath come upon their understandings from the Divine 
wrath. For they were (I suppose) without doubt worthy 
to undergo this, for that they, caught in innumerable 
stumblings, and fast holden in the indissoluble bands of 
their transgressions, received not when He came Him who 
had power to loose them. For this cause was the heart of 
this people made fat. 

But that the multitude of the Jews saw by the great- 
ness of the sign that Jesus was by Nature God, you will 
understand full well by this too. For marvelling at what 
was done, as the Evangelist says above, they sought to 
seize Sim to make Him a King. No excuse then for their 
folly is left unto the Jews. For astonished (and with 
much reason) at the Divine signs, and coming from the 
works proportionably to the Might of Him Who worketh, 
they wellnigh, shudder at their readiness to believe, and 
spring back from good habits, readily making a summer- 
set as it were into the very depths of perdition. 


ver. 36. 

All that the Father giveth Me shall come to Me, 

It did not behove the Lord simply to say, Ye have both 
seen Me and believe not, but it was necessary that He 
should bring in besides the reason of their blindness, that 
they might learn that they had fallen under the Divine 
displeasure. Therefore as a skilful physician He both 
shews them their weakness, and reveals the cause of it, 
not in order that they on learning it may remain quiet 
in it, but that they may by every means appease the Lord 
of all, Who is grieved at them, i. e,, for just causes. For 
He would never be grieved unjustly, nor would He Who 
knows how to give righteous judgment have given any 

All intimates calling of Gentile Church. 


such judgment upon them, were not reason calling Him 
thereto, from all sides hasting unto the duty of accusal. 
The Saviour hereby affirmed that everything should come 
to Him, which God the Father gave Him; not as though 
He were unable to bring believers to Himself, for this He 
would have accomplished very easily if He had so willed, 
according to the working whereby He is able even to subdue 
all things to Himself, as Paul saith : but since it seemed 
somehow necessary and more fit, to say that they who were 
in ignorance were illumined by the Divine Nature, He 
again as Man attributes to the Father the operation, as to 
things more God-befitting. For so was His wont to do, 
as we have often said. But it is probable that when He 
says that all that He giveth Him shall be brought to Him 
by God the Father, He points to the people of the Gentiles 
now about full soon to believe on Him. It is the word of 
one skilfully 7 threatening, that both they shall fall away 
from grace, and that in their stead shall come in all who 
of the Gentiles are brought by the goodness of God the 
Father, to the Son, as to Him Who is by Nature Saviour 
and Lifegiving, that they, partaking of the Blessing 8 from 
Him, may be made partakers of the Divine Nature, and be 
thus brought back to incorruption and life, and be re- 
formed unto the pristine fashior* of our nature. As though 
one should bring a sick man to a physician, that he might 
drive away the sickness that has fallen upon him, so we 
say that God the Father brings to the Son those who are 
worthy salvation from Him. Bitter then and full of des- 
truction is hardness of heart to them that have it. There- 
fore doth the word of prophecy chide the Jews, crying 
aloud, Be ye circumcised to God, and circumcise the hard- 
ness of your heart, ye men of Judah and inhabitants of 
Jerusalem. Yet not for them, but for us rather hath God 
the Father kept the circumcision in the heart, namely that 
which is through the Holy Ghost, wrought according to 
the rites of him who is a Jew inwardly. It is then right to 
flee from their disobedience, and with all zeal to renounce 
hardness of heart, and to reform unto a more toward dis- 

Chap. 6. 
c. vi. 37. 

Phil. iii. 

7 tv(pvS>s 

8 (v\oyi- 
as, the 

Jer. iv. 4. 



Out means Doom. 

Book 3. position, if we would avert the wrath that was upon them 
unto destruction. 

Jer. xxii. 



9 (KKripv- 

cf. S. 
iii. i2. 

1 Cor. ii. 

S. Matth 
xiii. 47, 

and him that cometh to Me I will in no wise cast out. 

He says that conversion through faith will not be pro- 
fitless unto them that come to Him. For He had to shew 
that the being brought by God the Father was a most 
desirable thing, and productive of ten thousand goods. 
Things most excellent then (saith He) shall be theirs, who 
through the grace from above are called to Me and come. 
For I will not cast out him that cometh, that is I will not 
discard him as an unprofitable vessel, as is said through 
one of the Prophets, Jechonias was despised, as a vessel 
whereof there is no use, he was cast away, and cast forth 
into a land which he knew not. Earth, earth, hear the word 
of the Lord, write ye this man a man proscribed. He shall 
not then be proscribed 9 (saith He) nor cast forth, as one 
despised, nor shall he abide without share of Mine regard, 
but shall be gathered up into My garner, and shall dwell 
in the heavenly mansions, and shall see himself possessed 
of every hope beyond understanding of man. For eye hath 
not seen nor ear heard neither have entered into the heart of 
man, the things which God prepared for them that love Him. 
It is probable that the wordS, I will not cast out him that 
cometh to Me signify moreover, that the believer, and he 
that cometh to the Divine Grace, shall not be delivered 
over to the judgment. For you will find that the word 
out, has some such meaning, as in that parable in the blessed 
Matthew. For (saith He) the Kingdom of Heaven is like unto 
a net that was cast into the sea and gathered of every kind, 
which having brought up and dragged to the shore, they 
gathered the good into vessels, but cast the bad away. For 
that the good are gathered into the Divine and heavenly 
Courts, we shall understand by His saying that the good 
were gathered into vessels : and by the unprofitable being 
cast away, we shall see that the ungodly shall fall away 
from all good, and go away into judgment. When then 
Christ says, Him that cometh to Me I will in no wise cast 

Some will be cast out. 


out, let us understand that the people which cometh unto Chap. g. 
Him through faith shall never fall into torment. Most 
wisely does He seem to me in these words to veil a threat 
against those most abandoned men, that if any will not 
turn with all speed to obedience, they shall be deprived 
of all good, and be excluded even against their will from 
His Friendship. For wherein He promises not to cast out 
him that cometh, He in the same signifieth that He will 
surely cast out him that cometh not. 

Cyril Archbishop of Alexandria on the Gospel according 
to John, Book the third. 


i f 


I I- 

! '<■■ i 

1. That in nothing is the Son inferior to God the Father, because 
lie is of Him by Nature, although He be said by some to be sub- 
ject, on the words, 1 came down from Heaven not to do Mine 
own Will, but the Will of the Father That sent Me. Herein 
is also a most useful discourse upon the Precious Cross of Christ. 

2. That the Holy Body of Christ is Life-giving, on the words I am 
the Bread of Life, &c. wherein He speaks of His own Body as 
of Bread. 

3. That the Son is not a partaker of life from any other, but rather 
Life by Nature, as being begotten of God the Father who is 
Life by Nature, on the words, As the Living Father sent Me 
and I live by the Father, so he that eateth Me, he too shall live 
by Me. 

4. That a type of Christ was the holy Tabernacle which led the 
people in the wilderness and that the ark that was in it and the 
lamp and the altar, well as that of incense, as that of sacrifice 
signified Christ Himself, on the words, To whom shall we go ? 
Thou hast the words of eternal life. 

5. On the feast of tabernacles, that it signifies the restitution of the 
hope due to the Saints, and the resurrection from the dead, on 
the words, Now the Jews' feast of tabernacles was at hand. 

6. A dissertation upon the rest of the Sabbath, manifoldly shewing 
of what it is significant, on the words, If a man on the Sabbath 
day receive circumcision, are ye angry at Me, because I made 
a man every whit whole on the Sabbath day ? 

7. A dissertation upon the circumcision on the eighth day, mani- 
foldly shewing of what it is significant, on the words, If a man on 
the Sabbath day receive circumcision, fyc. 



Archbishop of Alexandria 




That in nothing is the Son inferior to God the Father, because He is 
of Him by Nature, although He be said by some to be subject. 

38 Because I have come down from heaven, not to do Mine Own 

39 Will but the Will of the Father That sent Me. And this is 
the Will of Him which sent Me, that of all which He hath 
given Me I should lose none of it, but should raise it tip at 

the last day. 

This passage will seem hard to a person who considers 
it superficially 1 , and not far removed from offence regard- 1k " tA 
ing the faith, so that they even expect us hence to fall 
into difficulties hard to be overcome, which come from our 
opponents. But there is nothing at all hard herein, for 
all things are plain to them that understand, as it is writ- p r?v. 
ten, and right to them that find knowledge, that is to those 
who piously study to interpret and understand the mys- 
teries contained in the Divine Scriptures. In these words 
then Christ gives us a kind of proof and manifest assur- 
ance that he that cometh to Him shall not be cast out. 
For for this cause (saith He) I came down from Heaven, 
that is, I became Man according to the good pleasure of 
God the Father, and refused not to be employed in all but 
undesired works, until I should attain for them that he- 




The Passion willed and willed not. 

Book 4. 
vi. 38, 39, 

s ! 


S. Matth. 
xxvi. 39. 

lieve on Me eternal life and the resurrection from the dead, 
having destroyed the power of death. What then was this 
that Christ both, willed and willed not a ? Dishonour from 
the Jews, revilings, insults, contumelies, scourgings, spit- 
in gs, and yet more, false witnesses, and last of all, the 
death of the Body. These things for our sakes Christ 
willingly underwent, but if He could without suffering 
them have accomplished His Desire for us, He would not 
have willed to suffer. But since the Jews were surely 
and inevitably going to adventure the things done against 
Him, He accepts the Suffering, He makes what He willed 
not His Will, for the value sake of His Passion, God 
the Father agreeing with Him, and co-approving that He 
should readily undergo all things for the salvation of all. 
Herein specially do we see the boundless goodness of the 
Divine Nature, in that It refuseth not to make that which 
is spurned, Its choice for our sakes. But that the suffer- 
ing on the Cross was unwilled by our Saviour Christ, yet 
willed for our sakes and the Good Pleasure of God the 
Father, you will hence understand. For when He was 
about to ascend thereunto, He made His addresses to God, 
saying, that is, in the form of prayer, Father, if it be pos- 
sible, let this Cup pass from Me ; nevertheless, not as I will, 
but as Thou. For that in that He is God the Word, Im- 
mortal and Incorruptible, and Life Itself by Nature, He 
could not shudder at death, I think is most clear to all : 
yet made in Flesh He suffers the Flesh to undergo things 
proper to it, and permits it to shudder at death when now 
at its doors, that He may be shewn to be in truth Man ; 
therefore He says, If it be possible, let this Gup pass from 
Me. If it may be (He says) Father, that I, without suffer- 
ing death, may gain life for them that have fallen thereinto 
if death may die without My dying, in the Flesh that is, 
let this cup (He says) pass from Me ; but since it will not 
take place (He says) otherwise, not as I will, but as Thou. 
Thou seest how powerless human nature is found, even in 
Christ Himself, as far as it is concerned : but it is brought 

a See this treated of by S. Cyril in [p. 131 Greek.] 
his fifth Book against Nestorius chap. 3. 

The Passion willed and unrvilled. 


back through the Word united with it unto God-befitting Chap. i. 
, ° -, . , • -, , i ! vi. 38, 39. 

undauntedness and is re-tramed to noble purpose, so as 

not to commit itself to what seems good to its own will, 
but rather to follow the Divine Aim, and readily to run 
to whatever the Law of its Creator calls us. That we say 
these things truly, you may learn from that too which 
is subjoined, For the spirit indeed (He saith) is willing, lb. 41. 
but the flesh is weak. For Christ was not ignorant that 
it is very far beneath God-befitting Dignity, to seem to 
be overcome by death, and to feel the dread of it : there- 
fore He subjoined to what He had said the strongest de- 
fence, saying that the flesh was weak, by reason of what 
befits it and belongs to it by nature ; but that the spirit 
was willing, knowing that it suffered nought that could 
harm. Seest thou how death was unwilled by Christ, by 
reason of the Flesh, and the inglory of suffering: yet willed, 
until He should have brought unto its destined consumma- 
tion for the whole world the Good Pleasure of the Father, 
that is, the salvation and life of all ? For doth He not 
truly and indeed signify something of this kind, when 
He says that this is the Will of the Father, that of those 
who were brought to Him He should lose nothing, but^ 
should raise it up again at the last day ? For as we taught Supra 
before, God the Father in His Love to man brings to 
Christ as to Life and the Saviour, him that lacketh life 
and salvation. 

But I perceive that I am saying what pleases not the 
enemy of the truth. For he will by no means agree to the 
things which we have just said : but will cry out loudly, 
and will come with his shrill cry, Whither are you leading 
astray (you sir) our line of thought 15 and are devising intri- 
cate inroads 2 of ideas and drawing away the passage from 2 {*wP°- 
the truth ? You blush I suppose (says he) to confess the 
involuntary subjection of the Son. For is it not hereby 
also evident to us, that He will never command and bear 
rule in the management of affairs, but is subject rather to 

* to Oeaip'fifJ.aTa, used often by S. Cyril Gospel -words commented on. 
for the line of thought suggested by the 
VOL. I. C C 


The Holy Trinity has One Will. 

i ; 

Book 4. 
vi. 38, 39. 

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irricnv ire- 
rb elprjfif- 

4 Xiav 



5 rb ffvp.- 
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the Will of the Father ? For He is conscious of so coming 
short of Equality with Him, that He is constrained in some 
sort to make what He wills not His Will, and to do not 
altogether as seems good to Him, but rather what pleases 
the Father. And do not tell me (says he) dragging the 
expression into the Incarnation 3 , It is as Man that He is 
subject. For lo, as thou seest, He being yet God and 
bare Word and unentangled with Flesh, came down from 
Heaven, and before He was at all clothed with the form of 
a servant, was subject to the Father, i. e., as His Superior 
and Ruler. 

With dread words, good sir, as you surely deem, and 
swift-coursing exceedingly do you overrun us 4 , yet are 
they words that go not straight forward but are scared out 
of the Kings beaten highway; and having left (as the 
Greek proverb hath it) the carriage-way, you are pressing 
forward upon precipices and rocks. For vainly do ye main- 
tain against us that the Son obeys the Father, ever speak- 
ing as though any of them who deem aright thought that 
one ought to hold the contrary, and were not rather deter- 
mined to agree with you herein. For we do not conceive 
of the Holy and Consubstantial Trinity as ever divided 
against Itself, or cleft into diverse opinions, or that the 
Father (may be) or the Son or the Holy Ghost are severed 
unto what seems good to each individually, but T